Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
The following page is taken from IndoPaedia regarding the ongoing debate
on Aryan Invasion of India.
Is any of the following arguments and proofs invalidated by any recent
Nomadic Aryans invaded India ca. 1500 BC destroying the Indus valley
civilization and exterminating the Indus inhabitants. Thus ended the most
brilliant civilization of the ancient world. Subsequent to this invasion, India
was plunged into 2000 years of the Vedic Dark Ages. When cities were built
again, it was under Scytho-Greek influence. The ziggurat of the Indus
- Ash layers indicate widespread
burning down of Indus cities by the Aryans.
- Fractured skulls and mutilated
skeletons display axe and sword marks due to widespread massacre of the Indus
inhabitants by Aryan invaders.
- Caste System of Apartheid similar to
US South arose when white Caucasoid Aryans crushed the Semitic (`Pani' or
Phoenician) & black Dravidian inhabitants. Shivaism is still the Dravidian
religion (Tamil"civa", red, angry), while Vaishnavism is the
- Discontinuity marks the Aryan
invasion in all respects. Pottery, architecture, Aryan weapons (incl. the
horse & chariot) & Aryan settlements occur towards the end of the
civilization atop the destroyed cities with primitive fire altars and the new
painted grey ware (PGW)
- Flooding is indicated by the silt
deposits and was caused by the deliberate destruction of the indus dam and
irrigation system by the Aryans.
- Northern Dravidians (eg. the Brahui,
Bhil and Gonds occupy isolated tracts of North and Central India showing that
the Dravidians were once spread over all of India.
- Sanskrit Literature clearly records
the Aryan invasion. Indra, chief of the Aryan gods, is repeatedly referred to
as "destroyer of cities" and exterminator of dasyus. In Tamil literature 1500
BC is the date of the mythical destruction of Tamil civilisation; this
coincides with the Aryan invasion. In addition Sanskrit contains many
loanwords of Dravidian origin. Shiva is one example
(Tamil"civa"). Some sounds are also of Dravidian
- Astronomical Science used by the
Vedic ritualists was taken from the Semito-Dravidian Indus valley people as
these were compiled during the Indus Valley and are not referred to in the
Avesta or Rig Veda.
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Aryan Invasion and Fall of the Indus Empire
Table of Contents
Around 1500 BC, the Indus civilization came, after 2000 years of
prosperity, to a comparatively abrupt end. Conclusive evidence shows that the
reason for this decline, in fact the sole reason for it, was an invasion by
highly barbaric Aryans. They invaded, destroying the Indus cities and
exterminating the native peoples.
Thick ash layers occur in the upper strata of many Indus cities. At Nal the
last phase of the Zhob-ware was burnt down so much so that the mound is known as
the Sohr Damb, or the Red Mound, from the reddening due to fire. At Dabar Kot
the upper 6 feet of the tell show 4 thick ash layers that indicate repeated
destruction by conflagration and the RG V encrusted ware is associated with the
last settlements of Harappa [ Piggott 215 ].
At the Rana Ghundai mound
everywhere overlying the foundation level of the RG III c phase there are
pockets of ash. Above the RG III c phase the pottery is markedly different from
the preceding type, the RG IV phase pottery being painted with coarse bands. RG
IV was again destroyed by fire, and the RG V phase is marked by another change
in pottery. The RG V pottery is unpainted and contains patterns in relief [
Piggott p. 214 ].
At Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Chanhu-daro, skeletons/fragments of skeletons
indicate violent massacres in the final stages of the cities' history. Huddled
skeletons of persons murdered in the streets indicate that the mass dyings were
not due to poisonings etc. but were violent.
-- [ Piggott p. 145 ]
Copper axe-adzes are intrusive ar Harappan sites ( Harappa, Shahi-tump and
Chanhu-daro ) but are similar to those found at North Persian sites ( Hissar
III, Shah Tepe, Turang Tepe ) and Akkadian sites ( Assur, Sialk B cemetary :
here the specimens are probably as late as the 9th century BC ).
Piggott p.228 ]
Swords 1.5 foot long and strengthened at the mid-rib are
non-Harappan and are found only in the later strata of the cities. These swords
at Mohenjo-daro have a tang and rivet to hold the handle exactly as found in
Palestine, where such implements are associated with the Hyksos 1800-1500 BC
-- [ Piggott p. 229 ]
Copper harpoons found in the indus Valley are
similar to those found in Europe and elsewhere in Asia.
-- [ Piggott p. 237
Signs of flooding were discovered in the Indus cities, mainly
in the form of silt deposits. It was thus considered that this flooding
explantaion could explain the fall of the Indus cities and was considered as the
most viable alternative to the idea of an Aryan invasio. It was subsequently
discovered, however, that flooding had been pointed out as a consequence several
decades before the actual discovery of flooding. It is now accepted that
flooding was caused by the Aryans' destruciton of the Indus dam and irrigation
system, and was merely another aspect of the genocide.
+ He smote Vrtra who encompassed the waters [ RgV VI.20.2 ]
In Sanskrit, `vrtra' is an `obstacle', and denotes a barrage or blockage
[ ISISH 70-71]. It is thus a word for `dam'. Dams now called Gebr-band are found
on many water-courses of the western parts of the Indus region. Aryans shattered
the dam system of the Indus, leading to silt deposits in Mohenjo-daro [ S &
He smote Vrtra who enclosed the waters, like a tree with the bolt [ RgV
+ He is referred to as `conquering the waters' ( apsujit ),
which is his prime attribute.
+ Indra let loose the streams after slaying
Vrtra [ RgV IV.19.8 ]
+ He cleaves the mountian, making the streams flow [
RgV I.57.6; X.89.7 ], even with the sound of his bolt [ RgV VI.27.1]
RgV I.57.6; II.14.2; IV.19.8; VI.20.2; VI.27.1; X.89.7 ] [ ST 368 ]
+ When he [Indra] laid open the great mountain, he let loose the
torrents and slew the Danava, he set free the pent up springs, the udder of
the mountain. [ RgV V.32.1-2 ]
+ He slew the Danava, shattered the great
mountian, broke open the well, set free the pent up waters. [ RgV I.57.6;
+ He releases the streams which are like impisoned cows [ RgV
+ He won the cows and soma and made the 7 rivers flow. [ RgV
I.32.12; II.12.12 ]
+ He releases the imprisoned waters [ RgV I.57.6;
+ He dug out channels for the streams with his bolt [ RgV
II.15.3 ], let the flood of waterrs flow into the sea. [ RgV II.19.3 ]
He caused the waters pent up by Vrtra to flow [ RgV III.26.6; IV.17.1 ]
[ MacDonnell ] [S & T 368-9 quotg Macdonell ]
Another verse explicitly metnions him as a destroyer of dams:
rinag rodhamsi krtrimani
Now, rodhas = "dam" elsewhere in the Rig Veda and in later
Sanskrit [ S & T 369 ]. The above evidence, taken directly from the Rig Veda
and not from any secondary source, is sufficient to implacate the Aryans as the
destroyers of the dam systems of the ancient Indus.
= " he removed artificial barriers"
-- [ RgV 2.15.8 ]
settlements occur atop the destroyed cities towards the end of the civlization.
THey are primitive brick structures made of material taken from the ruins of the
including the horse and chariot occur towards the end of the Indus cities'
Dravidian tribes still inhabit isolated parts of northern India. The Brahui
inhabit parts of Baluchistan and stil speak a Dravidian language. The Bhils
inhabit parts of southern Rajastan. The black Gonds inhabit parts of central
India about the Vindhyans.
The Aryans and Dravidians today still retain by and large, the
original features. The Aryans have fair-pale skin, leptorrhine (thin) noses and
straight hair. The Dravidians have broad noses, curly-wavy hair and dark-black
skin. They are related to the Africans [ Winters* ]. [ Risley ].
Indo-Aryans belong to the Caucasoid or white race and are very similar to
Latins. The Indo-Aryan languages belong to the Indo-European family of
languages. Racially the Indo-Aryans posess white to fair skin, thin noses and
lips and straight hair.
abound to an Aryan invasion in Sanskrit literature.
The ancient singer praises the god who "destroyed the Dasyans and
protected the Aryan colour." [ Rg.V. III.34.9 ] [ Ann. 114 ] and "the thunderer
who bestowed on his white friends the fields, bestowed the sun, bestowed the
waters." [ Rg.V. I.100.18 ] [ Ann. 114 ] Numerous are the references to "the
black skin" `Krishnam Vacham' [ Rg.V. IX.41.1, Sama Veda I.491, II.242 ] [ Ann.
114 ] which is mentioned with abhorrence. Again " stromy gods who rush on like
furious bulls and scatter the black skin." [ Rg.V. IX.73.5 ] The singers mention
"the black skin, the hated of Indra", being swept ourtof heaven [ RgV. IX.73.5 ]
"Indra protected in battle the Aryan worshipper, he subdued the lawless for
Manu, he conqured the black skin." [ Rg.V. I.130.8 ] [ Ann.114 ] The sacrificer
poured out thanks to his god for "scattering the slave bands of black descent",
and for stamping out " the vile Dasyan colour." [ Rg.V. II.20.7, II.12.4 ] [
ANn. 115 ] "Dasam varnam adharam" [ Rg.V. II.12.4 ] [ Muir part I, p.43, II,
p.284, 323 etc. ] [ Ann. 114 ff ] Rakshas are aboriginals
- Ravana =
Rakshasendra [ Ann. 111 ]
- Rakshas = Ceylon aborigines since Chinese
tracvellers and CInghales chronilces , Rakko or Yakko in the ernalculr [ An. 111
Destruction of Cities -
The Aryan gods are proudly presented by
the Vedic "sages" as the destroyeres of cities. Of these Indra, later considered
an incarnation of the God Vishnu, is the prime culprit. Indra is called Puroha
or Purandhara, `sacker of cities' - [ S & T 366 ] Indra overthrew 100 Puras
made of stone ( asmanmayi ) for his worshipper Divodasa [ RgV 4.30.20 ],
evidently belonging to Sambara who is a Dasa ( non-Aryan/demon ) of the mountain
[ RgV 6.26.5 ] -- [ Chanda ] [ S & T p.364 ]
No regard was shown to the life of non-Aryans. An Aryan poet says,
" Ye mighty ones [ Asvins ] what do you do there;
why do you
stay there among the people wh are held in high esteem through not offering
ignore them, destroy the life of the Panis "
-- [ RgV
I.83.3 ] [ S & T 365 ]
The famous Harappa hymn of the Rig Veda describes with
praise Indra's destruction of Harappa :
" In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of
Virasakha. This Hariyupiyah is
likely to be the Harappa of tte Indus valley.
"At Hariyupiyah he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the
rear fled frighted."
-- [ Rg.V. XXVII.5 ]
The date of
1500 BC corresponds to the end of a sangam period when invasions by barbarians
The caste system is
another `fossil' of the Aryan conquest, with the lower and exterior castes
representing the aboriginal inhabitants that managed to survivie the Aryan
slaughter. Exactly the same occurred in other parts of the world where one race
has subjugated others, eg. Latin America ( Iberians conquered Aboriginals ), USA
( Anglo-Saxons ruling over Hispanics and Afro-Americans ) etc. These include the
Adivasis ( aboriginal tribals ), the Dalits ( semi-settled aborigianls ) and the
Sudras ( the lowest caste ). However, some of the Sudras were imported under
Muslim rule from Southern India.
The caste system consists of several different "varnas" (
Sans. "colors"), three of which are Aryan. The lowest caste, the Shudra,
consists of aboriginals, as well as the exterior untouchable castes.
Aryans introduced tremendous restrictions on the life of women, including sati
and child mariage. According to Aryan "Hindu" (ie. Vaishnavite) scriptures, a
man must marry a maiden one-third his age.
Cow-worship is another
feature introduced by the Aryans. This probably arose because the Aryans were
nomads and hence required the cow.
Siva is the god
of the Dravidians. Vishnu is the god of the Aryans
The star-calendar used by the Aryan-Vaishnavites today was adopted from
the Semito-Dravidian Indus Valley civilization, since:
The Indus people practiced astronomy
because the streets are oriented towards the cardinal directions, presupposing
the use of the sun-stick. A seal from Mohenjo-daro depicts an Indus deity with a
star on either side of his haed in the fashion of the Near East. Inanna-Ishtar,
the goddess of love and war, for example, was associated with the planet Venus [
Parpola ]. This may have led to the cult of worshipping the planets, the astral
religion of India.
- It is not referred to in the Rig Veda or Avesta
- It was compiled when the Indus Valley was at its peak, before the Aryans
came to India. [ Parpola ]
Fire altars occur
late towards the Indus cities history. They are primitve in nature, constructed
from material from the destroyed Indus cities.
several parts of the world, putting an end to various brilliant civilizations.
Babylonia was destroyed by Kassites, Hittites and Mittani, Egypt was devastated
by the Hyksos, and Minoan culture by the Dorians.
7. Rival Theories Several other explanations have
been put forth to explain the demise of the Indus civilisation besides the Aryan
invasion. These are:
These have severe problems, however.
- Environmental catastrophes - These include:
- Internal Decline - These explanations claim that slavery, or some
other revolt destroyed the Indus civilisation.
Cometary Impact . The problems with this theory are:
Thus, although a cometary candidate for the extinction has
been found in Comet Enke [ ], this is a far-fetched theory, to say the least.
The destruciton of several civilizations simultaneously requires a global
catastrophe. But some civilizations, eg. in Central and South AMerica, and
China, survived the 1500 BC discontinuity. Asteroidal impacts tend to leave
larger craters and more iridium, so the arguments against this variant of impact
apply more forcefully.
Flooding . Undisputed evidence of flooding has been found in the
form of silt deposits and barrage system erected as a defensive measure.
Flooding thyus remained a serious candidate until it was pointed out that
several Vedic scholars had realized that the Aryans had destroyed the irrigation
and dam system of the Indus. Thus flooding is a natural consequence of Aryan
invasion and not an independant mechanism.
- No crater/craters have been found with an
age matching 1500 BC, nor of the requisite size. The size is narrowly
constrained, for if the impact was too large, catastrophe would have been
global, while if it were too small, the effect would have been negligible.
- No iridium anomaly , the characteristic of
all impacts from the mammoth K/T Chiczulub crater [ ALvarez ] to the Sudbury
intrusive, has been found in the Indus valley of the required age.
- No shocked glasses , or tektites with the
requisite shock deformation features, have been found anywhere near the Indus
1. To suppose that, after two millenia of stability some internal revolt was
the cause behind the downfall is stretching the imagination. 2. No evidence
has been found for this, and when indisputable evidence of violence perpetrated
with new weapons exists, it is disregarding evidence.
Other Opponents Although the following may seem rather harsh, yet it is
necessary to expose the real designs of some of the opponents of one of the most
well-established theories of all time.
The opponents of the concept of Aryan invasion fall into 3 categories:
These mostly have ulterior motives. The former oppose
any vilification of their "gods" who are implicated in the worst massacres and
atrocities recorded in history. They wish to see the Vedas, in acutality the
songs of promitive cow-herds, as the repository of all science. The latter do
not want to accept that their ancestors perpetrated such crimes. One religious
fanatic who opposed the notion of Aryan invasion during its infancy was Narendra
Nath Datta, later known as Vivekananda. All he could do was to vilify honest
- Aryan Hindu Fanatics
" And what your European pandits say about the Aryan's sweeping
fron some foreign land, snatching away the alnds of the aboriginals and
settling India by exterminating them, is all pure nonsense, foolish talk.
Strange, that our Indian scholars too say amen to them, and all these
monstrous lies are taught to our boys. This is very bad indeed.
Veda, in what Sukta, so you find that the Aryans came to India from a foreign
country? Where do you get the idea that they slaughtered the wild aborigines?
What do you gain by talking such nonsense?"
-- [ ` Complete Works of Swami
Vivekananda ', 1963, p.534-535 ] [ Panda 70 ]
Another fundamentalist who opposed the notion of Aryan invasions is
Srviastava, who apparently only conducted his research to prove the innocence of
the Aryan gods :
"Indra, therefore stands completely exonerated"
Srivastava 441 ]
Later, lacking any scientific evidence whatsoever, he degenerates into
vilifying Wheeler himself :
" .. we see him as a brgiadier in the British army during WW II,
we feel he could not interpret the dubious evidence of Mohenjo-daro and
Harappa in any other manner "
-- [ Srivas 442 ]
" Both Dayananda and Aurobindo refuted in clear terms the
historical doctrines of Aryan invasion and struggle of Aryans with Dravidian,
which was originated by the Westerners and has even been popularised among a
large section of the Indian Historians." Who this Dayananda
was must be fully exposed.
-- [ A.K.Pateria, `Modern
Commentators of the Veda', p.63 ] [ Panda 70 ]
The Aryans were so barbaric that they did not even have a word for brick in
Sanskrit [ S & T 372 ] [ Woolley ]
- [ RgV ] = Rig Veda, see eg.
- `Hymns of the Rig-veda', R.T.H.Griffith, 1896
- `The Rig-Veda: An Anthology', W.D.O'Flaherty 1981
- `Vedic Hymns', 2 vols. (1891-97), F.M.Muller and H.Oldenburg tr.
- [ Manu ] = `Manu Smirti', Manu, Aryavarta 10 000 BC - 1500 BC ?;
several translations exist.
- [ Garud ] = Garuda Purana
- [ Atharva ] = Atharva Veda
- [ Taitt. Samh. ] = Taittriya Samhita
- [ Agarwal ] = D.P.Agarwal, `Archaeology of India', Scandinavian
Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen K 1982,
- [ Allchin ] = ` The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan',
N.Delhi, 1983, B. and R. Allchin
- [ Ammerman ] = `The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of
Populations in Europe', A.J.Ammerman and L.L.Cavali-Sforza, Princeton
Univ. Press 1984
- [ Aravanan ] = `Physical and cultural similarities between Dravidian and
African', K.P.Aravanan, J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1976) 23-27
- [ Alvarez ] = `Extraterrestrial cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary
extinction', L.W.Alvarez, W.Alvarez, F.Asaro and H.V.Michel, Science
208 (1980) 1095-1108
- [ Alvarez SA ] = `An extraterrestrial impact', W.Alvarez and F.Asaro,
Scientific American 263 (1990) 44-52
[ Ann. ] = `The Annals of Rural Bengal', W.W.Hunter, Broomhill House
1868, reprinted in `Landmarsk in Indian Anthropology', vol. 7, Cosmo
Publishing, N.Delhi 1987
- [ Basham ] = A.L. Basham, `The Wonder That Was India', Grove Press,
New York, NY 1954
- [ Boyce ] = M. Boyce, `History of Zoroastrianism', v.1. Leiden 1975
- [ Bradke ] = P.v. Bradke, `Dyaus Asura, Ahura Mazda, und die
Asuras', Halle 1895
- [ Casal ] = J.-M. Casal, `Fouilles de Mundigak' Paris 1961
- [ Cardone ] = `Indo-European and Indo-Europeans', ed. G. Cardone,
H.M.Hoenigswald and A. Senn, Univ. of Penn. Press 1970
- [ Chanda 26 ] = ` The Indus Valley in the Vedic Period ' - R.P.Chanda,
Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India Vol. 31 ( 1926 ) Delhi
- [ Chanda 29 ] = ` Survival of the Prehistoric Civilization of the Indus
Valley ' - R.P.Chanda, Mems. of the ASI No. 41 ( 1929 ) Delhi
- [ Chanda 41 ] = ` Harappa ' - R.P.Chanda, Science and Culture Vol.
6 ( 1941 ) Calcutta, 377 - 381
- [ Childe 26 ] = `The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European Origins',
Gordon V. Childe, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 1926 locates the Indo-Aryan home north
of the Black Sea
- [ Childe 37 ] = Gordon V. Childe, ` The Indus Civilization', Antiquity
11 (1937) 351
- [ Childe 54 ] = `New Light on the Most Ancient East', Gordon V.
Childe, N.Y. rev. ed. 1954
- [ Childe 42 ] = `What Happened in History', Penguin 1942, 1976
- [ Childe: Origins ] = Childe, V.G. The Aryans, A Study of Indo-European
Origins London 1926
- [ Dandamaev ] = Dandamaev, M.A. and V.G. Lukonin, `The Culture and
Social Institutions of Ancient Iran', Cambridge 1989
- [ Elfenbein ] = `A periplus of the Brahui problem', J.Elfenbein, Studia
Iranica 16:2 (1987) 215-233
- [ Elst ] = `Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar' by Koenraad
against the concept of Aryan invasions.
- [ Emeneau ] = M. Emeneau, `The Dialects of Old Indo-Aryan', in:
`Ancient Indo-European Dialects', Berkeley 1966
- [ Fairservis ] = `The Roots of Ancient India', W.A.Fairservis,
Chicago University Press 1962
- [ Frye ] = R.N.Frye, `The History of Ancient Iran', Munich 1984
- [ Ghirshman ] = R. Ghirshman, `L'Iran et la migration des Indo-Aryens
et Iraniens.' Leiden 1977.
- [ Goetze ] = A. Goetze, `Hethiter, Churriter und Assyrer', Breslau
- [ Gonda ] = J. Gonda, `Vedic Literature', Wiesbaden 1975
- [ Hale ] = W. Hale, `Asura in early Vedic religion', Delhi 1986
- [ Hessar ] = Dyson, R. and Howard, S.(eds.) `Tappeh Hessar: Reports of
the Restudy Project', 1976 Florence.
- [ Hillebrandt ] = A.Hillebrandt, `Vedische Mythologie', t.2.
- [ Hillebrandt ] = A. Hillebrandt,`Aus Alt-Neu indischen', Breslau
- [ ISIH ] = ` An Introduction To The Study of Indian History' , D.D.
Kosambi Bombay 1956 ] = ISIH
- [ Kaegi ] = F.Kaegi,`The Rigveda', London 1886
- [ Kohl ] = P. Kohl, (ed) `The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia:
Recent Soviet Discoveries', Armonk, NY 1981
- [ Konow ] = S. Konow, `Zur Frage nach den Asuras', in:
`Beitrage zur Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte Indiens.
Festgabe Hermann Jacobi zum 75 Geburstag dargebracht', Bonn 1926
- [ Kuiper ] = F.B.J.Kuiper, `Aryans in the Rigveda', Leiden, 1991
- [ Linden ] = C.W.J.v.d.Linden, `The concept of deva in the Vedic
Age', Utrecht 1954
- [ Mackay ] = `Further Excavations at Mohenjo-daro', 2 vols. Delhi
1938; is an investigation revealing the massacres that occurred.
- [ Mahadevan ] = `Dravidian models of decipherment of the Indus script:
A case study', I. Mahadevan, Tamil Civilization 4 (1986) 133
- [ Mahadevan rev ] = `An Encyclopedia of the Indus Script', I.Mahadevan,
review of Paropola's `Deciphering the Indus Script' in Int'l J. of
Dravidian Lingiustics (Trivandrum, Jan.1997).
- [ MacDonell ] = A.A.MacDonell, `The Vedic Mythology', Strassburg
- [ Mallory ] = `In Search of the Indo-Europeans : Language, Archaeology
and Myth', J.P.Mallory, Thames and Hudson, London 1989
- [ Marshall ] = J.Marshall, `Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus
Civilization', London 1931
- [ Matas ] = E. Aguilar Matas `Rgvedic Society', Leiden 1991 ?
- [ Mayhofer ] = M. Mayhofer, `Die Indo-Arier im alten Vorderasien, mit
einer analytischen Bibliographie', Wiesbaden 1966
- [ Muller ] = H. Muller-Karpe, (ed.) 1984 `Neolithische-kupferzeitliche
Siedlungen in der Gyoksjur Oase, Sud-Turkmenistan', Munchen 1984
- [ Ooosten ] = J.Oosten, `The War of the Gods: the social code in
Indo-European mythology' London 1985
- [ Panda ] = `Rationale of Astrology', Dandapani Panda, Bhubaneswar
[ Parpola ] = `Religion reflected in the iconic signs of the Indus script:
penetrating into long-forgotten picto+graphic messages', Asko Parpola,
Visible Religion , 6 1988
[ Parpola Book ] = `Deciphering the Indus Script', Asko Parpola, Cambridge
University Press, 1994
[ Muir ] = `Original Sanskrit Texts', Muir
- [ Piggott : Wheel ] = Piggott, S. `The Earliest Wheeled Transport',
- [Piggott] = `Prehistoric India' by S. Piggott, Penguin Books Ltd.
Middlesex UK, 1952 p.145
- [ Possehl ] = `Ancient Cities of The Indus', N.Delhi 1979
- [ Pumpelly ] = T. Pumpelly, `Explorations in Turkestan: Expedition of
1904', Washington 1908
- [ Rau ] = W. Rau, `The Meaning of Pur in Vedic Literature', Munich
- [ Redford ] = M. Redford,`Egypt, Israel and Canaan in Ancient
Times', Princeton 1992
- [ Renfrew Bk ] = `Archaeology and Language: the Puzzle of Indo-European
Origins', C. Renfrew, Cambridge Univ. Press 1988
- [ S & T ] = ` History of Science and Technology in Ancient India -
The Beginnings ' - D. Chattopadhyaya, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd. Calcutta 1986
an excellent rebuff of the opponents of the Aryan invasion idea; quotes
from all the following ref's of Kosambi and Chanda
- [ Singh ] = P. Singh, `Burial Practices in Ancient India', Varanasi
- [ Snoy ] = P. Snoy, `Die Kafiren' Frankfurt-am-Main 1962
- [ Sparren ] = M. Sparreboom, `Chariots in the Veda', Leiden 1985
- [ Srivastava ] = `The Myth of Aryan Invasion of Harappa Town ', by
K.M.Srivastava, in `Frontiers of The Indus Civilization', eds. B.B.Lal
and S.K.Gupta, Delhi 1984 p.437-443
opposes the notion of Aryan invasion.
- [ Thieme ] = P. Thieme, `Der Fremdling im Rigveda' Heidelberg 1938
- [ Vats ] = M. Vats, `Excavations at Harappa' Delhi 1940
- [ Wikander ] = S.Wikander, `Der arische Mannerbund', Lund 1938
- [ Woolley ] = L.Woolley, `History of mankind: Culture and Scientific
Development', Vol. I, Pt. 2, pp.353-365, The Beginning of Civilization,
- [ Raikes 65 ] = R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro Floods', Antiquity
39 (1965) 196-203
- [ Raikes 67 ] = R.L.Raikes, `The Mohenjo-daro Floods - Riposte',
Antiquity 41 (1967) 309-310
- [ Raja+Frawley ] = `Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization',
by N.S. Rajaram and David Frawley, World Heritage Press 1995
Aryan invasion `theory'.
- [ Raja ] = `Aryan Invasion of India: The Myth and the Truth', by
N.S. Rajaram, Voice of India Publication,
an opponent of the Aryan
- [ Renfrew ] = `The Origins of Indo-European Languages', C. Renfrew,
Scientific American 261:4 (Oct.1989) 106-114 hypothesizes that
the spread of Indo-European languages was peaceful
- [Risley] = `The People of India' by Sir H.H.Risley 1915
ed., edtd. by Sir W. Crooke 1969
- [ Senghor ] = `Negritude and Dravidian Culture', L.S.Senghor, J. of
Tamil Studies 10 (1974) p.4
- [ Tala ] = `The Aryan Invasion Theory and Indian Nationalism', by
Shrikant G. Talageri, Voice of India, 1993
opposes the notion of Aryan
invasions, as do [ Raja ], [ Raja+Frawley ], and [ Elst ].
- [ Tuttle ] = `Dravidian and Nubian', E.H.Tuttle, J. of the Amer.
Oreintal Society 52 (1932) 133-144
- [ Upadhyaya ] = `Dravidian and Negro-African', U.P.Upadhyaya, Intnl. J.
of Dravidian Linguisitsics 5:1 (1976) 32-64
- [ Weiss ] = `The Genesis and COllapse of Third Millenium North
Mesopotamian Civilization', H. Weiss, M.-A.Courty, W. Wetterstrom, F.
Guichard, L. Senior, R. Meadow and A. Curnow, Science 261 ( 1993
) 995 - 1004; suggest that a volcanic eruption caused the fall of Akkad
- [ Winters ] = `The Indus Valley Writing is Proto-Dravidian', Clyde A.
Winters, J. of Tamil Studies 25 (1985) 50-64
- [ Winters ] = `The Harappan Script', Clyde A. Winters, J. of Tamil
Studies 30 (1987) 89-111
- [ Winters ] = `The Inspiration of the Harappan Talismanic Seals', Clyde A.
Winters, Tamil Civilization 2 (1984) 1-8
- [ Winters ] = `Review article on Dr. Asko Parpola's "The Coming of the
Aryans to Irna and India and the CUltural and Ethnic Identity of the Dasas",
Clyde A. Winters, Intnl J. Of Dravidian Lingiuistics XVIII
(1989) 98 - 127; a rebuff to Parpola's theory that the Dasas were Aryans.
- [ Winters ] = `The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Language and
Culture', Clyde A. Winters, 1st Intnl Symosm. on Asian Studies 5
- [Winters:Agri] - `African Influences on Indian Agriculture',
African Civlization, 3:1 (April 1981) p.100-110
- [Winters:Sympos] - `The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Languages
and Culture', 1st Intl Symposium on Asian Studies 5 p.1105-20
- [ War ] = P. Chakravarti, `The Art of War in Ancient India', Ramna
- [ Waddell ] = L.A.Waddell, `The Makers of Civilization', Angriff
Press, Hollywood, CA 1929
- [ Weisman ] = Charles A. Weisman, `The Origins of Race and
Civilization', SFA 1990
- [ Wheeler 47 ] = `Ancient India', No.3 (1947) 82, SIr R.E.M.Wheeler
- [ Wheeler 66 ] = `Civilization of the Indus and Beyond', London
- [ Wheeler 79 ] = `The Indus Civilization', 3rd ed., Cambridge 1979
- [ Wheeler 59 ] = `Early India and Pakistan', London 1959
- [ Wheeler 50 ] = `5000 years of Pakistan: An Archaeological
Outline', Londoon 1950