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NATHANAEL BARTHALOMEW

Prof. M. M. Ninan

PREFACE

 

 

Barthelomew is one of the twelve Apostles in the books of Mathew, Mark, Luke and the Acts of Apostles where they are clearly listed.  However the Gospel of John do not list the Apostles and there is a detailed description of the call of Nathanael by his friend Philip to meet the Mesiah from Nazareth.  It can be confidentaly assumed that Nathanael of John’s Gospel and Barthelomew, one of the Twelve disciples are the same person - Nathanael Bar Thalomi. However there are a lot of scholars who believe they are two distinct persons - Barthelomew, an Apostle and Nathanael is not an Apostle.  I have assumed them to be one and same person Nathanael who is the son of Talomi.

 

Though we are certain that his mission included Armenia and India.  Again there is a lot of uncertainity about the routes he has taken and his country of final martyrdom.  This also includes the mode of his martyrdom, crucfixion, upside down crucifixion, flayed live,  head cut off , body thrown into sea and buried in all sorts of orders and mixing.  Armenia has their tradition legends which parallel Indian traditions.  These uncertainities must be remembered as you read the life of Nathanael Barthelomew.

 

I come from the South Indian Thomas Christian traditions where we have long traditions of the stories of the mission of Apostle Thomas.  We have heard about the mission of Barthelomew in the Konkan region.  I had a neighbor who was a Gowda Saraswat Brahmin who practically worshipped Jesus and respected the cross.  But how is it connected to Barthelomew and how the Aryan Brahmins became Christians in that area has no clear history.  One thing is certain as I have mentioned in the book - these Christians under the influece of the heresy of Gnosticism eventually became what is now known as Hinduism which is Christianity without Christ of Nazareth.  I had always wondered how the basic concepts of Saivism reflect Christianity clearly.

 

Pror.M.M.Ninan

July 2020


 

 

I : BARTHOLOMEW

Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament.

He has also been identified as Nathanael, who appears in the Gospel of John 

Nathanael,is often spelt as Nathanel, Nathanael or Nathanial

Greek: Ναθαναὴλ

Meaning of his name:  Nathanael = "Gift of God"  

  verb נתן (natan) = to give, and  the word אל ('el), =God.

Nathanael (Hebrew נתנאל, "God has given")

 This name is mentioned only in the Gospel of John and only in Chapters 1 and 21 and that only 6 times


 

Pronounced: Bahr-THAHL-ə-myoo

The three synoptic Gospels and Acts of Apostles use the name Bartholomew

Son Of Talmai,  The Plowmen, Agriculturalist, Land Owner

From the noun בר (bar), one of, and the verb תלם (talam), to plow.

 

Bar and Ben are used to indicate “son of”.

Thus Bar-thalomew means son of Talomew or Son of Talmai

 

Origin of the name Bartholomew

Bartholomew is the English form of the Syriac name of the Apostle Bartholmai, which is derived from Bar in the Syriac term, as also in Hebrew, for son; and Thomai or Talma (is a name in Hebrew and is often found in the Old Testament, (Numbers 13:22; Josh 15:14, 2 Sam 3:3 Chron 13:37) as Talmai.

 

The verb תלם (talam), in Hebrew means “to plow”“to furrow”“to cut”and the name “Talmai” would hence mean Plowman or Agricultural Person - a cultivator, Agriculturalist, Land Lords etc.

 

It is a normal Syrian Custom to refer to people as the “Son of” so and so to indicate a noble birth and in general to indicate their genealogy.  It is a common practice all over the world to use the father’s name as surname

 

Thus it is often asserted that the full name of the Apostle is Nathanael bar Talmai.  His family were Agriculturalists, Farmers, Land Owners.

 

 

 

Tholmai

Tholmai was an ancient Hebrew name.

2 Samuel 3:3 David’s second wife, .......; the third, Absalom the son of Maakah daughter of Talmai king of Geshur.  It is probable that he belonged to the Royal family of Geshur through Maakah and also to David. Geshur is identified with the area stretching along the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee and reaching south up to the Yarmuk River. Israeli archaeologists are holding this view and therefore place Geshur in what is now the southern Golan Heights.
Jerome, the translator of the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible passed on the suggestion that Nathanael Bar-Tholomew was of royal descent.

((((((((((((((
The Chapter of the Spies

“ln Hebron the spies saw the giants

Achiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the children of Anak” (Numbers 13:22).

Achiman means that he was the strongest [meyuman] of his brothers.

Sheshai means that he made the land into ditches [shechitot];
 [wherever he stepped he made a mark in the ground].

Talmai means that [when he walked] he made furrows [telamim] in the earth.

 

 Achiman built Anat, Sheshai built Alash, and Talmai built Telbesh.

“The children of Anak”---this means that they were so tall, it seemed as if they wore the sun like a necklace [anak].

Ein Yaakov: The Ethical and Inspirational Teachings of the Talmud

By Jacob ben Solomon Ibn Ḥabib)))))))))))))))))))))

 

Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary 
gives the meaning

Talmai  = my furrow; that suspends the waters; heap of waters

 

Easton's Bible Dictionary 
gives the following meaning and explanations

Talmoi = Abounding in furrows.

(1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Numbers 13:22; Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10).

(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put Amnon to death [2 Samuel 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah,was one of David's wives, and the mother of Absalom [1Chronicles 3:2).

 

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

TALMAI

(1) A clan, possibly of Aramean origin, generally reputed to be of gigantic height; resident in Hebron at the time of the Hebrew conquest and driven thence by Caleb (Numbers 13:22 Joshua

15:14 Judges 1 :1 U).

(2) A son of Ammihur (or Ammihud), king of Geshur, a small Aramean kingdom, and a contemporary of David, to whom he gave his daughter Maacah in marriage. When Absalom fled from David after the assassination of Amnon he took refuge with Talmai at Geshur (2 Samuel 3:3; 2 Samuel 13:37 1 Chronicles 3:2).

 

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

TALMAI

(1) A clan, possibly of Aramean origin, generally reputed to be of gigantic height; resident in Hebron at the time of the Hebrew conquest and driven thence by Caleb (Numbers 13:22 Joshua

15:14 Judges 1 :1 U).

(2) A son of Ammihur (or Ammihud), king of Geshur, a small Aramean kingdom, and a contemporary of David, to whom he gave his daughter Maacah in marriage. When Absalom fledfrom David after the assassination of Amnon he took refuge with Talmai at Geshur (2 Samuel 3:3; 2 Samuel 13:37 1 Chronicles 3:2).

 

ATS Bible Dictionary

Talmai

King of Geshur, on the borders of Palestine and Syria. David married Maacha his daughter, the mother of Tamar and Absalom. The latter avenged the wrongs of his sister Tamar by the murder of Amnon, and then took refuge at the court of his grandfather, where he remained three years, 2 Samuel 3:3,i3,i4.

 

Following this genealogy some scholars believe Nathaniel was of the Royal family of David and also of Geshur and was probably one of the distant cousins of Jesus since Jesus was the heir to the throne of David through Joseph.

 

Nathaniel was from Cana was introduced to Jesus Christ through Saint Philip as "Nathaniel of Cana in Galilee," (John 21:2)   Some believe he was the bridegroom at the wedding of Cana where Jesus did his first miracle of turning water into wine. Since Mary and Jesus were present in the wedding reception and was directly involved in the family, this is a possibility.

 

Talmai may also be a Hebrew version of Greek Ptolemy. Thus Bartholomew can be also "son of Ptolemy" as Greek influence was high at the period of Jersus.

 

From Ancient Greek Βαρθολομαῖος (Bartholomaîos), from Aramaic בר תלמי‎ (bar tolmai, “son of Talmai; son of Ptolemy”), from בר‎ (bar, “son”) and תלמי‎ (tolmai, “Talmai; Ptolemy”). It has long been unclear whether the Apostle's father was named after the biblical Talmai, king of Geshur, or one of the Greek Ptolemies, as the two originally unrelated names were conflated in Jewish Aramaic.

 

Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit.” John 1:47   Hence it is unlikely that he is of Greek blood. For all possibilities he must have been a cousin of Jesus as several of the disciples were.  Jesus movement was also a political move to reinstate Jesus as King of the Jews.  At least that was the understanding of most of his disciples as we see them even discussing who will be the Prime Minister of the Kingdom.

 

Bartholomew was born in Cana in Galilee which being outside of Jerusalem, may have been a farming community and served as an important region that produced commodities that were essential to the people in Judea.

 

Place of birth: Cana in Galilee

JOHN 21:2  Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of His disciples were together.

 

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour

CHAPTER XI

30. Another woman there had twin sons who had fallen into disease, and one of them died, and the other was at his last breath. And his mother, weeping, lifted him up, and took him to the Lady Mary, and said:

O my lady, aid me and succour me. For I had two sons, and I have just buried the one, and the other is at the point of death. See how I am going to entreat and pray to God. And she began to say: O Lord, You are compassionate, and merciful, and full of affection. You gave me two sons, of whom You have taken away the one: this one at least leave to me

 

Wherefore the Lady Mary, seeing the fervour of her weeping, had compassion on her, and said: Put your son in my son's bed, and cover him with his clothes.

 

 And when she had put him in the bed in which Christ was lying, he had already closed his eyes in death; but as soon as the smell of the clothes of the Lord Jesus Christ reached the boy, he opened his eyes, and, calling upon his mother with a loud voice, he asked for bread, and took it and sucked it.

 

Then his mother said:
O Lady Mary, now I know that the power of God dwells in you, so that your son heals those that partake of the same nature with himself, as soon as they have touched his clothes. 

This boy that was healed is he who in the Gospel is called Bartholomew.


 

 

II: Nathaniel  is same as  Barthalomew

For many centuries it was the assumption that Nathaniel was the same person as Barthalomew.  We will look into the reason for this assumption.

The Twelve

These are the list of the names of the Apostles of Jesus as given in the synoptic gospels and the book of Acts.

 

 

http://complete-bible-genealogy.com/12_apostles.htm

 

There were exactly twelve apostles of Jesus and they are clearly named in Mathew, Mark, Luke and Acts of the Apostles.  Out of which Judas committed suicide and he was replaced later by lots by Mathias after the resurrection of Jesus.

 

In all these Matthew, Mark, Luke and Acts, we have Bartholomew as a disciple of Jesus and is one of the twelve. The list of all synoptic gospels agree in their names as well though the order may slightly change.  So this number 12 is certain which is asserted by Jesus himself in John.

 

67"You do not want to leave too, do you?" Jesus asked the Twelve.

John 6: 70 -71 Then Jesus replied, "Have I not chosen you, the Twelve? Yet one of you is a devil!" 71(He meant Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, who, though one of the Twelve, was later to betray him.)

Thus without any question the number of disciples were indeed 12.

 

“When morning came, he called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them, whom he also designated apostles: Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, Judas son of James (also known as Thaddaeus, the name that is used in Matthew and Mark), and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.” (Luke 6:13–16).

 

The accounts of the calling of the disciples are also found in Mark 1:16–20, Luke 5:2–11, and John 1:40–42.

 

It was no accident that He chose twelve.

God’s chosen people, the Israelites, were divided into twelve tribes. And as Jesus calls out a new people for Himself, He starts with twelve men who will form the basis of a new Israel.  If the number of disciples of Jesus were twelve, to keep that number we have no other option than to assume either

Nathanael was not one of the disciples

Or

Nathanael is the given name of one of twelve we have as named.

 

 

Nathanael  was indeed one of the Apostles

As one of the 12, Nathanael and/or Barthelomew is seen with Jesus and other disciples (Mt 11:1; 19:25-28;20:17-19, 24-28; Mr 4:10; 11:11; Joh 6:48-67). Disappointed with the catasstrophe of crucifixion  some of the disciples who were fishermen by trade decided to go back to fishing.  Among them was Nathanael.  Jesus met them as their were coming to shore  when Jesus called to them. Nathanael, unlike Peter, stayed in the boat until it got to shore, and then, joining the rest for breakfast.  They had breakfast together   (Joh 21:1-23) He was also present with the other apostles when they met together for prayer and evidently on the day of Pentecost.(Ac 1:13, 14; 2:42.). Evidently Nathanael Barthelomew was one of disciples - one of the twelve who were being prepared for the Apostleship.

 

We miss him from the bible like most other disciples just because, the rest of the story which are in the Bible we have, were written by those who were in the centers of civilization around the Greco-Roman areas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gospel of John, unlike the Synoptic Gospels, does not offer a formal list of all the 12 apostles, but does assert there were Twelve diciples in 6:67, 6:70, and 6:71. We can gather the names together

 

Simon Peter,Andrew's Brother, Cephas in Latin meaning "The Rock," John1:35-42

Andrew, Simon Peter’s Brother, disciple of John the Baptist( John 6:8)

James, John's Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Bornerges, Son of Thunder, John 19:25;

John, James' Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Bornerges, Son of Thunder, John:19:25

Philip from Bethsaida "of Galilee" John:1:44; 12:21;

The Gospel of John, unlike the Synoptic Gospels, does not offer a formal list of all the 12 apostles, but does assert there were Twelve diciples in 6:67, 6:70, and 6:71. We can gather the names together from various verses scattered all over

 

Simon Peter,Andrew's Brother, Cephas in Latin meaning "The Rock," John1:35-42

Andrew, Simon Peter’s Brother, disciple of John the Baptist( John 6:8)

James, John's Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Bornerges, Son of Thunder, John 19:25;

John, James' Brother, son of Zebedee and Salome, Bornerges, Son of Thunder, John:19:25

Philip from Bethsaida "of Galilee" John:1:44; 12:21;

A more comprehensive list is given here by Dan Mayfield.

http://mbhumanistsatheists.ca/day-286/

 

But there must be only 12 not 15 and here is the solution

Assuming that the identification of Matthew with Levi is correct, Matthew would appear to be the Christian name of Levi (called by Mark “Levi the son of Alphaeus”), who had been employed as a tax collector in the service of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee.

 

Judas not Iscariot is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James, Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion.

 

Nathaniel     Only in John:1:43-51;
Barthelomew (Not in John)

Matthew Levi, Son of Alphaeus, (Not in John)

Thomas Didymus - which means "the Twin"  John:20:24-29

James the Less, The son of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus   John:1:13; 4:36;  

Thaddaeus Lebbaeus ,Judas Juda Jude, Son of James  ( John 14:22)

Simon Zelotes  (Not in John)

Judas Iscariot the Traitor:  (John 6:71 and John 13:26 ))

Evidently in John six names are missing and he alone mentions the name Nathanial.

So Nathanial must be identical with one of the missing

Barthelomew

Matthew son of Alphaeus, (we can leave out “bar Alphaeus”)

Thaddaeus son of James, (we can leave out “bar James”)

Simon the Zealot (This Simon is not son of Iscariot but the Zealot)  

 (Acts 1:13, Luke 6:15) or Simon the Canaanite or Simon the Cananaean (Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18;)   
Numbers (2) and (3) have their own surname as father’s name already
(4) Simon is identified as the Zealot from the Hebrew word קנאי qanai, meaning zealous, by his early association as a freedom fighter.

The revolt by Judas of Galilee, arising from the census of Quirinius in 6 AD, was the origin of the Jewish freedom movement, which developed a party called the Zealots, by the time of Jesus. "Simon Zelotes" was indeed a Zealot belonging to this movement, 
Which leaves only  Bar-Tholomew with no given name.

 

Bartholomew is the leading candidate for two reasons:

"Bar-tholomew" is a patronymic, meaning "son of Tolmai (or Talmai)."  It is therefore likely that he had another name.

"Nathanael son of Tolmai" “Nathanael Bar Tolmai” seems more likely than "Nathanael also called Simon."

Bartholomew is listed as one of the twelve disciples of Jesus in each of the four references to the group (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13).

In the Gospel of John, Bartholomew is missing totally and if our identification is right John   referred to Barthelomew as Nathanael (John 1:45–49; 21:2).

 

Principle of Two  

“If two of you shall agree on earth as touching anything, that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven” (Matt. 18:19).

 

 

Matthew 10:8-20   Mark 6:7   Luke 10:1-12  

Ecc 4:9  Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour.

Ecc 4:10  For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.

Ecc 4:11  Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone?

Ecc 4:12  And if one prevail against him, two shall withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.

 

 

 

So we see usualy the Apostles are paired and sent out in pairs for their ministry.

 

Nathanael is introduced in John's narrative as a friend of Philip.

 

Bartholomew is paired with Philip on three of our four lists of Apostles,  

"Philip and Bartholomew"  paired:

 

Matthew 10:3
[Philip and Bartholomew];
[Thomas and Matthew the tax collector],
[James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus];

 

Mark 3:18 Andrew,

[Philip, Bartholomew],

[Matthew, Thomas],

[James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus], Simon the Zealot....

Luke 6:14 14 
[Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew],
 [James, John],

[Philip, Bartholomew]

 

“In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew.” (Easton Illustrated Dictionary)

 

But in John we see Nathanael paired with Phillip

The problem is that John never calls Nathanael as a disciple of Jesus directly. But we see him in John everywhere with the other disciples and in critical occasions of the life of Jesus.

 

John 1:43-51
43The next day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. Finding Philip, he said to him, "Follow me." 44Philip, like Andrew and Peter, was from the town of Bethsaida.
45Philip found Nathanael and told him, "We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law, and about whom the prophets also wrote-Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph......."
 

 "בנ (ben)".  "בר (bar)"

A further indication is given in the Hebrew word for ben.

The normal Hebrew word for "son" is "בנ (ben)".  "בר (bar)" means "son" in Aramaic (Brown-Driver-Briggs' Hebrew Definitions,  Ben is Hebrew, and Bar is Aramaic.).  The word for "pure" in Hebrew is "בר (bar)" (Brown-Driver-Briggs' Hebrew Definitions).  Jesus, along with his disciples primarily spoke the Aramaic Language (Jewish Palestinian Aramaic). In fact, Aramaic is best known as the language of Jesus because he used it throughout his public ministry. Hebrew was the language used by Pharisees, Sadducees, and scribes. This means it was probably the official language of the religion of Judaism.  Almost all Old Testamane was written in Hebrew.

  

This gives the statement of Jesus on Nathanael as “"Here truly is an Israelite in whom there is

no deceit." John 1:45-51 as a reflection of his name. Jesus was simply repeating the meaning of Barthalmoi.

“Ha the pure one from the Tolmai family!!”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barthelomew is referred to only10 times in the whole Bible which comes in the first five Books of the New Testament only viz. Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Acts.  Outside the instances referred to, no other mention of the name occurs in the New Testament. 

  

He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection (John 21:2).

He was also a witness of the Ascension (Acts 1:4, 12, 13). He was an "Israelite indeed" (John 1:47).

www.biblestudytools.net/Dictionaries/EastonBibleDictionary/?word=Bartholomew) (www.biblestudytools.net/Dictionaries/SmithsBibleDictionary/?word=Bartholomew)

 

 

 

 

 

There are a few scholars who do not think Nathaniel and Barthelomew are the same. Here is the argument for it:

In Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony; Richard Bauckham argues:

“patronymic became, within the circle of the Twelve, a means of distinguishing him from others in the same circle. Bartholomew's father’s name was fairly unusual (fiftieth in order of popularity: 7 occurrences), as was often, though not always, the case when a patronymic was used alone. Correspondingly, one would expect the personal name that the patronymic replaced to have been common. This makes it rather unlikely that Bartholomew was the same person as the disciple called Nathanael,who appears in John’s Gospel but not in the Synoptics (John 1:45- 48; 21:2). Nathanael was no more common than Tolmai, or 'Ptolemy (fiftieth in order: 7 occurrences).”

 

If this is true we will have 13 Apostles and not 12 as asserted everywhere in the scripture.

Alternately Nathaniel did not become an Apostle although he appears everywhere the disciples were at crucial situations.  After all he was convinced that “No good can come out of Nazareth” But on meeting Jesus he did blurt out “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!”

 

 

(https://overviewbible.com/bartholomew-the-apostle/)

In The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary, Professor Michael Wilkins says that ancient Greek texts normally handled patronymic names differently:

“The name ‘Bartholomew’ may stand by itself in the apostolic lists as a proper name. It is not necessarily a patronymic. The patronymic is normally expressed in the lists by the Greek genitive, not by the Aramaic bar.”

 

 

 

 

THE ANNOTATED BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER
The Church of England
Rev. John Henry Blunt M.A., F.S.A
London , Oxford, and Cambridge

1872

“There is no festival of st. Bartholomew in the lectionary of St. Jerome, but it appears in the Sacramentary of St. Gregory. In the Eastern Church this Apostle is commemorated on the

same day with St. Barnabas, as St. Simon and St. Jude are connected in the Western Church; but on this day there is also a commemoration of the Translation of St.Bartholomew. There is absolutely nothing but his name recorded of St. Bartholomew in the New Testament (though it has usually been supposed that Nathanael anal Bartholomew are two names for the same person); but the Gospel of the day perpetuates an old tradition that St.Bartholmnew was of noble birth, and that hence arose the “strife” among the Apostles, "which of them should be

counted the greatest ” in their Master’s expected kingdom.

 

The reasons why Nathanael and Bartholomew are supposed to be the same person are as follows.

 

(I) The call of St. Bartholomew in nowhere mentioned, while that of Nathanael’s appears to

be the call of an Apostle.

 

(2) The Evangelists who mention Bartholomew do not name Nathanael, while St. John, who tells us of the latter, does not name Bartholomew.  

 

(3) Bar-Tholmai may be only an appellation of Nathanael, just as Bar-Jona is of St.Peter,  since it signifies ‘the son of Tolmai’ as the latter does ‘son of Jonas,’ and Barnabas means ‘the son of consolation.‘  

 

But strong as these reasons seem, there is the strong testimony of the Fathers against them. St. Augustine, St.Chrysostom, St.Gregory Nyasen, and St.Gregory the Great, all declare that Nathanael was not one of the Twelve and the opinion that he was identical with Bartholomew in first found in a Benedictine author named Rupert, who wrote in the twelfth century. St. Augustine uses the fact that Nathanael was not an Apostle as a proof of his great holiness and ready perception of Christ:-“' This was not said to Andrew, nor said to Peter, nor to  Philip, which is and to Nathanael. ‘Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile:' ”-—and assigns his learning and position in life as a reason why He Who chose the weak things of the world to confound the strong did not make him an Apostle.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here are two additional comments in Encyclopedias which has some undertone to this question.

 

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

NATHANAEL (1)

Although Nathanael is mentioned by name only once again in the New Testament, where he is one of the seven who witnessed the appearance of the risen Jesus at the Sea of Tiberias (Joh_21:2), it is evident that the connection and companionship of Nathanael with Jesus must have been much closer than those two incidents would lead us to suppose. Accordingly, attempts have been made to identify him with other New Testament characters, the most commonly accepted being Bartholomew (compare BARTHOLOMEW). The principal arguments in support of this identification are:

 

Nathanael is never mentioned by the synoptists, and Bartholomew is never mentioned by John, who further implies that Nathanael was one of the twelve disciples (compare Joh_20:24-26; Joh_21:2);

 

in the Synoptists, Philip is closely connected with Bartholomew (compare lists of the apostles), and in John with Nathaniel (compare Joh_1:45 ff);

 

(3) the fact that most of the other apostles bear two names. Arguments are also adduced to identify him wit h Simon the Cananean (compare SIMON). Nathanael has also been identified with Matthew and Mattbias (based on the similarity of name-meanings), with John the son of Zebedee, with Stephen, and even with Paul.

 

ATS Bible Dictionary

Nathanael

A disciple of Christ, probably the same as BARTHOLOMEW, which see. He was a native of Cana in Galilee, John 21:2, and was one of the first to recognize the Messiah, who at their first

interview manifested his perfect acquaintance with Nathanael's secret heart and life, John 1:45-51. He was introduced by Philip to Jesus, who on seeing him pronounced that remarkable

eulogy which has rendered his name almost another word for sincerity: "Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." He was one of the disciples to whom Christ appeared at the sea of

Tiberias after his resurrection, John 21:2; and after witnessing the ascension returned with the other apostles to Jerusalem, Acts 1 :4,12,13.

 

Solution to the problem seems to be that Nathaniel was one of the lineage of David through Tolmai the Royal family of Geshur that it gave him immediate recognition of who he was as one of the distinguished cousins of Jesus himself.  That stuck.

 

 

The same will apply if he was of Ptolemy.

Ptolemy I Soter was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC to his death.  If he was a Ptolemy he again become a member of Royal Family and it distinguished him.

 


 

 

 

 

 

III: WHO IS  NATHANAEL  BARTHALOMEW?

 

Nathanael Bartholomew ( which means “son of Tolmai”), was one of the twelve apostles (Matt. 10:3; Acts 1:13)  Our only source of information is based on his surname Bar-Tholmai.

(http://classic.net.bible.org/dictionary.php?word=NATHANAEL)

(https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/bar-1/)

 

The first and the more direct and probably the correct understanding of his family background is the surname itself. Use of the surnames as is practiced from time immemorial in all cultures including Hebrew is the Father’s name or Family name.  In Hebrew it takes the form of Ben Tolmai or Bar Tolmai where the Bar and Ben denotes “Son of”  This term is lost in Modern Surnames where the “Son of” term is assumed.  But it was common in the times of Jesus as most of the Apostles were named with the Ben or Bar term. But from all possibilities the name that appear is the name of the family or of the father or the generic class name. Can somebody use it as a personal name Bartholomai? It is possible, but it is not normal.

 

The surname of the Apostle of Jesus is given in various languages of the period as given below:

Ancient Greek: : Βαρ-θολομαῖος or Βαρ-Πτολεμαῖος Ptolemaîos

Latin: Ptolemaeus

German: Ptolemäus, Ptolemaios

Italian: Tolomeo

English: Ptolemy

Ancient Egyptian: ptwolmys

 

 Hebrew and Aramaic Talmai

Middle Persian  Patlamyōš

Persian: بَطلَمیوس، پتُلِمَیوس‎  Baṭlamīūs/ Ptolemaios

Arabic: بَطُلِيمُوس‎  Baṭulīmūs

 Two names for the father of Nathanael stands out

 Tolmai is mentioned in the Bible and  Ptolemies are found  in Egyptian history.

 

1.  Ptolemies   were rulers of Egypt for some time.

Another connection often referred to is the term Tolomy as Ptolemy.  They sound alike with a slight change in tone of T as Pt.

 

Ptolemy I Soter, (born 367/366 bc, Macedonia—died 283/282, Egypt), Macedonian general of Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt ( 323–285 bc) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which reigned longer than any other dynasty established on the soil of the Alexandrian empire and only succumbed to the Romans in 30 BC.

 


Ptolemy I Soter

 

Almost all the rulers took the name Ptolemy

 

 

 

If he was of the lineage of Ptolemy family, how Nathanael Bar- Ptolemy could come into Canaan to live and be an Israelite remains a problem.  

 

The other possibility is that some Hebrew Israelite  took the name of Ptolemy

Yes, during the period in question when Greek was the universal culture, an Israelite could have been named Ptolemy.  But that could hardly make him a royalty.

That will leave us with the name Tolmai.  It occurs in the Old Testament.

 

2. Tolmai was one of the three Anakims.

Several groups of Giant tribes are mentioned in the bible.

The Races of Giants

    Nephilim: The Nephilim were on the earth in those days -- and also afterward -- when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown. (Genesis 6:1-4,

     Rephaim:  Genesis 14:5 

     Anakim: The "descendants of Anak" are first mentioned in Numbers 13, when the Hebrew spies  returned with their report.  The Anakim are associated with the Nephilim from the beginning (Numbers 13:33), and they are later equated even with the Rephaim, too (Deuteronomy 2:11). They are consistently described as "strong and tall", and their cities as "large, with walls up to the sky" (e.g., Deuteronomy 1:28).  38 years later when Joshua and Caleb, drove them out (Numbers 13:22; Joshua 11:21, 15:14; Judges 1:20). Caleb drove the Anakim out of Hebron (Joshua 14:12, 15:14; Judges 1:20), Joshua is also credited with this feat in the larger context of driving them out of the hill country (Joshua 11:21).   Apparently the tribe survived leaving their original home of  Kiriath Arba (The city of four)   in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Joshua 11:22),  

Thus Anakim were a pre-Canaanite tribe, dwelling (according to Joshua 11:21,22 , and Judges 1:10,20 )  in the hill country of Judah and in the Philistine plain (Hebron, Debir, Anab, Gaza, Gath, Ashdod).   Then by the time of Kingship of David

Joshua 11:22 says:  No Anakim were left in the land of the Israelites; only in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod did any survive. 


Three clans are mentioned:
Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai 
(Judges 1:10 Numbers 13:22 ).

 

Apparently the generation of the giants are not clearly understood and interpreted. The giants are children of Arba. Arba simply means four.  This city of Hebron is where four early fathers of the mankind were buried.  Rabbi Yitzhak said: “The city of four couples ,who are buried there, in the Machpelah Cave: Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah.” (https://www.thetorah.com/article/kiryat-arba-the-father-of-giants-and-the-city-of-four)

 

Who  are these Anakims?

https://biologos.org/articles/what-is-the-relationship-between-the-creation-accounts-in-genesis-1-and-2/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIusnew7vK6gIVEb7ACh2cEQtZEAAYASAAEgKWXPD_BwE

http://www.talentshare.org/~mm9n/articles/Adam/index.htm

The true lineage of Anakim (and of all giant race) can only be understood from a close reading of Genesis which gives two creation stories.  The first creation of humans were by the Elohim The plurality of El - the council of gods including the Sons of God from all dimensions who are not fallen) in Gen 1:1 to Gen 2:3, who created man “in their own image” as  male and female and placed them all over the eath.  These are children of man.  The second creation in Gen 2:4 onwardss was by YHVH of Elohim (the One male Father God with Ruah within him) and he created Adam from the mud form by inhaling life into him.  Adam was created in in the image of YHVH of Elohim.  Thus Adam was made male alone from whom Eve was separated later( Just as the Ruah the Holy Spirit procedes from the father.  Ruah is female gender) .  He was placed inside a closed Garden of Eden.  

 

Gen 1.27 So Elohim (Family of God) created man in their own image, in the image of Elohim created he them; male and female created he them.

Gen 2:7 And the YHVH of Elohim formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and Adam became a living soul.

 

 

 

 

Adam “son of God” in Luke 3:38 

the son of Seth,
the son of Adam,

the son of God.

 

 

“God created man on earth, from one end of heaven to the other.” Deuteronomy 4:32 indicating that Adam was a giant. It also means that Adam existed in all dimensions both material and spiritual. They lived around a 1000 years and had the nutritious food from the garden of Eden of God.  This was a walled garden.  Sons and Daughters of men outside did not have access to Eden and its nutrition.  They were of normal height 6 ft and lived a 100 years maximum.  After he sinned Adam and Eve were sent out of the Garden of Eden and they got mixed with the sons of men outside the Eden.  Eventually the giants lost their size to those outside of Eden also. These formed the Giants who lived in city of Arba whose children were the three giants who remained in the land after the occupation of Palestine by Israel led by Joshua.  One of the tribes was that of Talmoi.  Nathaniel was one of the members of this tribe and probably the Chief of the Tribe of Talmoi.

(Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism by Howard Schwartz

 

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https://biblebrisket.com/2014/03/17/androgynousadam/)

Ellen White states:
http://thegreatcontroversy.info/the-genesis-giants----part.html

“As man came forth from the hand of his Creator, he was of lofty stature and perfect symmetry. His countenance bore the ruddy tint of health and glowed with the light of life and joy. Adam's height was much greater than that of men who now inhabit the earth. Eve was somewhat less in stature; yet her form was noble, and full of beauty.” Patriarchs & Prophets, p. 45.

 

“As Adam came forth from the hand of his Creator, he was of noble height, and of beautiful symmetry. He was more than twice as tall as men now living upon the earth, and was well proportioned. . . . Eve was not quite as tall as Adam. Her head reached a little above his shoulders. She, too, was noble—perfect in symmetry, and very beautiful.” Spiritual Gifts, vol. III, p. 34, (1SP 25.)

 

In fact, the entire antediluvian race were of much greater stature than current human beings.

“The race of men then living were of very great stature, and possessed wonderful strength.” White, Spiritual Gifts, vol. III, p. 61.

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“Abu Huraira (r.a) reported Allah's Messenger (SallAllahu alaihi wassallam) as saying:

 Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created Adam in His image with His length of sixty cubits,

(29 feet) and as He created him He told him to greet that group, and that was a party of angels sitting there, and listen to the response that they give him, for it would form his greeting and that of his offspring. He then went away and said: Peace be upon you! (Asalaam O Alaikum). They (the angels) said: May there be peace upon you and the Mercy of Allah (Wa Alaikum Salaam Wa Rahmatullahi), and they made an addition of" Mercy of Allah". So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam (as he was in Paradise) his length being sixty cubits, then the people who followed him continued to diminish in size up to this day. (Sahih Muslim; https://www.quora.com/How-tall-were-Adam-and-Eve)

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 The three gigantic "sons of Anak" who lived in Hebron (Numbers 13:22),  were chased out by Caleb (Joshua 15:14) and killed by the Judahites (Judges 1, 10). B.C. 1618. It has been thought that these people are depicted on the Egyptian monuments as a tall, light complexioned race. In the hieroglyphic inscription they are named Tanmahu, which may be the Egyptian rendering of the Hebrew word Talmai, allowing for the interchange of the liquid I for n, so constant in all languages. The figure is from a picture on a wall of the tomb of Aimenepthah I, supposed to represent a man of the tribe of Talmai, one of the sons of Anak (Burton the Egyptologist, Excerpta Hieroiqsphica; 1825-1928 ).

 

(Heb. Talmay', תִּלְמִי, furrowed [Gesenius ] or bold [Fuirst, who comp. Θολομαῖος, Josephus, A nt. 14:8,1; Βαρ - θολομαῖος, Matthew 10:3]; Sept. Θολμαί, Θολμί, Θελαμείν, Θολομαϊ v, etc.; Vulg. Tholmai or Tholomai'), the name of two men.

 

By the time of Jesus, these children of giants normalized.  I suppose they remained a separate tribe and probably were monotheistic as they were sons of God.

Here is a lineage of the Anakim in the line of Tolmai who became the Kings of Geshur.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anakim Tribes who occupied the Hebron hills became the Kingdom of Geshur ruled by children of Talmai which as we can see is not in Hebron area.  They were pushed to the current area and became a powerful kingdom.  

 

 This led to the diplomatic marriage of King David to the daughter of Talmai,  the King of Geshur - Princes Maacha. However the Midrash and Aggadah seems to indicate that David took her as a s an eshet yefat to’ar, a captive. (https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/maacah-wife-of-david-midrash-and-aggadah)    (BT Yevamot 48a)  Her marriage with David was probably an alliance between David and the King of Geshur.

 

He was related to Talmai, or Tolmai, who was king of Geshur.
Talmai’s daughter, Maacah, was married to David, the father of Absolom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Son of Ammihud, Talmoi was the king of Geshur (2 Samuel 3, 3; 2 Samuel 13:37; 
1 Chronicles 3:2) in B.C. 1045.
     

Maacah was King David’s fourth wife who gave birth to  two children, Absolom and Tamar.

Absalom fled to his mother’s native country, after the murder of his half-brother David’s eldest son, Amnon for raping his sister Tamae. and . Absalom stayed there for three years   (2 Sam 13:37, 38). before  Joab brought him back to Jerusalem (2 Sam 14:23, 32; 15:8).

And rehabilitated by David.

 

Martin LaBar

Thus Nathanael Bar-Tolomi was of the lineage of David the King of Judah as well as the Tolmoi King of Geshur and thus was a distant cousin of Jesus who was the legal heir to the throne of David.  It was to show this status he was referred to as Bar-Talomi as his major name.

 

3.   "Bartholomew was of the house of Naphtali

According to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50) "Bartholomew was of the house of Naphtali. Now his name was formerly John, but our Lord changed it because of John the son of Zebedee, His beloved."

The same is repeated in many dictionaries and studies.

https://www.ancestry.com/name-origin?surname=bartholomew
https://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionary/bartholomew/

www.wordsforcourageousliving.com/talltwelve/bartholomew.html
https://www.biblicaltraining.org/library/bartholomew

classic.net.bible.org/dictionary.php?word=Bartholomew

https://www.bible-history.com/isbe/b/bartholomew/

This name according to Budge was given because he came from a rich agricultural family.  Tolmai literally means ‘having many furrows’, i.e. rich in land. This was an extremely popular personal name in Christian Europe, with innumerable vernacular derivatives. It derived its popularity from the apostle St. Bartholomew (Matthew 10:3)
(Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press)


We can easily see that Nathanael Bartholomew came from the region alloted to the  tribe of  Naphthali which again is very close to the Kingdom of Geshur at the time of David. During the reign of Pekah this tribe was among the first to suffer the deportation   (1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:20) and remain as one of the Lost Tribes of Israel.When Nathanael was called to be a disciple of Jesus he was evidently a resident of the area which was alloted to the tribe of Naphthali.

 

4.Other suggestions

nternational Standard Bible Encyclopedia mentions another explanation. 

“NATHANAEL (nethan'el, "God has given"; Nathanael): Nathanael, who was probably a fisherman, belonged to Cana in Galilee (John 21:2).

 

According to the "Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (compare Budge, Contendings of the Apostles, II, 50), Nathanael was the same as Simon, the son of Cleopas, and was one of the Twelve. He was among those who met and conversed with Jesus during the preaching of John the Baptist at Bethany beyond Jordan (compare John 1:28).”
https://www.internationalstandardbible.com/N/nathanael-(2).html

 

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The identity is definitely stated in the Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles (see NATHANAEL). Further, the "Preaching of Simon, son of Cleopas" (compare Budge, II, 70) has the heading

"The preaching of the blessed Simon, the son of Cleopas, who was surnamed Judas, which is interpreted Nathanael, who became bishop of Jerusalem after James the brother of our Lord."

Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, III, xi, 32; IV, xxii) also refers to a Simon who succeeded James as bishop of Jerusalem and suffered martyrdom under Trajan; and Hegesippus, whom Eusebius professes to quote, calls this Simon a son of Cleopas.” https://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/simon-the-canaanite-simon-the-cananaean-simon-the-zealot.html
https://www.internationalstandardbible.com/S/simon-the-canaanite-simon-the-cananaean-simon-the-zealot.html
https://www.internationalstandardbible.com/N/nathanael-(2).html

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Catholic and Orthodox traditions believe  that Clopas is a brother of Saint Joseph, and that he is the same person with Cleophas. Symeon ben Clopas was known as Simeon ben (son of) Clopas, Cleopas or Cleophas which is the Greek abbreviated form of Cleopatros).  He was recognized as an able and very capable leader.  According to Hegesippus, he was recognized as the first cousin of Jesus and Jacob (James), as his father Cleopas was the brother of Joseph, the father of both of these brothers. The wife of Clopas is “the Other Mary” who was the sister of Mary, Mother of Jesus.   We will then have Nathaniel as distinct from Barthelomew and as another disciple increasing the number of disciples.  But it would make the introduction of Nathanael by Phillip to Jesus irrelevant and Nathanael’s question to Jesus “How do you know me?” impossible, since he is Jesus’ first cousin.   

 

 ”Nathanael has also been identified with Matthew and Mattbias (based on the similarity of name-meanings), with John the son of Zebedee, with Stephen, and even with Paul.”

https://www.internationalstandardbible.com/N/nathanael-(2).html

C. M. Kerr

 

According to Syrian tradition, 

Bartholomew's original name was Jesus (Yeshua)—a common name at that time, meaning Joshua—which caused him to adopt another name.

 

 

 

 

IV: Jesus Calls  Phillip and Nathanael

 

 

As we have seen Nathanael, was one of the disciples of Jesus (John 1:43). Nathanael was from Cana in Galilee (John 21:2) and probably one of the distant cousins of Jesus from David’s fourth wife Maacha the daughter of  Talmoi the King of Geshur. The roots of Talmoi is from one of the Anakims, one of the brothers of Goliath, also named Talmoi. He was of the lineage of David, through  Absalom and thus a far cousin of Jesus himself. Apparently he was   brought to Jesus by his friend, Philip, who also became one of Jesus’ disciples. Nathanael was one of the first to express belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God (John 1:49). His name means “God has given” in Hebrew. Interestingly, Nathanael is only mentioned in the Gospel of John; the other three gospels identify him as “Bartholomew.”

 

 


Philip was from Bethsaida and Nathanael from Cana
The call of Philip and Nathanael to discipleship is recorded in the first chapter of John, beginning in verse 43.

John 1:43-51
==43 The next day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. Finding Philip, he said to him, “Follow me.”

==44 Philip, like Andrew and Peter, was from the town of Bethsaida.

(It appears that Philip and Nathanael were close friends)

 

 

 

==45 Philip found Nathanael and told him, “We have found the one Moses wrote about in the Law, and about whom the prophets also wrote—Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.”

 

Who is "Him of whom Moses" and the prophets wrote?

Moses wrote at Deuteronomy 18:15 that “The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brethren—him you shall heed."

 The leader who followed Moses soon after his death was Joshua which translates to in Aramaic, Yehoshua or Yeshua  which was the Hebrew Aramaic name of "Jesus."  
This "prophet like unto Moses" is the long awaited Messiah who will lead a New Exodus - through a  New Passover  taking his people into a New Promised Land.

 

==46 “Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?” Nathanael asked.

 

Modern city of Nazareth
http://www.olsenpark.com/Bulletins17/FS19.39.html

The problem that Nathanael sees is that there is no prophecy that connects the Messiah to Nazareth.  He is supposed to come from Bethelhem not Nazareth. (We know that Jesus was indeed born in Bethlehem of Judea and not in Nazareth.  The family later moved into Nazareth where Joseph had his carpentry profession.  Nazareth came into existence only recently as far as Nathanael understands. It was not in existence at the periods of Prophets and is not mentioned thus anywhere in the Prophetic literature.  Evidently Nathanael was a keen student of the Bible.  Probably that was what he was doing under the fig tree all those years.

http://www.olsenpark.com/Bulletins17/FS19.39.html

 

==“Come and see,” said Philip.

 

The proof of the pudding is in eating it. “Come and See”.  That is the ultimate basis of any of our understanding of truth.  Experience it personaly.  And Nathanael was willing to do that.

 

==47 When Jesus saw Nathanael approaching, he said of him, “Here truly is an Israelite in whom there is no deceit.”

==48 “How do you know me?” Nathanael asked.

Jesus answered, “I saw you while you were still under the fig tree before Philip called you.”

There’s a lot of Old Testament echoing here:

Psalm 32:2 declares  the blessed man to be the one “in whom there is no deceit.”

 

Sitting under a fig tree is likewise a symbol of blessedness in 1 Kings 4:25 and Zechariah 3:10: “every man under his vine and under his fig tree” and “every one of you will invite his neighbor to come under his vine and under his fig tree.”  Thus under the fig tree was equivalent to a personal temple and altar where one can commune with God in a very personal way and also share fellowship with very close family and friends.  Probably Nathanael was praying and the response of Jesus, “I saw you under the fig tree” indicated he was truly hearing those prayers directly.   

Nathanael then immediately recognized Jesus as the Christ, calling him the “Son of God” and the “king of Israel” (verse 49).

 

 

Nathanael under the Fig Tree by James Tissot.

==49 Then Nathanael declared, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the king of Israel.”

 

===50 Jesus said, “You believe because I told you I saw you under the fig tree. You will see greater things than that.”

=== 51 He then added, “Very truly I tell you, you will see ‘heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending on’ the Son of Man.”

 

 

 

Jesus responds to Nathanael ’s statement of faith with a prophecy: “You believe because I told you I saw you under the fig tree. You will see greater things than that” (John 1:50). Then Jesus prophesies that Nathanael will see angels ascending and descending ‘on the Son of Man’ (verse 51). This is a reference to the story of Jacob’s ladder in Genesis 28. But instead of ascending and descending on a ladder as they did in Jacob’s dream, the angels will ascend and descend on the Son of Man—meaning that Jesus Himself will be the final, efficacious connection between God and humanity (see Hebrews 9:12; 10:10)

“I AM the Way, the Truth and the Life and no one comes to the father except through me.” john 14:6.

“Can anything good come out of Nazareth”

 

 

The great prophet, Isaiah, also had something to say about this “branch”, cf. Isaiah 11:

There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse,
    and a branch shall grow out of his roots.
And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him,
    the spirit of wisdom and understanding,
    the spirit of counsel and might,
    the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord.
And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord. 

 

The “stump of Jesse”? What is that and who is Jesse? Jesse is David’s father. The tree that grew from Jesse was David and the lines of kings which succeeded him. When the line of kings was broken, the tree was cut down, leaving only a stump.  The entire family of David were scattered around and became poor.  But the prophecy remains that  "shoot" springing forth from the "stump of Jesse"  and will resstore Israel.

But Matthew speaks of Prophecy.

  "And he went and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that what was spoken by the prophets might be fulfilled, 'He shall be called a Nazarene.'" (Mat. 2:23)

Here Matthew cleverely combines the Hebrew words for Stump which in Hebrew is “Netzer”written NZR which could be read as Nazar and the name of village Nazareth.

 

 

 

 

As Jesus has promised him, Bartholomew did see and hear many great things as a disciple of Christ. We can only assume that he moved along with the rest of the disciples along with the master. He saw Jesus heal the sick and saw all the miracles he performed.    He must have sat at the feet of Jesus when he taught them about the secrets of the Kingdom of God.  He saw Jesus suffer and die on the cross which caused a lot of confusion that the whole gang of fishermen went back to their old prefession. He saw the Risen Lord along with the others

 

Evidently like the rest of the disciples, the Nathanael also went back to their profession of fishing.  And Jesus met them at the sea side.

 

At the sea side

John 21: 1-14 Afterward Jesus appeared again to his disciples, by the Sea of Galilee.[a] It happened this way:  Simon Peter, Thomas (also known as Didymus), Nathanael from Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two other disciples were together.  “I’m going out to fish,” Simon Peter told them, and they said, “We’ll go with you.” So they went out and got into the boat, but that night they caught nothing.

 Early in the morning, Jesus stood on the shore, but the disciples did not realize that it was Jesus.

He called out to them, “Friends, haven’t you any fish?”

“No,” they answered.

6He said, “Throw your net on the right side of the boat and you will find some.” When they did, they were unable to haul the net in because of the large number of fish.

Then the disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “It is the Lord!” As soon as Simon Peter heard him say, “It is the Lord,” he wrapped his outer garment around him (for he had taken it off) and jumped into the water. The other disciples followed in the boat, towing the net full of fish, for they were not far from shore, about a hundred yards.  When they landed, they saw a fire of burning coals there with fish on it, and some bread.

10 Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you have just caught.” So Simon Peter climbed back into the boat and dragged the net ashore. It was full of large fish,  but even with so many the net was not torn.  Jesus said to them, “Come and have breakfast.” None of the disciples dared ask him, “Who are you?” They knew it was the Lord.  Jesus came, took the bread and gave it to them, and did the same with the fish.  This was now the third time Jesus appeared to his disciples after he was raised from the dead.

 

Again we see him with the rest of the Apostles at the time of his ascension in Mount Olive.

 

Acts 1:1-11

Jesus Taken Up Into Heaven

1In my former book, Theophilus, I wrote about all that Jesus began to do and to teach 

2 until the day he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions through the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen. 

3 After his suffering, he presented himself to them and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive. He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God. 

4 On one occasion, while he was eating with them, he gave them this command: “Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. 5 For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.”

6 Then they gathered around him and asked him, “Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?”

7 He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority. 

But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”

 

9 After he said this, he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight.

10 They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them. 

11 “Men of Galilee,” they said, “why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”

12 Then the apostles returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives, a Sabbath day’s walk from the city.

 

Barthelomew must have been one of the witnesses for the ascension which must have confirmed his faith in Jesus.  Then with the power invested on him through the Holy Spirit at Pentecost he was on his way as an Apostle graduating his schooling as a disciple.

 

 

 


 

 

 

V:  MISSION OF PHILIP, MARIAMNE  AND BARTHELOMEW

 

https://pulpitandpen.org/2014/05/27/was-the-apostle-bartholomew-even-martyred-myths-thatll-preach/

https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/saints/bartholomew-487

https://www.johnsanidopoulos.com/2012/06/mission-of-saints-pantaenus-and.html

Mission areas of Barthelomew

 

 

We have practically no primary sources regarding the ministry and martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew. What we have is a random collection of stories which may fathom as exageration and myths.  Though there are stories about his ministry, we are not certain where and when it happened. Hence though I will be giving a history and a series of events which may not be fixed in time nor in the country or city described.

 

“Some local traditions have him going to India. Other traditions record him as serving as a missionary in Ethiopia.  Mesopotamia, Parthia, and Lycaonia”.

“Other traditions represent St. Bartholomew as preaching in Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Armenia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and on the shores of the Black Sea.  The manner of his death, said to have occurred at Albanopolis in Armenia, is equally uncertain; according to some, he was beheaded, according to others, flayed alive and crucified, head downward, by order of Astyages, for having converted his brother, Polymius, King of Armenia.”  

 

The general outline of the mission may be taken as it is given in the Orthdox Church tradition which is given below:

https://www.oca.org/saints/lives/2014/06/11/101690-apostle-bartholomew-of-the-twelve
https://www.tampaorthodox.org/stphilipslife

https://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0818.htm

Apostle Bartholomew of the Twelve

 Troparion & Kontakion

The Holy Apostle Bartholomew was born at Cana of Galilee and was one of the Twelve Apostles of Christ.

 

 

 

After the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost, it fell by lot to the holy Apostles Bartholomew and Philip (November 14) to preach the Gospel in Syria and Asia Minor. In their preaching they wandered through various cities, and then met up again. Accompanying the holy Apostle Philip was his sister, the holy virgin Saint Mariamnne.

 

We have seen that from the beginning Barthelomew and Phillip were paired as friends .  So they continued their ministries together also as Apostles. They were accompanied by the righteous Mariamne “The Apostolic Virgin” and sister of the Apostle Philip .  She had made a vow of virginity and became the companion of her brother Philip and the holy Apostle Bartholomew, actively assisting them in their apostolic work.

 

 

Syria and Myzia

Traversing the cities of Syria and Myzia, they underwent much hardship and tribulations, they were stoned and they were locked up in prison.

 

In one of the villages they met up with the Apostle John the Theologian, and together they set off to Phrygia. In the city of Hieropolis by the power of their prayers they destroyed an enormous viper, which the pagans worshipped as a god. The holy Apostles Bartholomew and Philip with his sister confirmed their preaching with many miracles.

 

 

 

 Hieropolis

At Hieropolis there lived a man by the name of Stachys, who had been blind for 40 years. When he received healing, he then believed in Christ and was baptized. News of this spread throughout the city, and a multitude of the people thronged to the house where the apostles were staying. The sick and those beset by demons were released from their infirmities, and many were baptized. The city prefect gave orders to arrest the preachers and throw them in prison, and to burn down the house of Stachys. At the trial pagan priests came forth with the complaint that the strangers were turning people away from the worship of the ancestral gods.

        

Thinking that perhaps some sort of magic power was hidden away in the clothes of the apostles, the prefect gave orders to strip them. But Saint Mariamne became like a fiery torch before their eyes, and none dared touch her. They sentenced the saints to death. The Apostle Philip was crucified upside down. Suddenly there was an earthquake, and a fissure in the earth swallowed up the prefect of the city, together with the pagan priests and many of the people. Others took fright and rushed to take down the apostles from the crosses. Since the Apostle Bartholomew had not been suspended very high, they soon managed to take him down. The Apostle Philip, however, had died. After making Stachys Bishop of Hieropolis, the Apostle Bartholomew and Saint Mariamne left the city and moved on.

 

There is an  anonymous Acts of Philip, probably written by a contemporary of Eusebius. According to this, we have a slightly different version of the same story.  Following the resurrection of Jesus, Philip was sent with his sister Mariamne and Bartholomew to preach in Greece, Phrygia, and Syria.  In this version, the major role is played by Apostle Phillip.  Here they meet Apostle John also during the period and confronts the High Priest Aninias.  In the direct controversy, High Priest Aninias was swallowed up by the earth before a multitude.

(http://www.meta-religion.com/ World_Religions/Christianity/ Other_Books/New_Testament_Apocrypha/acts_of_philip.htm)    http://penhook.org/Apostles.htm

The Quest for the Historic Apostles by W. Brian Shelton

   

 

Philip’s tomb can be found within the ruins of the Turkish city of Hierapolis. 
Philip’s symbol is the five laoves of bread and two fish.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



This sixth-century bread stamp shows two churches from the site of Hierapolis in Christian Turkey: the domed martyrium on the right, and the newly-discovered church containing Philip’s tomb on the left. 

 

In the summer of 2011, Italian archeologist Francesco D’Andria discovered the tomb of Philip in a newly excavated church located only forty yards to the right of the Martyrium Hall. It is believed that this early church was built around Philip’s tomb in the early 400s. According to D’Andria, the tomb design and the writing on its walls prove it belonged to Philip. Philip’s physical remains were likely taken to Constantinople at the end of the 500s, and possibly put in the Church of the Apostles.

 

The remains of the apostle Philip are no longer in the tomb, however. According to D’Andria, the saint’s relics were very likely moved from Hierapolis to Constantinople at the end of the sixth century and then possibly taken to Rome and placed in the newly dedicated Church of St. Philip and St. John (now the Church of the Holy Apostles), although 12th-century reports describe seeing Philip’s remains still in Constantinople, the seat of Christian Turkey.

 

The Armenian Church claims the holy apostle Bartholomew as their founder. In art he is often depicted beside a chained demon; his symbol is a knife blade.

 

The Church historian Nicephorus Callistus describes their successful preaching in the Phrygian city of Hieropolis, where they were arrested and locked up in prison. They put the Apostle Philip to death on a cross, but Saint Mariamne and Saint Bartholomew were set free. Saint Bartholomew went to preach the Gospel in India. Saint Mariamne, after burying the body of Saint Philip, preached the Gospel at Lykaonia (Asia Minor). She died there in peace.

  

 

Bartholomew preached for a time in Lycaonia (part of present-day Turkey),  and then proceded to India.  Assuming that they started their journey some time after the Pentecost it must have started around 40 AD.


 

 

 

 

VI:  BARTHELOMEW IN ARMENIA

 

He also visited Greater Armenia (the country between the River Kura and the upper stretches of the Tigrus and Euphrates Rivers), where he worked many miracles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ARMENIA THE LAND OF NOAH

 

 

https://www.simplybible.com/f30l-magni-three-marvelous-mountains.htm

Mount Ararat

SALVATION. The great flood destroyed all human beings and animals in the world, except those saved in the ark that Noah built. When the flood abated, the ark rested on Mount Ararat. Eventually the water had dried enough so that Noah, his family, and the animals, could come out of the ark (Genesis 8:1-4).

SACRIFICE. 

This was a new start for all life on earth. It was an opportunity to put away wickedness and live in God’s grace and love. Noah recognized this, and here is the first thing that Noah did: "Noah built an altar to the Lord... and offered burnt offerings on the altar" (Genesis 8:20).

 

 

 

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++>>

“Adapted from The Liturgical Year by Abbot Gueranger

A witness of the Son of God, one of the princes who announced His glory to the nations, lights up this day with his apostolic flame. While his brethren of the sacred college followed the human race into all the lands whither the migration of nations had led it, St. Bartholomew appeared as the herald of the Lord at the very starting point, the mountains of Armenia, whence the sons of Noe spread over the earth. There had the Ark of Noe rested; humanity, everywhere else a wanderer, was there seated in stillness, remembering the dove with its olive branch, and awaiting the consummation of the alliance signified by the rainbow which had there for the first time glittered in the clouds. Behold, blessed tidings awake in those valleys the echoes of ancient traditions: tidings of peace, making the universal deluge of sin subside before the Wood of salvation. The serenity announced by the dove of old, was now far outdone. Love was to take the place of punishment. The ambassador of Heaven showed God to the sons of Adam, as the most beautiful of their own brethren. The noble heights whence formerly flowed the rivers of paradise, were about to see the renewal of the covenant annulled in Eden, and the celebration, amid the joy of Heaven and earth, of the Divine nuptials so long expected, the union of the Word with regenerated humanity.”

https://reginamag.com/saint-bartholomew-apostle-and-martyr/

<<================================

 

Jesus started a new program to save mankind and sends out his disciples to the whole world.  Mount Ararat is in Armenia. This is mount Ararat where the ark of Noah landed and the four families got out to repopulate the whole world.  It is here Apostle Nathanael Bar Talomi started his mission alone to save mankind through Jesus - the God Incarnate  This was to fulfil another attempt of love of God to bring back the prodigals home.

 

Movses of Khorenatsi: Martydom of Barthelomew in Albacus?

According to Movses of Khorenatsi in the History of Armenia, Bartholomew preached in the Ararat region but was later martyred at a place called Albacus around 68 AD by the order of King Sanatruces of Adiabene (Arbela).

 

 

 

“ARBELA (Assyrian Arbailu, Old. Pers. Arbairā, Gk. Arbēla, Ar. Erbīl, locally Erbel), capital of an ancient northern Mesopotamian province located between the two Zab rivers. An important junction point on major east-west and north-south caravan routes, the town was an occupied site since remote antiquity, and is the only large settlement of ancient Iraq still flourishing and retaining a form of its original name.  

 

In the Assyrian period the city was famous as the chief cult center of the goddess Ishtar who is mentioned frequently under the title “Lady of Arbel” in the inscriptions of the later Assyrian kings, especially those of Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) and Assurbanipal (668-27 B.C.). (See D. Luckenbil, Ancient Records of Assyria, Chicago, 1927, s.v. Arbela.)”
http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/arbela-assyrian-arbailu-old

 

During the period starting the first century, the Greater Armenia was ruled by the Roman Empire.  Armenia Minor had become a client state and incorporated into the Roman Empire proper during the 1st century AD, Greater Armenia remained an independent kingdom under the Arsacid dynasty. Throughout this period, Armenia remained a bone of contention between Rome and the Parthian Empire, as well as the Sasanian Empire that succeeded the latter, and the casus belli for several of the Roman–Persian Wars. Only in 114–118 was Emperor Trajan able to conquer and incorporate it as a short-lived province. Towards the middle of the 1st century AD, the rising Parthian influence disputed Roman supremacy, which was re-established by the campaigns of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.

 

This conflict ended after the Battle of Rhandeia, in an effective stalemate and a formal compromise: a Parthian prince of the Arsacid line would henceforth sit on the Armenian throne, but his nomination had to be approved by the Roman emperor.

 

Throughout most of its history during this period, under the reign of the Arsacid Dynasty, the Armenian nobility was divided among Roman-loyalists, Parthian-loyalists or neutrals. Parthia thus was considered extending from Armenia to Taxila in India.

 

The influence of Christianity was felt in the 1st century after Christ: Christianity was first introduced by the apostles Bartholomew and Jude Thaddeus. Thus both Saints are considered the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church..

.

Mount Ararat where the Ark of Noah landed and the journey of man began.

It was here the journey of Bar Thalamew started his ministry


Apostles Barthelomew and Thaddeus

Patron Saints of Armenia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One tradition has it that Apostle Bartholomew was executed in Albanopolis in Armenia. According to popular hagiography, the apostle was flayed alive and beheaded. According to other accounts he was crucified upside down (head downward) like St. Peter. He is said to have been martyred for having converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, to Christianity. But when the king’s brother—“Astyages” inherited the throne, he put Bartholomew to death in the “Persian way” (flayed alive, beheaded and crucified) fearing the Roman reaction to it.  Apostle Bartholomew is said to have been executed in Albanopolis in Armenia.

  

However, there are no records of any Armenian King of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia with the name Polymius nor a prince by the name Astyages. The closest name Astyages (spelled by  Herodotus ; as  Ἀστυάγης Astyages;by Ctesias as Astyigas;by Diodorus as Aspadas:Ištumegu) was the last king of the Median Empire,  585–550 BCE.   

 

Another problem is the route of the mission.  Barthelomew will now had to go to the end of the earth from next door to Armenia to preach in India and then return for his mission back to Armenia.

 

Current scholarship indicates that Bartholomew more likely died in Kalyan in India, where there was an official named Polymius.

 

There is a legend on the martyrdom of Barthelomew which we will take up soon.  The problem with the legend is that there never was a king called Polymus nor the named brother of Polymius by name Saint Bartholomew Monastery (Armenian: Սուրբ Բարդուղիմեոսի վանք, Surb Barduğimeosi vank' ; Western Armenian: Surp Part'uğimeosi vank' ) was a medieval Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, 23 km north-east  from the town of Başkale, in present-day Turkey's Van Province, near the Iranian border. The monastery was built on the traditional site of martyrdom of Bartholomew the Apostle.

 

Saint Bartholomew Monastery  in the Van Province of southeastern Turkey.

 

 

 

Thaddeus came to Armenia about 43 AD to preach Christianity. He was martyred in southeastern Armenia. His tomb lies in the Armenian monastery of St. Thaddeus (Iran) where a chapel was built in the third century. Bartholomew is believed to have arrived in Armenia about 66 AD. He was martyred in Hadamakert (City of Adam), southeast of Lake Van whose present day name is Baskale. According to tradition Thaddeus was sent to Armenia from nearby Edessa by Abgar (uncle of King Sanatrook of Armenia) to evangelize. Thaddeus converted Sandookdht, the king's daughter. Sanatrook, hostile to Christianity, martyred both Thaddeus and his daughter Sandookhdt. Earliest dates of persecutions against Christians, including Armenians, were recorded in 110, 230, and 287 by the writers Eusebius and Tertullian

St. Thaddeus Monastery in northwest Iran.


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Cross stones at the Saint Bartholomew Armenian Monastery near the border with Iran. Until recently, the monastery was inaccessible to visitors as it was inside a Turkish army compound. The monastery was built on the site of martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Capital of Armenia  176 - 77 BC and 69 BC to 120 AD
City of Artashat

 

 

((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((

 

 

THE CONFLICTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES, 
AN APOCRYPHAL BOOK OF THE EARLY EASTERN CHURCH ,

Translated from an Ethiopic Ms .

BY THE REV. S. C . MALAN , M . A.,

 

 Jesus said to Barthelomew:. “Behold , I will tell thee beforehand what will come upon thee in that city . As soon as thou comest to it, they will burn thy body with fire as many as three times ; they will crucify thee several times, and saw thy body asunder with a saw , and they will cast thee upon the field unto the beasts, for them to eat thee ; and then they will tie thy feet and throw thee into the sea . Hold fast, and fear not, but be strong, that thou mayest overcome that which is not in thine own power to do, O good [disciple ), endure and bear in mind what the people of the Jews did unto Me; that wicked deed which they did to crucify Me on a cross ; but I did not recompense them for it, because I am the merciful God. I forgive all the sins of them that turn unto Me, and I accept their repentance.

 

Behold , I will send Andrew unto thee, who will bring thee to that city ; and many virtues and miracles shall be wrought by thee, and many people shall believe through thee.  

 

· After that the Lord appeared unto Andrew in the middle of the night, at the place where he happened to be ; and He commanded him to go to the city of Azrianos, to Bartholomew . He arrived there , and they both went to the city of Barthos.

 

Rufus and Alexander, and they came out of the city where they dwelt, to go to the city of Azrianos, to Bartholomew , that they all should go to the city of Barthos and Mekos to preach therein the glad tidings of the Gospel, according to our Lord 's commandment.

 

 

 

But when they came to the sea -shore they found no ship in which to sail ; wherefore Andrew was greatly troubled and grieved, and they abode on the shore until the third day ; when Andrew said to his two disciples : Arise, my disciples ; let us hold up our hands and pray to God to make our way plain ; for I know that He will not forsake us. Then they arose and they all offered prayer together in the Hebrew tongue ; and after having ended their prayers on the sea -shore, under a tree, slumber came upon them , and they slept.

 

 

 

Then God commanded , and a large fish , that came out of the sea , opened his mouth and swallowed up Andrew and his two disciples , unawares, while they slept. And they continued in the fish 's belly three days, and on the third night the fish landed them by God's good pleasure and threw them up on the shore of the city of Azrianos, above a city to which led a road eastward, and that might be reached on the fourth day. From the place in which they had been waiting the city of Azrianos was distant forty days' journey.

 

Then Andrew and his two disciples awoke on the shore of the city of Azrianos ; not knowing anything of what had happened to them .

 

Then said Andrew to the two disciples : Brethren , how long shall we abide, without finding a ship to take us to Azrianos, for my spirit is grieved and says within me: Is it thou , O Lord , Who didst appear unto me, and didst command me to go to the city of Azrianos ?

 

 And he said to his disciples : Now , then , let us return to the town until God be pleased to show us the country to which we are to go , and bring us a ship.

 

And one of his disciples said: Be it, even as thou wilt. But whilst Andrew was yet speaking, behold one of his disciples, Rufus by name, saw a ship coming sea wards, and he told it to Andrew and to the other disciple . Then they were glad and arose and went to meet the ship .

 

And when it came into port, the Captain made it fast, and said unto them : 0 ye good men, whither will ye go ? For our Lord Jesus Christ had prepared for them a spiritual ship with seamen in it and a Captain .

 

But ere He came to land Andrew arose and went to meet the ship , and cried to the Captain , and said to Him “The peace of Jesus be with Thee, O good man, thou Captain” .

And our Lord , who had the appearance of a Captain of the ship, answered : “The peace of God be with thee, beloved brother.”

 

Then Andrew said to Him : “To what city art thou going ?”

And our Lord answered and said to him : “By God 's good pleasure, to the city of Barthos.”

Then Andrew said : “O good man ,may be thou hast lost the way on the sea to the city of Barthos.”

 

 

 

Then the Captain , who was our Lord , said to him : “This is not the city of Barthos ; and as to that of Azrianos, this is the third day since I was there, whither I went to fetch the value of my wares. But if thou in quirest for the city of Azrianos, it is forty days and forty nights' journey from this city , for I have been there many a time.”

 

Then Andrew said to Him : “0 , thou good Sir,whence art thou ? “.

And our Lord answered : “Of Bethlehen of Judah.”  .

And Andrew said : “Are there not yet three days ere we be in that city, to preach there ; we also rose to go eastward ; we arrived at this strait and looked for a ship to take us across to the city of Azri anos; and behold , Thou hast deceived our heart, by telling us this is the city of Azrianos”.

 

And as they were talking together, they saw men coming from the city of Macedonia , to go to Azrianos, who were sent to Bartholomew , to fetch him to come to them in order to cast out a devil which had taken possession of the wife of the Judge of Macedonia ; and they looked upon our Lord , Who was on the opposite shore .

 

And Jesus said to these men : “Do ye know the name of this city, which we point at ?”

 

And they said unto him : “That city is Azrianos”.

And Jesus said to them : “For what purpose came ye to it ?”

Then they said to Him : “The judge of the city has sent us to Bartholomew. that he would come with us into Macedonia , to cast out a devil which has taken possession of the judge's wife.”

But Andrew marvelled, and said within himself : Are these men telling the truth ? And they that were sent came to the city, and remained there but a few days ; and they brought with them Bartholomew . Then , when they and Bartholomew came to the ship, and saw Jesus sitting in it, they thought of passing over in it to Macedonia .

 

So Bartholomew said to Him : “The peace of God be with Thee , O good Sir ; we pray Thee to take us over into Macedonia”

And He said to them : “We also wish to go to the city of Barthos ; but go ye to those men who are sitting under the tree ; who, may be, belong to the ship ; they will take you across.”

 

Then Bartholomew went, as God our Lord com manded him , to that tree , where he saw Andrew and the two disciples sitting. And when Andrew saw them , he saluted Bartholomew , and said to him : “Whence art thou come, and where is that city Azrianos ? “

Then Bartholomew said to him : “This is the city of Azrianos, which fell to my lot, to preach therein.” .

But Andrew wondered greatly, and said : “What praise, and what thanksgivings shall my tongue render unto the merciful Lord who has done me this great kindness, and who has brought me to this distant city in one night, and who brought me together with thee that I should go to the city of Barthos and Mekos, to preach therein the glad tidings of the holy Gospel. “

 

But while Andrew was talking with Bartholomew , the pilot of the ship came up to them ; and Andrew said to him : “O good man , knowest thou for certain that this is the city of Azrianos ? “

 

And the Captain of the ship said to him : “How many days is it since thou didst come from the country of Syria ?”

 

Then Andrew said to Him : As thou, Sir, livest, we are thy servants, and did we not dwell in that country ? and behold thou seest us come here today.  

 

And the Captain of the ship answered, and said to him : “0 man , whom servest thou and in whom believest thou ? For I see something very awful on thee.”

 

And Andrew said to Him : “We are servants of the great God , whose name is Jesus.”

 

Then the Saviour, who was the Captain of the ship , said to him : “Right ; then thy God is in truth the Lord . For what reason art thou come hither, and for what cause inquirest thou after that city ?”

 And Andrew answered Him , and said : “He whom I seek , behold I have found him before I looked for him , and ere I came to the city.”

 

Then our Lord answered : “Because of Him who delivered thee and brought thee to the city of Azrianos ; He will also bring thee to the city of Barthos and Mekos.”

 

And when the two Apostles heard these words, they were glad , and said unto Him : “We wish to go to the city of Barthos and Mekos.”

 

Then the Master of the ship answered , and said unto them : “Of a truth , a great grace has come down upon me, to be thought worthy that disciples of Christ should sail with me in my ship . And if your God bring me unto your cities, we shall be safe ; but if you have a desire to do aught in that city, hasten ye to do it. And I for my part will prepare my ship for you until ye return to me.”

 

Then answered Bartholomew , and said to Him : “We desire to start at once, and that Thou wilt take us over to Macedonia. For we have the desire to accomplish our first object, and to go to those cities.”

 

Then the Master of the ship said to them : “For what purpose go ye thither ?”

 

 Then answered the men who were sent from Macedonia , and said : “The wife of the judge of the city gathered around her the poorest and lowest of the city in order to give them alms ; and as she was giving them alms, an unclean spirit laid hold on her ; then she raved, and began to throw stones at all those that were in the house. Then the   seized her and put her into a safe place, and sent us to this city to Bartholomew , for him to come with us and cast the devil out of the judge's wife.”

 

Then the Master of the ship answered, and said to Andrew : “Whosoever shall forsake all that he has in this world and shall follow the Lord, and become His disciple , shall, like you , cast out devils “.

 

And Andrew said to Him : “Right ; for every man that shall forsake this world and all that he has in it, and shall take up his cross shall follow the Lord ; and he that follows Him and says to that mountain , Arise ! it will rise.”

Then the Master of the ship said : “I also forsake this world and all that is in it ; and I carry my cross, and I follow that good God. Now , could I also be able to cast out a devil out of the wife of the judge of Macedonia ?”

 

Then Andrew said to Him : “That would not be come thee ; but rather take me to the city of Barthos, then sell this ship and give the price thereof to the poor, to widows and orphans ; then come and be with us in every place to which we shall go, and do the same things that we shall do. Whereas at present thou canst do none of them , until the spirit of a disciple come down upon thee.”

 

Then the Master of the ship , who was Jesus Christ, answered , and said to them : “Since ye tell me that the spirit of Christ will yet come down upon me, arise ! let us ask in the name of Jesus, that His Spirit may grant His whole power to every one of us, and that the spirit of a disciple may come down on every one whose prayer is heard of God . For I see that the Grace of God comes down on such ; in asmuch as, every one who loves the name of Jesus, His Spirit is in him , to do all that he wishes to do”

 

Then both the disciples and Andrew arose and stood up, and spreading his hands he prayed and said : “I command thee, O thou sea which God created first of   all things, that thou now bear me and transport me and all them that are with me to such a place, and bring us over to Macedonia” .

 

Then at that moment the sea was filled with water, and came unto the place where the Apostles were, who went on board, and the ship brought them over to Macedonia .

 

Then the disciples, Bartholomew , the people that had come with them , and the Master of the ship , who was Jesus, said to Andrew : “Thou art a true servant of the good God . The messengers, also sent from Macedonia , bowed down to Andrew , saying : “There is no God but thy God.”

 

After this Bartholomew arose, and prayed thus, and said : “By Thy power, O my Lord and my God, send Thy good angel to the house of the Judge of Macedonia , that he may cast the devil out of his wife, and heal her before we come into the city.” So spake he ; and at that same moment Michael came down from heaven and entered the house of the judge, and took his wife and the men of his house, and brought them to the sea , where the Apostles were. Then , when Satan saw the man who was the Master of the ship, that is our Lord Jesus, he would cry aloud and make Him known to the people as Jesus. But Jesus rebuked him , and commanded him not to speak , but to come out of the woman .

 

Then answered Bartholomew , and said to Andrew : “My father, the woman is come who is possessed with the devil ; arise and heal her.”

 

Bartholomew also said to him : “Lay thy hand upon my head and bless me, and I also will do what thou hast commanded me.”

 

Then said Andrew : “Jesus, sweet Name, in which every blessing is centered, will bless us altogether.”

 

Then Bartholomew rose, and drew nigh to the woman, and said to the unclean spirit who dwelt in her : “I tell thee, O thou unclean spirit, in the name of God Almighty , whose Apostle I am , to come out of this woman , and   go into the deep, until God give judgment on thee and thy father Satan ; and come not again into her for ever.”

 

As Bartholomew said this Satan came out of her and went into the depths of hell . Then that woman worshipped the Apostles , and , with her, her husband and all the people of her house, saying : “ There is no God but Jesus, the son of the living God. ”

 

The Apostles also blessed her, and that woman , whose name was Lydia , said to them : “My lords ! if I have found grace with you , come with me into my city, and rest in the house of your servants.”

 

Then said Andrew : “If we abide in this city we will come to thy house.”

 

 And Lydia , the judge's wife, answered , and said unto him : “As the Lord liveth, ye who have done this deed in His name, and He who has done me this grace, and has delivered me through your hands-- I will not part from you until ye come into the city with me.”

 

Then she sent her servants before her to prepare her house ; and after that the man, who was Jesus, arose and said to Andrew and to Bartholomew : “Since your God is the Lord, the true God , besides whom there is no one else, I ask you to teach me, that I also may work wonders in the name of your God, and that I may be His disciple.”  The same man said again : “By Thy name, O Jesus, hear me, and Andrew and Bartholomew and their disciples, and bring us to the place to which they wish to come.”

 

Then at that very moment they all received brilliant rings; and arrived at the city of Barthos . Jesus also went before them , but they knew not it was Jesus; and they stood upon a large tower of the city, where the people gathered together ; and it was then the festival of their gods, and the multitude assembled ate and drank and were merry on the day of their festival. Then when the people , who were on the upper rows of the theatre, saw the Apostles they wondered very  much at Acalabius, the judge of the city, not coming, as the people were waiting for him .

 

But Andrew answered and said to the man , who was Jesus : “Tell me, O man , who thou art, and whom thou servest, and what is thy faith , [ for thee ] to have wrought wonders on this one.”

 

Then our Lord smiled , and said to Andrew : “Where fore are your hearts thus heavy ? Lift up your eyes, and know Me.”

 

And our Lord then appeared unto them in the form in which they knew Him formerly , and He said to them : “Be strong , O my holy Apostles , I will be with you , wherever you go ; I commanded the large fish to swallow you up unawares while ye were asleep ; I brought you over to the city of Azrianos ; and I am He that made you reach the city of Barthos. Have patience and be long-suffering, O my holy Apostles, for I have much people in this city , who, however, will not believe at once, but only through the signs and miracles that will be done by you. “

And , having said this, our Lord gave them His peace, and went up to heaven

 

Then , as the Apostles went to the upper part of the theatre, the whole people looked at them , and said : Who has sent up these messengers ? And others of the people said : “The gods of the city wish that these work a miracle “. But, though they were priests, they did not approve of their doing it, but they were angry , and would not let them go out of the city ; mean while they hastened to speak to the king concerning them .

 

But while the people were thus talking together, and looking at the Apostles, the judge Acalabius came on horse back , with all his guard, and sat upon his throne. Then the people cried unto him , but he was angry with them , thinking within himself, that as the people were crying in the temple there would be a tumult. And they said unto the judge : “Lift up thine eyes , and look at the gods which they wish to take out of the city . It behoves thee to inquire concerning this thing,   lest, indeed , the priests think less of their gods. If they are taken out of the city, our enemies will overcome us, and put us to death , and we shall find help nowhere.”

 

Then the judge commanded the priests to be brought ; and when they came he commanded them to bring the gods ; and at that moment the priests decked themselves in their best, took up the gods and brought them into the theatre, blowing the trumpet before them ; and placed them on their stands. But when they saw them they raised their voices and praised them ; and that day was their festival. And the Apostles seeing the multitude and all the people that were in the theatre , came down from thence, But when the people saw them they laid hold on them , and brought them to the judge. And when the judge saw them he inquired of them , and said unto them : “Whence are ye?”

 

Then answered Andrew , and said : “We are disciples of the Lord, whose name is Jesus.”

 

And the judge said : “What, of that band of twelve . men that go about all countries, and make separation between men and their wives ? Away with them from us ! lest they deceive us, and separate us from our wives and our children”.

 

And the judge said to the people : “Wait for me, and be not troubled until I advise you what to do.”

 

Then he turneed his face towards the Apostles and said to them : “Your God is mighty, and does what He will. I wish He would work signs and wonders among my men , until the truth of your words be proved” .

 

Then Andrew came to the place where the gods were, and commanded the people who knew him to keep silence ; and they did so . He then cried with a loud voice , saying : “0 ye gods, since this people's thoughts are turned towards you, answer them a word , if ye be gods, but if not, say, “ Weare no gods but only the work of men's hands, and men are deceived through us."

 

Then Andrew answered them in anger , saying thus : “By the power of Jesus Christ , the Son of the   living God, the King of kings, go ye up as far as the top of the theatre, until I bid you go down into hell.”

 

And at that moment the gods went up to the top of the theatre, the whole people looking at them . Then said Andrew to the people : “If they be gods they must be able to hear what their priests say to them , who bring them back and place them on their stands”.

 

But the people wondered greatly , beholding this marvel wrought by the Apostles. Then the judge said unto the priests : Call ye upon my gods to go back and to sit upon their thrones. Then the lying priests cried much unto their gods to come down from the top of the temple, [theatre ?] but they could not prevail with their gods. But Satan , who dwelt in their gods, spake through their mouths, saying : “O men of the city, if ye seize not these men , and burn their bodies with fire, we will go out of the city . Why do ye hearken unto their words ? They are wicked men , they deceive the world , and have driven us away from you ; the city is destroyed if ye hearken to what they say”.

 

Then when the people heard these words spoken by the devils they were very wroth, and took up stones and stoned the Apostles, and bound them with chains of iron , and sat them on a pile of wood to burn them in presence of their gods. But an angel of the Lord came down, who delivered them out of the hands of the people ; and who loosened them also from their chains.

 

Then the devils again spake a second time, and said : “It is not enough ye should bind them , but cast them into a furnace of fire and consume them” .

 

And the people did as the devils bade them . But an angel of the Lord came down, who delivered them from the flame of fire. Then the people kept on crying, being moved and in great fear. The Apostles, mean while , were brought out by the angel, who placed them in the midst of the people, which , however, did not see them . And they laughed at the devils and at the gods in which they dwelt.  

 

 Then the judge said to the people : “What shall I do unto these men ? Behold , three times have ye cast them into the fire and it devoured them not, nor even hurt them . And now , lose not sight of them , lest we find not what to do unto them according to our will.”

Then answered Andrew and said : “We stand in the midst of you, whether you over come us, or we overcome you by the power of our God “.

 

Then the judge said : “Let us pretend to put down the religion of our gods”.

 

Then the officers of the guard, and all the soldiers of the judge, took the Apostles and brought them into the assembly , and the whole people stoned them at once . But Andrew was angered in his spirit, and would have cursed the city, and all them that dwelt therein , to make them go down into hell, because of their little faith. Then the judge commanded the people to keep silence. And he said unto theApostles : “What is, then , this evil work of yours with which ye deceive men ? I will burn you, and I will cast your bodies unto the wild beasts to be devoured by them” .

 

Then Andrew answered, and said : “For what reason should you thus treat us?”

 

But the judge said unto him : “Because ye came to our city , and when our gods saw you they left it.”

 

Then Andrew answered , and said : “Your gods are not gods, as you think , but they are the work of men 's hands. There is no God but the Father, the Son , and the Holy Ghost, the living God.”

 

And when the people heard that saying they spake unto the judge, saying : “If thou put not these men to death , we will burn thee and all the men of thy house in the fire.”

 

Then , when the judge saw that the people and the great men of the city were moved, and continued to raise their voices , he said unto them : “What will ye that I do unto them ? — Cover them in a brazen caldron until their flesh be melted ; and we shall then throw   them into the sea”.

 

After that the judge commanded them to take the holy Apostles and to bind them upon a wheel ; and they brought a great saw to saw them asunder. But when they took hold of the saw their hands withered, and they cried , saying : “Woe to us ! for now utter helplessness has come upon us “

 

Then the judge asked the people : “What will ye that I do unto them ? I cannot prevail against them” .

Again , however, did the judge command that they should bring a wheel and put it upon the saints, and bind them with cords, and drag them along the streets of the city ; and after that cast them into the sea, bound upon the wheel. But when the messengers of the judge attempted to take the cords their flesh melted , and their hands were cut off from their arms, and fell upon the ground . Then there was great tribulation in that city.

 

And the judge again said to the people : “What will ye that I do to these men ? Lo, ye have seen what I have done to them , and that I cannot do them the least hurt.”

 

Then the assembly said unto him : “Arise, and we with thee, all of us together ; we will ask them to grant us our request, and to depart from the city” .

 

Then went the judge and all the people to the Apostles, and said to them : “Blessed brethren , consider what sum of money ye wish us to give you, that ye may leave our city, and our gods return to us ; but if ye hearken not to us our whole city will perish” .

 

But the Apostles answered and said to them : “We trouble not ourselves in the least about either gold or silver.”

 

The people then were very angry with the Apostles, and drove them out of the city, and stoned them with stones ; and they remained lying as if they were dead .

 

Then appeared unto them our Lord Jesus Christ, who said : “Arise , O my holy Apostles , endure patiently , and fear not. This day there has been great tumult   in the city because of you ; but go ye forth from it into the wilderness, and I will be with you and fear not. I will send unto you my Gatsa-kelebl of a terrible countenance ; take him with you to the city”.

 

Then, after commanding them , our Lord went up into heaven with great glory . Then Andrew and Bartholoniew went forth into the wilderness,? where there was neither house nor inhabitant ; and they sat there a little while and slumbered and fell asleep . But an angel of the Lord took up the Apostles and brought them to the city full of inhabitants, and laid them under a rock , and went away from them . But they, when they awoke from their sleep, were greatly amazed and gave praise unto God .

 

And while they were talking together, under the rock , be hold a man came from the city seeking something to eat for that day until the evening, but found nothing whatever. Then an angel of God appeared unto him , saying : “I say unto thee, O Gatsa-keleb , man with the face of a dog, behold, thou shalt find two men and with them two disciples under a rock ; but when thou comest to them do them no hurt , for they are servants of God ; lest their God be wroth against thee.”

 

And when that man, with the face of a dog heard this speech ,he trembled greatly, and said to the angel : “Who art thou ; for I know thee not, neither know I the good God ; but tell me of Him” .

 

Then the angel answered and said unto him : He is the God who in truth created heaven and earth ; who spreads darkness over thy head and over the earth also ; who treads under foot the dragon ; He created the sun , the moon , and the stars ; He also created the sea ,  rivers, and all that is in them ; He also created the beasts of the field , and the cattle, the plants and all creeping things : and Hehas the power to take away the breath from them all.”

 

Then the Gatsa -keleb man said to him : I should like to see a sign , in order to believe in all that I have heard of thee. Then at that moment fire came down from heaven and surrounded the Gatsa -keleb , without consuming him ; he only stood in the midst of the fire . And as he could not come out thence he cried with a loud voice, saying : “Have mercy on me , 0 thou God , whom I know not, and save me from this fire, and I will believe in Thee. “

 

And an angel answered him , saying : “If God deliver thee from this fire , wilt thou follow the Apostles wherever they go, and hearken to them in every thing they command thee ? “

 

Then answered Gatsa-keleb to the angel, and said : “My appearance is not like that of man ; so it is not like that of the Apostles, and I do not know their language, and if I go with them , where shall I find food ? If I find no food and no more to eat, I shall fall upon them and devour them . Behold , I have told thee my ways , lest I hurt them , and their God be angry with me.”

 

Then the angel answered him : “God will give thee the nature and habits of men , and will take from thee that of brutes.”

 Upon which the angel stretched forth his hands and drew forth the Gatsa - keleb out of the fire , and signed him with the sign of the Cross, and called upon him the name of the Father, of the Son , and of the Holy Ghost. Then at once did the nature of the beast come out of him , and he became as meek as a lamb .

 

And the angel said unto him : “Go to yonder rock , and thou shalt find four men sitting in the shade thereof, follow them ; but never do them any hurt, because God sends thee to work wonders in every place to which thou shalt come.” ·

 

Then that angel disappeared ' and the Gatsa -keleb arose, and went at once to the place where the Apostles were, very glad and rejoicing for the right faith he now had. But his appearance was most dreadful ; for he was four cubits high , his face was like that of a large dog , his eyes like fire, his teeth like those of a wild boar and of a lion . The nails of his toes were like crooked prun ing hooks, and the nails of his fingers like a lion 's claws ; his hair and beard came down to his arms like a lion 's mane, and altogether his appearance was terrible and frightful.

 

Then, when the Apostles awoke aggrieved because of the little faith of the men of that city , while they were talking about it together, came Gatsa-keleb , the man with a dog's face. But when Alexander, Andrew 's disciple, saw him coming to them , he became like a corpse with fright at his appearance. The Apostles themselves thought he was an unclean spirit which appeared unto them ; and, at the sight of him , they signed themselves in the name of God . Then when Andrew Saw Gatsa -keleb he feared greatly at his appearance, and he made a sign with his hand to Bartholomew . And when Bartholomew saw him they both fled together , and left their disciples, Rufus and Alexander,who were like corpses, with fright, when the monster came to them . But he took them by the hand, and said : “Fear not, O my brethren in the spirit”; so , when God had driven away fear from their hearts, and sent upon them the strength of the Holy Ghost, they were no longer afraid of his looks ; but he bowed before them , and asked them to call their fathers, that he might tell them what God had commanded him . So they went to look for Andrew and for Bartholomew ; and when they found them , they told them that God had sent to them that man with a dog's face. The Apostles then came to him , but could not look at him , so horrible  was his appearance .

He, however, worshipped them when he saw them , and said unto them : “Fear not, for your God has sent me to you ; that I may go with you to every place to which it may please you to go, and hearken unto you in whatever you may command me to do.”

 

 But the Apostles wondered at these words of the monster, and Andrew said to him : “Blessed be God , O my son ; I know that thou wilt be to us even as thou sayest ; but tell us thy name.”

 

Then the man with a dog's face said : “My name is   Vice .”

 

Then said Andrew to him : “Truly is thy name a hidden mystery, which is honourable and pleasant ; for , from this day forth , thy name shall be  “Christian. ”

 

And as he said this to him they arose and prayed, and de parted from that country ; the angel guiding them in the way.

 

 

 


The Man with the Dog’s Face
St,Christopher

 

Then , on the third day, they arrived at the city of Barthos, and sat down outside the city . But Satan had gone before them to the city ; and had disguised himself under the form of an honourable and rich man from among the great of the city . He then went to the judge of the city , and gathered unto him the elders of the city , and said to the judge : Behold , the men whom ye stoned are come outside the city, and wish to come in . But the moment the gods know it they will at once depart from our city. And the people will hear that they have left , and they will arise against us, and they will make us and our sons prisoners.

 

Then , when the judge heard this , he commanded that the gates of the city be shut, and that guards be set at every one of them . And when the Apostles prepared to come into the city , Gatsa -keleb said to them : Cover ye my face ere ye come into the city, lest the inhabitants see me and flee from me. And they covered his face. Then Andrew arose and prayed , saying : 0 Lord hear my prayer and my request ; he then drew near   the gates of the city, and said : “In the name of God, who breaks asunder the bars of iron , so be it that the gates of the city open at once.”

 

And as soon as these words of Andrew were uttered the gates of the city fell, and the Apostles went in , and Gatsa -keleb with them . Then the guardsmen at the gates hastened unto the judge, and told him all that had taken place. But when the people of the city heard this they were greatly moved , and they all hastened to fetch their weapons, their spears, and their shields, every man as he was able ; and they went out and sought after the Apostles among the people, and brought to them wild beasts with sharp teeth , seven lions with three cubs and a lioness, that had brought forth that day, and hoped they would devour the Apostles. Then the servants of the judge laid hold on Andrew to throw him to the lions.

 

But when Gatsa -keleb saw the lions he said to Andrew : “0 thou good servant of God, wilt thou command me to uncover my mouth and my face ?” Then Andrew said to him : “Do all that God has commanded thee. Then the monster prayed, and said : “I pray Thee, O God , who has brought me back from my gross nature to the knowledge of Thee, who hast given me power to preserve a better nature, and hast made me fit to follow Thy Apostles, I pray Thee that my former nature may return to me, that all the people may see me; and strengthen me with Thy power, until they know Thee to be the only God , and that beside Thee there is none else.”

 

 And at that moment his former nature returned, and he was very wroth against them , and was filled with anger in his heart. He showed his face, and looked on the people with great indignation , and rushed upon the whole people , and began to kill them ; he brake and tore them asunder , and devoured their flesh. And when the inhabitants of the city saw this they were   greatly afraid of him , and were moved and fled , and tried to get out of the city and to escape from the great affliction and anguish which had come upon them . And there died at that moment six hundred and three men of the great men of the city. But those who escaped sought a place to hide themselves, and went out of the city ; but God sent fire from heaven , from which not one of them could flee ; so that all the people of the city, the judge and the elders came back to the Apostles, in fear and trembling, weeping bitterly , and saying : “We know and we believe that there is no other God, either in heaven or in earth , than your God the Lord Jesus Christ. We beg of you to pray for us, and to deliver us from this death which surrounds us on all sides, and from this two-fold affliction , the fire and the monster with a dog's face” .

 

Then the Apostles prayed for them to the Lord Jesus Christ that He would cause the fire to go up from them, And Bartholomew said unto the judge : “Gather unto us the whole people of the city, both men and women , and [ command] them to bring me all the gods they have in their houses, that they may know that they are no gods, but the work of men 's hands, stones and not spirit.”

 

The judge then commanded them to gather together the people, and to bring all their gods. Then the Apostles arose and prayed , and trampled them under foot, saying : “O God, live for ever ! Thou who didst command the earth , and she opened her mouth and swallowed up Dathan , and buried the tents of Abiram and all their kindred Levites ; as in that day when the. earth opened her mouth and swallowed up those men , so be it now with these gods and send them down into hell.”

 

 And as the people looked up, it took place forth with . Then the Judge and all the people , men and women , lifted up their voices, and said : “There is one Lord God, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God , who is One, and   besides whom there is none else.”

 

And they requested the Apostles to teach them the doctrine of God . Then the Apostles said unto them : “Come, let us go together to the theatre, and there ye shall receive the perfect faith. Then both the judge and the people prayed the Apostles, saying : “0 sirs, pray for us, for we cannot go thither for fear of the man with a dog's face , lest he devour us.”

 

But they said unto them :”Fear not, but follow us, that ye may see a great wonder in this city.”

 

Then the people followed the Apostles to the theatre, and the Apostles drew near unto Gatsa -keleb , and laid their hands upon him in the name of our Lord , saying :”Let thy brutish nature depart from thee, and return thou to the nature of man ; it is enough , O my son ; behold thou hast fulfilled thy errand in creating fear among these people.”

 

And at that moment the human nature returned to him , and he became as meek as a lamb, and came and bowed down to the Apostles . Then the judge and the people also , when they saw this wonder, took in their hands branches of olive, did obeisance to the Apostles, and said unto them : “Let your blessing rest upon us and baptize us”.

 

And the Apostles answered : “In patience possess ye your souls. Behold the grace of God has come down upon you” .

 

But there was in the theatre a statue of Magnetos ; and, when the Apostles came to it , Andrew took it and trod it under foot on the earth ; then sweet water sprang up and flowed from the statue, and the Apostles stood in the midst of the water and baptized the people, in the name of the Father , and of the Son , and of the Holy Ghost.

 

And when they had baptized the people, Gatsa -keleb asked Andrew , and said unto him : “O good father ! let thy mercy come down on these people that have died that they may live, and be baptized like their brethren , and rejoice when they become acquainted   with the name of our God, that He is the Lord Al mighty , and that His grace is life to those that are dead” .

 

Then Andrew arose and prayed unto God ; and a voice from heaven called unto Gatsa - keleb , saying : “0 thou beloved Christian , who hast received the grace of raising the dead to life ; since these died from fear of thee let them come to life through thy hands.”

 

Then God at once commanded , and the spirit of life returned into them , and they arose forthwith, and were baptized with the rest of the inhabitants of the city.

 

The Apostles also wrought many other miracles there ; they opened the eyes of the blind, made the lame to run , the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak , and cast out devils, until no sickness remained in the country , because they healed all those that were sick , in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. After this they built a church , and they set over them bishops, presbyters, and deacons, and all the other ministers of the Church ; and they taught them the Holy Gospel, and all the rites and ceremonies of the Church ; they instituted the Holy Mysteries, and established for them a sacred service ; and they delivered to the people the Holy Sacrifices and Mysteries. Then there was a great joy in that city, because they were made meet for the Holy Mysteries of the Body of Christ and of His precious Blood ; and they were confirmed in the right faith , in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Then the Apostles departed from among them , blessing and praising God, to whom be glory and thanks giving ; to the Father , and to the Son , and to the Holy Ghost, the Giver of life , now and henceforth and for ever , world without end . Amen, and amen ; so be it , so be it. O my fathers, or my brethren , if I have added or retrenched aught, or come short in any thing, O my fathers forgive me ! for there is no man without fault.  May God have mercy in the Kingdom of heaven on him who wrote this book , and on him who caused it to be written  

)))))))))))))))))))))))))))

 


 

 

 

VII:  BARTHELOMEW IN INDIA

 

Historians declare that India is divided into three parts;

and the first is said to end at Ethiopia,
and the second at Media,
and the third completes the country;
and the one portion of it ends in the dark,
and the other in the ocean.

To this India, then, the holy Bartholomew the apostle of Christ went.

 

 

 

 

One of the tradition is that Barthelomew went to India.   Since every where indian visit is done by Barthalomew alone we can legitimately asssume that this was after the death of Saint Mariammne, the sister of Apostle Philip.  How did he go and when did he go is still unsure. There are a few indications that he did go to “India”.  Since Gondaphoras was the emperor of the Parthian Empire which extended far into the Northern provinces of India we can assume he went to Northern part of India just as Apostle Thomas did.   There is, surprisingly, a Semitic-Israel connection to David's royal household that exists in the royal Parthian ruling family. The Arsacid dynasty of rule were Jewish descendants of Phares and King David. Israelite tribe and clan names are found throughout the area they controlled. The capital city of the Parthian empire was named after Abraham's only son through Sarah - Isaac. (https://www.biblestudy.org/maps/parthian-israel-empire.html)  

 

A casual look at the indo-parthian kingdom of the period extent from Media to Afghanistan with its capital at Taxila in the Indus Vallley will tell us why India was not clearly defined as we have now.

 

As for the records that leads us to  the ministry of Barthelomew to India is few which essentially refers to the testimony of Pantaenus to India.  Other than that we have no direct reference.  One thing that is certain is that there were Christians in India who were at discord within themselves in some theological issues which made them request help from the School of Alexandria. He went in there to do whatever that was and found that they have Hebrew copy of the Gospel of Mathew.  That do indicate that the Christians included Jewish migrants to India.  I had elsewhere indicated that this dispute was around the question of Incarnation of Jesus.  This must have been the beginning of the split and formation of Hinduism as we know today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. 
Hippolytus of Rome (AD 170-235)

 

The earliest record is of Hippolytus of Rome  

He wrote that:

“Bartholomew, again, preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward, and was buried in Allanum, a town of the great Armenia. [Hippolytus. “On the Twelve Apostles of Christ.” Ante-Nicean Fathers, Vol. 5.] Hippolytus does not give us sources for this account, and likewise his authorship of said source is highly disputed. That is to say- we don’t even know if he actually wrote it. But if he did, it is also interesting to note that Hippolytus reports natural deaths for four of the twelve disciples [John, Matthew, Thaddeus, and Simon the Zealot, which would contradict Eusebius and others regarding other apostolic deaths.  Considering informations were limited in those days we have the accept it as they are.

 

2. Eusebius of Caesarea, [AD 263 – 339]

 

Eusebius of Caesarea  was the most significant of the early historians of the church. His Ecclesiastical History was a chronicle of Christianity from Jesus to Constantine’s success in taking over the Roman Empire. Eusebius himself played a role in the most significant event of Christianity in the fourth century. As the bishop of Caesarea, Eusebius was one of the leaders of the semi-Arian party. He wrote about the events of his own day in his Life of Constantine.

 

Eusebius says:

 ” Pantænus was one of these, and is said to have gone to India. It is reported that among persons there who knew of Christ, He found the Gospel, according to Matthew, which had anticipated his own arrival. For Bartholomew, one of the apostles, had preached to them, and left with them the writing of Matthew in the Hebrew language, which they had preserved till that time.” [Eusebius.  Church History. Book V. Chapter 10.]

 

Pantaenus was specialized in the philosophies of the Pagan Religions. As a result the Indian Churches of central India asked specifically for his presence in India when the Gnostic influence became critical. A deputation from India reached Alexandria some time in 179 or 189 AD..  This was the time of development of Gnosticism all over the world including India within the Thomas Churches. According to Saint Jerome, In order to face the Gnostic growth Indian churches requested the School of Alexandria in Egypt to send him specifically to India to face this issue.  Pantaenus reached “India Felix” in 189 AD.  We have other details on what he did to combat the heresies.

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 https://tentmaker.org/biographies/pantaenus.htm

Pantaenus: First Head of the Didascalia

"When I came upon the last (teacher), he was the first in power, having pursued him out concealed in Egypt, I found rest. He, the true, the Sicilian bee gathering the spoil of the flowers of the prophetic and apostolic meadow, engendered in the souls of hearers a deathless element of knowledge."—Clement of Alexandria, concerning Pantaenus

Pantaenus is the earliest teacher whose name has been preserved from the Catechetical School in Alexandria. He was converted Stoic philosopher who may have been a Hebrew originally from Palestine.

 

According to Eusebius, he went on a missionary journey to India in A.D. 189. While there he found the seeds of the Christian faith that had been sown by previous missionaries. He brought home with him a Gospel of Matthew written in Hebrew, that had evidently been carried to India by Bartholomew.

 

Besides being a great teacher, he is credited as one of those who adopted the Greek alphabet in the Coptic script. He must have been a magnetic personality and teacher, as testified by Clement of Alexandria, the student who succeeded him as head of the school.

Though no written indications of his own work or thought have been preserved, he made an unmistakable impact upon the development of church theology. The Universalism of Clement, Origen and their successors must have been taught by their predecessor, Pantaenus.

Pantaenus was martyred A.D. 216.

--Mercy Aiken

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http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/info/pantaenus-wace.html

 

Pantaenus

Pantaenus, chief of the catechetical school of Alexandria, in the latter part of the 2nd cent. and perhaps the early years of the 3rd. Of his previous life little is known with certainty. We are not informed whether he was originally a Christian or became one by conversion. Our authorities agree, however, that he was trained in the Greek philosophy, and owed to this training much of his eminence as a teacher. Origen, in a passage preserved by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 19), names him as an example--the earliest, apparently, that he can adduce--of a Christian doctor who availed himself of his heathen learning.

 

Eusebius tells us (ib. v. 10) that in his zeal for the faith he undertook the work of an evangelist in the East, and penetrated as far as India; where he found that St. Bartholomew had already preached the Word and had left there a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in Hebrew characters, which was still treasured by the Christians there. Jerome (de Vir. Ill. 36) adds (but probably without authority) that Pantaenus brought this to Alexandria.

 

 He also represents that the people of India had heard his fame as a teacher and sent a deputation to solicit this mission. This is by no means incredible, considering the celebrity of Alexandria as a seat of learning.

 

 ..... Pantaenus was head of the school both before and after his sojourn in India, ....   and the illustrious Origen himself were almost certainly pupil of Pantaenus.

<<===============================

“Citerior India”
 Varying Traditions: Armenia or India?

A Christian tradition known as the “Palestinian tradition” gives a mention of St. Bartholomew’s ministry in India. According to this tradition conveyed by 4th century church historian Rufinus of Aquileia, after the resurrection of Christ, the 12 apostles made a division of the known world among themselves by drawing lots, before they dispersed to preach the Gospel of their master. Parthia fell to St. Thomas, Ethiopia fell to St. Matthew, and the “Citerior India” (Western India) fell to St. Bartholomew.

 

But In Lives of the Saints, 18th-century hagiographer Alban Butler says ”popular traditions concerning St Bartholomew are summed up in the Roman Martyrology, which says he "preached the gospel of Christ in India; thence he went into Greater Armenia, and when he had converted many people there to the faith he was flayed alive by the barbarians, and by command of King Astyages fulfilled his martyrdom".

 

Kalyan - India Felix :
The Field of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle's Mission

The recent studies of Perumalil and Moraes hold that the Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which have been known after the ancient town Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle’s missionary activities and his martyrdom.

 

The recent studies of Perumalil and Moraes hold that the Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which have been known after the ancient town Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle’s missionary activities and his martyrdom.

The town of Kalyan, was an ancient port and it is supposed to be the Kalliana, the traveler Cosmas Indicopleuustes visited in the 6th century as he reports in his “Christian Typography”.

 

According to Pseudo- Sophronius ( 7th century) Saint Bartholomew preached to the “ Indians who are called Happy” and according to the greek tradition the Apostle went to” India Felix”. The word Kalyan means “felix” or “happy” and it is argued that the Kalyna region came to be known to the foreign writers “ India Felix” and its inhabitants, Indians “called the happy”

 

Perumalil interprets the “ India Citerior” of Hieronymian Martyrology as Western India, and the “India” of the Passio Bartholmei as the Maratha Country.

There are no local tradition about the mission of Pantaenus or the Apostolate of Bartholomew the Apostle in India. According to Moraes this is due to the fact that the history of Christians of Bartholomew got intermingled with that of the Thomas Christians ( the Syriac tradition is that, Saint Bartholomew preached in Armenia). According to Perumalil, Bartholomew Christians continued as a separate community till the coming of the Portuguese and got merged with the Christians of Bombay.5

 

No mention of St. Bartholomew occurs in ecclesiastical literature before Eusebius, who mentions that Pantaenus, the master of Origen, while evangelizing India, was told that the Apostle had preached there before him and had given to his converts the Gospel of St. Matthew written in Hebrew, which was still treasured by the Church. "India" was a name covering a very wide area, including even Arabia Felix.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The town of Kalyan, was an ancient port (Barygaza)and it is supposed to be the Kalliana, the traveler Cosmas Indicopleustes visited in the 6th century as he reports in his “Christian Typography”.

 

3.  Pseudo-Sophronius (7th century)  was an anonymous Greek Orthodox chronicler who recorded an apocryphal account of Bartholomew the Apostle's travels to and preaching in Armenia and India. According to Pseudo-Sophronius Saint Bartholomew preached to the “Indians who are called Happy” and according to the Greek tradition the Apostle went to ”India Felix”.


The word Kalyan means “felix” or “happy” and it is argued that the Kalyna region came to be known to the foreign writers “India Felix” and its inhabitants, the Indians, “called the happy”.

(Origin of Christianity in India: A Historiographical Critique by Benedict Vadakkekara)

 


St. Jerome with his Martyrologium Hieronymianum

The  Martyrologium Hieronymianum or Martyrologium sancti Hieronymi  - "martyrology of Jerome" - is an ancient martyrology or list of Christian martyrs in calendar order.  

Saint Jerome would have that Demetric, Bishop of Alexandria, sent Pantaenus to India, at the request of legates of that nation. In India Pantaenus “ found that Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles, had preached the advent of Lord Jesus according to the Gospel of Matthew, and on his return to Alexandria he brought this with him written in Hebrew characters..”

 

 Both Eusebius and Saint Jerome has reported that Pantaenus found Gospel of Mathew reported to have left there in India by Saint Bartholomew. Some writers has suggested that having difficulty with the language of Saint Thomas Christians, Pantaenus misinterpreted their reference to Mar Thoma ( St. Thomas) as Bar Tolmai ( the Hebrew name of Bartholomew). Some others say Eusebius and Saint Jerome confused India with Arabia or Persia as was done by some other classical writers.

 

Clement and Origen, who wrote about India knew more of that land than passing myths and in no way confused it with Arabia or Persia. They may have heard this from Pantaenus himself. They speak of “Indian Brahmans” and “gymnosophists” and Clement writes discerningly of the difference between “Sarmanane” and “Brahmans” describing the former in terms that suggest the “hermits” or “holy men of India”.

Sure enough they were aware of the primacy of the Apostleship of Thomas.  Evidently the impact of Barthelomew was not that high as that of Thomas.  But that is not surprising since the ministry of Thomas lasted probably from AD 40 to 72 and covered all over India.  But again it survived only in the Malabar Coast because of their connection with Churches all over the world.

 

Early in the 3rd century, Hippolytus, the bishop of Portus assigns the conversion of India to St. Bartholomew. To St. Thomas, he ascribes Parthia and the countries of Central Asia, although he mentions Calamina, a city of India, as the place were St. Thomas was martyred.

The 4th century Archbishop of Milan, St. Ambrose wrote: “And when the hearts of the people of his neighbours sufficed not to him to receive his seed, he (St. Bartholomew) through-pierced like in fleeing into the last countries of the lands of India, and entered into the temple where there was great company of sick people without number.”

 

The 8th century Byzantine Greek monk Theodore the Studite asserts: “The blessed apostle Bartholomew preached first in Licaonia, and after in India, and at the last in Alban, a city of great Armenia, and there he was first flayed and afterward his head smitten off, and there he was buried.”

The Anglo Saxon Chronicle of 883 AD reports about St. Bartholomew’s association with India: “And in the same year, Sighelm and Aethalstan conveyed to Rome the alms which the King Alfred the Great had vowed to send thither, and also to India to the Christians of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew.”

 

  .

Opinion of Authors about Saint Bartholomew the Apostle mission in India

Previously the consensus among scholars was against the apostolate of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle in India. Majority of the scholars are skeptical about the mission of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle in India . Stililingus ( 1703), Neande ( 1853), Hunter ( 1886), Rae ( 1892), Zaleski ( 1915) are the authors who supported the Apostolate of Saint Bartholomew in India. Scholars such as Sollerius ( 1669), Carpentier ( 1822), Harnack ( 1903), Medlycott ( 1905), Mingana ( 1926), Thurston ( 1933), Attwater ( 1935) etc does not support this hypothesis.

 

The main argument is that the India, Eusebius and Jerome refers here should be Ethiopia or Arabia Felix.

 

Even if it is the names of the Kings, the temple gods named, the punishments imposed etc as described in the legent could not take place in India. Again we are taking the whole story based on one single statement of Pantaneus with no supporting events of traditions in India.  The possibility that Pantanaeus mistook BarTholmoi with MasThoma is a possibility that cannot be diminished.  There is nothing to point to any extent of the mission of Bartholmew which are not possible within the ministry of Thomas from AD 40 to 72.

 

Below are the possible explanations in favor of Bathelomew mission.

Kalyanpur-Barkur Claims

https://konkanicatholics.blogspot.com/2006/08/st-bartholomews-india-connection.html

https://torahofyeshuah.blogspot.com/2015/10/the-martyrdom-of-bartholomew.html

 

Kalyanpur (Indian English or 'Calianpur' in British India English) is a village situated in the Tulunad region, presently a part of the state of Karnataka coming under Mangalore Diocese. Measuring along the present roads, the town of Barkur is less than 10kms away, with both Barkur and Kalyanpur falling within a radius of 5kms from Brahmavar, another Town which either of these places may be twinned with.

Research Historian Mascarenhas (M.A.,Ph.D.,D.D., Goa) in 'Konkanachem Christaunponn'-1929 - [Apostolic Christianity in Konkan] seems to say that Barkur owes its name to the Apostle:

"In Tulunadu, in South Kanara, there is Kallianpur. Here Bartholomew, then popularly known as Bhethal, preached the Gospel... There are many names and places, words and usages in the coastal Konkan region going up to Bombay and beyond which have originated from his name Bhethal and his preaching and that Barkur which is close to Kallianpur sprung after his name Bartholomew i.e. Bar+Thulami+Ooru and so BARKURU"

Wikipedia connects the Bartholomew legends associated with Kalyan in Maharashtra and Kalyanpur in Mangalore another ancient Indian Christian tradition that says that "the Apostle Bartholomeo (or Nathaniel) was reportedly murdered by Hindus in a port city called Kalyan or Kalyanpur in South Asia, just as the Apostle Thomas was murdered by Hindus near Mylapore, near modern Madras or Chennai."
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Barkur, the ancient capital of the Tulu Kingdom

was an ancient city, and was the ancient capital of the Tulu kingdom. It was known as Barakanur, and was once a major trade and commercial centre around 2nd century CE. Barkur was a capital of the Alupa Kings and also a provincial headquarters during the Vijayanagara period. It was a capital city in those times, which was developed much before Mangalore and Udupi. All that remain now of that historical city are just some ruins scattered all around Barkur.

(https://www.trayaan.com/2013/01/ruins-of-barkur.html#.XwThR0VKhkg)

 

Barkur is a cluster of three villages, Hosala, Hanehalli, and Kachoor, in the Brahmavara taluk,                     in the  Udupi district of Karnataka state in India. The place is located on the bank of River Seetha. It is also called as 'temple town'.

Barkur is located 16 km from Udupi, another ancient city, and 3 km from Brahmavara, a taluk of Udupi. The Seetha River flows through Barkur and joins the Arabian Sea.[2]

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In other words, "Both, the city of Kalyan (British India English "Calian") and the village of Kalyanpur, were at one time port cities, and both vie for the honor of being St. Bartholomeo's place of martyrdom."

Barkur, allegedly derived from the Apostle's name, is a politically famous historic port-town, located 3 kms from Brahmavar and had one (Rosario Church) of the 27 (29) original churches of Tulunadu, which was razed to the ground by Tipu Sultan in the 1780s when he set out to eradicate Christianity. The town also had one of Tipu's palaces.

In their work, "The land called South Kanara" (2000, Image flex Publishers), William Pais and Vincent Mendonca add more background to the Kalyanpur-Barkur claims:

"Christianity has been long established in South Kanara and its adherents are more numerous here, than any other district of India. It is certain that, foreign Christian merchants were visiting the coastal town of Kanara and during that period of commerce some priests also might have accompanied them for evangelical work. According to tradition Kanara had its first missionary the Apostle St. Barthelomew, who landed on the shores of river Swarna at Colombianor Colombo village an ancient maritime port adjacent to Kallianpur, stayed there to preach. He was popularly called Bethel and so the origin of the place Barkur..."

The 1981 Milagrian Charles E.G.Lewis has this to say:

"It can be said that it was the knowledge of that early Christianity in Kallianpur that prompted and urged the Portuguese Hierarchy to establish again the Church in Kallianpur when it did in 1678, or they must have found clues or traces of it when they arrived here. The Church at Kallianpur which was rebuilt in 1806, by the Goan priests and which later was demolished in 1940, had icons of St. Thomas the Apostle and that of St. Bartholomew on its façade on either side of the main entrance evidently because of the tradition of St. Bartholomew in the place's. Msgr. Denis Jeromme D'Souza who built the present Church saw to it that the tradition was carried forward. In the main body of the Church where the twelve Apostles of Christ are honoured with their statues all round the walls that of St. Bartholomew is prominently placed at the head of the apostles, nearest to the sanctuary. Opposite to him is St. Paul the apostle of Gentiles and by his side is placed St.Thomas the Apostle of India. These realities speak volumes of un-written tradition"

 None of these claims are well founded and stands on flimsy ground.     

 

 

www.reddit.com/r/trippinthroughtime/comments/bx7...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Armenia
konkanicatholics.blogspot.com/2006/08/st...

 

According to one tradition, the Apostle Bartholomew (Barthemew) came to India in AD 55 and preached the Gospel in the area near Kalyan (now covered by Bombay Archdiocese) and was martyred in AD 62.

 

By that time Apostle Thomas was already there having came into Northern India by around 40 AD and left the area of Parthian Empire as the Parthian areas were taken over by Gupta Empire in 51 AD.  He then proced to Malabar, South India landing there in AD 52 and was martyred in AD 72 in Myalapore, Chennai.

 

It is most likely that he took the sea route to Kalyan rather than the silk route which was dangerous and took longer.  The sea route took less than a month from the port nearest to his Armenian tour to Kalyan in Bombay.  Since he is not the Apostle to the Parthians, this may be the probability.

 

. 85 B.C. – Sakas cross Chinese Turkestan and the Pamirs and, under Maues, occupy Taxila
 • 78 B.C. – Last Seleucid King Philip is defeated by Tigranes of Armenia
  • 62 B.C. – Roman conquest of Syria; province of Asia is created. Only Palmyra retains its independence and role as great caravan center; some of the earliest surviving Chinese silks have been found in its ruins
  • 53 B.C. – Parthians defeat Romans at Battle of Carrhae (Harran), Triumvir Crassus killed; 34,000 legionnaires captured or killed, 10,000 led in captivity to Margiana
  • 36 B.C. – Marc Antony defeated by Parthians
 • 31 B.C. – Octavian's forces defeat armies under Marc Antony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium
 • 26-20 B.C. – Embassies from southern India or Sri Lanka to Emperor Augustus
 
A.D.  

  • Buddhism begins to spread from India into Central Asia
 • c. A.D. 5-10 – Last Indo-Greek king, Strato II, lost the territory between Chenab and Sutlej rivers
 • A.D. 6 – Judaea becomes a Roman province
    • Death of Jesus Christ. Spread of Christianity begins
 • A.D. 39 – Herod Antipas exiled to Gaul on charges of secret alliance with the Parthians

.• A.D. 40 -  Apostle Thomas enters North India and his first Tour
 • A.D. 47 – Parthian (Parthava) ruler Gondophares displaces northern Sakas in Gandhara
  • c. A.D. 50 – Establishment of direct sea trade between Rome and India, bypassing overland route middlemen.

• A.D. 51 Gupta Empire expands into Parthian Indian areas.

• A.D. 52 – Legendary date of arrival of St. Thomas in South India
 • A.D. 58-63 – Roman campaigns against Armenia
 • A.D. 66 – The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia formally established when King Tiridates of Armenia, Parthian nominee to that throne, visits Nero in Rome
 • A.D. 66 – Judaea rises in revolt against the Romans

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Armenia
konkanicatholics.blogspot.com/2006/08/st...

 

https://medium.com/@juliannoel/proofs-that-two-of-jesus-christs-apostles-st-thomas-and-st-bartholomew-visited-india-749255c0be8

St. Bartholomew (also known as Nathaniel) was one of the other disciples who traveled to India. In 55 AD, St. Bartholomew came to India after long apostolic journeys in Asia Minor and Armenia (23 years after the resurrection of Jesus Christ and 3 years after St. Thomas arrived in Kerala).

 

He arrived in the Konkan during the reign of King Aristakarman of the Satavahana dynasty (37–62 AD) and Pulumayi, his brother as Viceroy of Kalyan.

 

St. Bartholomew landed on Kallianpur in coastal Karnataka, which was an international port and had an ancient Jewish settlement. He then traversed across the length and breadth of the Konkan coast over the course of seven years; preaching and establishing Christian communities in coastal Karnataka, present-day Goa and the coastal parts of Maharashtra (including Sindhudurg, Ratnagiri, Raigad, Mumbai, Kalyan, and Thane). There were Jewish settlements in all these areas of Konkan. The Bene Israel are one such remnant from them, but there are other Jewish communities which lapsed into Hinduism and became forever lost that we don’t know about.

St. Bartholomew converted many Hindus to Christianity and built churches there. He eventually ended up in Kalyan on 62 AD, where he took up his quarters at the temple of Astarudra, which was the abode of the idol

 

 

The Giant Cross found in Gilgit-Baltistan in 2020

 

 

VIII:  THE LEGEND OF THE MARTYRDOM
OF
BARTHELOMEW

 

The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers down to AD 325 ...,

Volume 8
The Armenian Version

Historians declare that India is divided into three parts; and the first is said to end at Ethiopia,
and the second at Media,  and the third completes the country; and the one portion of it ends in the dark, and the other in the ocean. To this India, then, the holy Bartholomew the apostle of Christ went, took up his quarters in the temple of Astaruth, and lived there as one of the pilgrims and the poor.

 

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By presenting the whole story with these statement the Catholic Encyclopedia assumes that it took place anywhere within the wide threeparts of the wider India.

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Astaruth bound

In this temple, then, there was an idol called Astaruth,

 

 

 

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Astaroth

 

Astaroth (also Ashtaroth, Astarot and Asteroth), in demonology, is the Great Duke of Hell in the first hierarchy with Beelzebub and Lucifer; he is part of the evil trinity. He is a male figure most likely named after the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar.

https://mythology.net/demons/astaroth/
The features of Astaroth is described in the text as:

(Astaroth is )
like an Ethiopian, black as soot;
his face sharp like a dog's,
thin-cheeked, with hair down to his feet,
eyes like fire, sparks coming out of his mouth;
and out of his nostrils came forth smoke like sulphur,
with wings spined like a porcupine;
and his hands were bound with fiery chains.”..

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which was supposed to heal the infirm, but rather the more injured all. And the people were in entire ignorance of the true God; and from want of knowledge, but rather from the difficulty of going to any other, they all fled for refuge to the false god. And he brought upon them troubles, infirmities, damage, violence, and much affliction; and when any one sacrificed to him, the demon, retiring, appeared to give a cure to the person in trouble; and the foolish people, seeing this, believed in him. But the demons retired, not because they wished to cure men, but that they might the more assail them, and rather have them altogether in their power; and thinking that they were cured bodily, those that sacrificed to them were the more diseased in soul.

 

And it came to pass, that while the holy apostle of Christ, Bartholomew, stayed there, Astaruth gave no response, and was not able for curing. And when the temple was full of sick persons, who sacrificed to him daily, Astaruth could give no response; and sick persons who had come from far countries were lying there. When, therefore, in that temple not even one of the idols was able to give a response, and was of benefit neither to those that sacrificed to them nor to those who were in the agonies of death on their account, they were compelled to go to another city, where there was a temple of idols, where their great and most eminent god was called Becher. And having there sacrificed, they demanded, asking why their god Astaruth had not responded to them.

 

Demon Becher explains

 And the demon Becher answered and said to them: From the day and hour that the true God, who dwells in the heavens, sent his apostle Bartholomew into the regions here, your god Astaruth is held fast by chains of fire, and can no longer either speak or breathe.

 

They said to him: And who is this Bartholomew?

 

He answered: He is the friend of the Almighty God, and has just come into these parts, that he may take away all the worship of the idols in the name of his God.

 

And the servants of the Greeks said to him: Tell us what he is like, that we may be able to find him.

 

The description of Bartholomew

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Nathanael Barthelomew

 

“He has black hair, a shaggy head, a fair skin, large eyes, beautiful nostrils,
his ears hidden by the hair of his head,
with a yellow beard, a few grey hairs,
of middle height, and neither tall nor stunted, but middling…
His voice is like the sonnet of a strong trumpet;
there go along with him angels of God,
who allow him neither to be weary, nor to hunger, nor to thirst;
his face, and his soul, and his heart are always glad and rejoicing;
he foresees everything,
he knows and speaks every tongue of every nation.”

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

 

 

And the demon answered and said: He has black hair, a shaggy head, a fair skin, large eyes, beautiful nostrils, his ears hidden by the hair of his head, with a yellow beard, a few grey hairs, of middle height, and neither tall nor stunted, but middling, clothed with a white undercloak bordered with purple, and upon his shoulders a very white cloak; and his clothes have been worn twenty-six years, but neither are they dirty, nor have they grown old. Seven times a day he bends the knee to the Lord, and seven times a night does he pray to God. His voice is like the sound of a strong trumpet; there go along with him angels of God, who allow him neither to be weary, nor to hunger, nor to thirst; his face, and his soul, and his heart are always glad and rejoicing; he foresees everything, he knows and speaks every tongue of every nation.

 

And behold now, as soon as you ask me, and I answer you about him, behold, he knows; for the angels of the Lord tell him; and if you wish to seek him, if he is willing he will appear to you; but if he shall not be willing, you will not be able to find him. I entreat you, therefore, if you shall find him, entreat him not to come here, lest his angels do to me as they have done to my brother Astaruth.

 

And when the demon had said this, he held his peace.

 

And they returned, and set to work to look into every face of the pilgrims and poor men, and for two days they could find him nowhere.

 

And it came to pass, that one who was a demoniac set to work to cry out: Apostle of the Lord, Bartholomew, your prayers are burning me up. Then said the apostle to him: Hold your peace, and come out of him. And that very hour, the man who had suffered from the demon for many years was set free.

 

Healing of the daughter of Polymius

 

And Polymius, the king of that country, happened to be standing opposite the apostle; and he had a daughter a demoniac, that is to say, a lunatic.

 

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One of the problems of placing this story in historical context is that we dont have a King of Armenia by the name of Polymius or anything near that sound nor  a brother of the King  whose name is Astreges who took over from him.  Here is the list:

 

Roman and Parthian non-dynastic candidates

 Artaxias III 18–35 (Roman protectorate)

Arsaces I of Armenia (son of Artabanus III) 35 (Parthian protectorate)

Orodes of Armenia (pretender, son of Artabanus III) 35

Mithridates 35–37 (Roman protectorate)

Orodes (now king) 37–42 (Parthian protectorate)

Mithridates (second time) 42–51 (Roman protectorate)

Rhadamistus (son of Pharasmanes I of Iberia) 51–53 (Roman protectorate)

Tiridates I (son of Vonones II of Parthia) 53 (Roman protectorate)

Rhadamistus (second time) 53–54 (Roman protectorate)

 

Arshakuni (Arsacid) Kings of Armenia

·  Tiridates I (second time) 52–58

·  Tigranes VI 59–62 (Roman protectorate)

·  Tiridates I 62–88 (Parthian protectorate 62–63; from 63 Armenia again becomes a Roman protectorate)

 

Based on this recent indian scholars suggest that it might have really occured in India.  In that case Barthalomew passed over from the Armenian area into the Greater India finally reaching India Proper near todays Bombay area.

 

There is still the usual struggle with the names.  There is also no King that sound like Polymius but there was a governor of a region whose name was close to it.  But this gives more problem with the identification of the pagan gods and the temple associated with them.  Again the method punishment crucifixion and live skinning of humans were unknown in India while it was common in the Roman and adjacent kingdoms. Beheading was common in India. It is said that Barthelomew was beheaded and his body was thrown into the sea - a common practice in India at that time.

 King Aristakarman of the Satavahana dynasty rules over the area in 37–62 AD  and Pulumayi, his brother as Viceroy of Kalyan. This is the area where the Gospel of Mathew in Aramaic was shown to Pantanaeus of Alexandria when he was on deputation to India.

 

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And he heard about the demoniac that had been healed, and sent messengers to the apostle, saying: My daughter is grievously torn; I implore you, therefore, as you have delivered him who suffered for many years, so also to order my daughter to be set free.

 

And the apostle rose up, and went with them. And he sees the king's daughter bound with chains, for she used to tear in pieces all her limbs; and if any one came near her, she used to bite, and no one dared to come near her.

 

The servants say to him: And who is it that dares to touch her?

 

The apostle answered them: Loose her, and let her go.

 

They say to him again: We have her in our power when she is bound with all our force, and do you bid us loose her?

 

The apostle says to them: Behold, I keep her enemy bound, and are you even now afraid of her? Go and loose her; and when she has partaken of food, let her rest, and early tomorrow bring her to me.

 

 And they went and did as the apostle had commanded them; and thereafter the demon was not able to come near her.

 

Then the king loaded camels with gold and silver, precious stones, pearls, and clothing, and sought to see the apostle; and having made many efforts, and not found him, he brought everything back to his palace.

 

And it happened, when the night had passed, and the following day was dawning, the sun having risen, the apostle appeared alone with the king in his bed-chamber, and said to him: Why did you seek me yesterday the whole day with gold and silver, and precious stones, pearls, and raiment? For these gifts those persons long for who seek earthly things; but I seek nothing earthly, nothing carnal.

 

Barthelomew’s explanation

Of

The Gospel

Wherefore I wish to teach you that the Son of God deigned to be born as a man out of a virgin's womb.

 

Barthelomew teaches about the Son of God

- Virgin birth and incarnation- -Son of God became son of Man

He was conceived in the womb of the virgin; He took to Himself her who was always a virgin, having within herself Him who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that therein is. He, born of a virgin, like mankind, took to Himself a beginning in time, He who has a beginning neither of times nor days; but He Himself made every beginning, and everything created, whether in things visible or invisible. And as this virgin did not know man, so she, preserving her virginity, vowed a vow to the Lord God. And she was the first who did so. For, from the time that man existed from the beginning of the world, no woman made a vow of this mode of life; but she, as she was the first among women who loved this in her heart, said, I offer to You, O Lord, my virginity. And, as I have said to you, none of mankind dared to speak this word; but she being called for the salvation of many, observed this — that she might remain a virgin through the love of God, pure and undefiled.

 

And suddenly, when she was shut up in her chamber, the archangel Gabriel appeared, gleaming like the sun; and when she was terrified at the sight, the angel said to her, Fear not, Mary; for you have found favour in the sight of the Lord, and you shall conceive.

 

And she cast off fear, and stood up, and said, How shall this be to me, since I know not man?

 

The angel answered her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon you, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow you; wherefore also that holy thing which is born of you shall be called Son of God.

 

Thus, therefore, when the angel had departed from her, she escaped the temptation of the devil, who deceived the first man when at rest. For, having tasted of the tree of disobedience, when the woman said to him, Eat, he ate; and thus the first man was cast out of paradise, and banished to this life. From him have been born the whole human race.

 

 

 Baptisn, Fasting,Temptations

Then the Son of God having been born of the virgin, and having become perfect man, and having been baptized, and after His baptism having fasted forty days, the tempter came and said to Him:

 

If you are the Son of God, tell these stones to become loaves.

 

And He answered: Not on bread alone shall man live, but by every word of God. Luke 4:1-13 

 

Thus therefore the devil, who through eating had conquered the first man, was conquered through the fasting of the second man; and as he through want of self-restraint had conquered the first man, the son of the virgin earth, so we shall conquer through the fasting of the second Adam, the Son of the Virgin Mary.

 

The king says to him: And how is it that you said just now that she was the first virgin of whom was born God and man?

 

 And the apostle answered: I give thanks to the Lord that you hear me gladly. The first man, then, was called Adam; he was formed out of the earth. And the earth, his mother out of which he was, was virgin, because it had neither been polluted by the blood of man nor opened for the burial of any one. The earth, then, was like the virgin, in order that he who conquered the son of the virgin earth might be conquered by the Son of the Virgin Mary. And, behold, he did conquer; for his wicked craft, through the eating of the tree by which man, being deceived, came forth from paradise, kept paradise shut. Thereafter this Son of the virgin conquered all the craft of the devil. And his craft was such, that when he saw the Son of the virgin fasting forty days, he knew in truth that He was the true God. The true God and man, therefore, has not given Himself out to be known, except to those who are pure in heart, Matthew 5:8 and who serve Him by good works

 

The devil himself, therefore, when he saw that after the forty days He was again hungry, was deceived into thinking that He was not God, and said to Him, Why have you been hungry? Tell these stones to become loaves, and eat.

 

And the Lord answered him, Listen, devil; although you may lord it over man, because he has not kept the commandment of God. I have fulfilled the righteousness of God in having fasted, and shall destroy your power, so that you shall no longer lord it over man.

 

And when he saw himself conquered, he again takes Jesus to an exceeding high mountain, and shows Him all the kingdoms of the world, and says, All these will I give you, if you will fall down and worship me.

 

The Lord says to him, Get behind me, Satan; for it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve.

 

 And there was a third temptation for the Lord; for he takes Him up to the pinnacle of the temple, and says, If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down.

 

The Lord says to him, You shall not tempt the Lord your God. And the devil disappeared. And he indeed that once conquered Adam, the son of the virgin earth, was thrice conquered by Christ, the Son of the Virgin Mary.

 

And when the Lord had conquered the tyrant, He sent His apostles into all the world, that He might redeem His people from the deception of the devil; and one of these I am, an apostle of Christ. On this account we seek not after gold and silver, but rather despise them, because we labour to be rich in that place where the kingdom of Him alone endures for ever, where neither trouble, nor grief, nor groaning, nor death, has place; where there is eternal blessedness, and ineffable joy, and everlasting exultation, and perpetual repose.

 

Confession of the Demon

Wherefore also the demon sitting in your temple, who makes responses to you, is kept in chains through the angel of the Lord who has sent me. Because if you shall be baptized, and wish yourself to be enlightened, I will make you behold Him, and learn from how great evils you have been redeemed. At the same time hear also by what means he injures all those who are lying sick in the temple. The devil himself by his own art causes the men to be sick, and again to be healed, in order that they may the more believe in the idols, and in order that he may have place the more in their souls, in order that they may say to the stock and the stone, You are our God. Jeremiah 2:27 But that demon who dwells in the idol is held in subjection, conquered by me, and is able to give no response to those who sacrifice and pray there. And if you wish to prove that it is so, I order him to return into the idol, and I will make him confess with his own mouth that he is bound, and able to give no response.

 

The king says to him: Tomorrow, at the first hour of the day, the priests are ready to sacrifice in the temple, and I shall come there, and shall be able to see this wonderful work.

 

And it came to pass on the following day, as they were sacrificing, the devil began to cry out: Refrain, you wretched ones, from sacrificing to me, lest ye suffer worse for my sake; because I am bound in fiery chains, and kept in subjection by an angel of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, whom the Jews crucified: for, being afraid of him, they condemned him to death. And he put to death Death himself, our king, and he bound our prince in chains of fire; and on the third day, having conquered death and the devil, rose in glory, and gave the sign of the cross to his apostles, and sent them out into the four quarters of the world; and one of them is here just now, who has bound me, and keeps me in subjection. I implore you, therefore, supplicate him on my account, that he may set me free to go into other habitations.

 

Then the apostle answered: Confess, unclean demon, who is it that has injured all those that are lying here from heavy diseases?

 

The demon answered: The devil, our ruler, he who is bound, he sends us against men, that, having first injured their bodies, we may thus also make an assault upon their souls when they sacrifice to us. For then we have complete power over them, when they believe in us and sacrifice to us. And when, on account of the mischief done to them, we retire, we appear curing them, and are worshipped by them as gods; but in truth we are demons, and the servants of him who was crucified, the Son of the virgin, have bound us. For from that day on which the Apostle Bartholomew came I am punished, kept bound in chains of fire. And for this reason I speak, because he has commanded me. At the same time, I dare not utter more when the apostle is present, neither I nor our rulers.

 

The apostle says to him: Why do you not save all that have come to you? The demon says to him: When we injure their bodies, unless we first injure their souls, we do not let their bodies go. The apostle says to him: And how do you injure their souls? The demon answered him: When they believe that we are gods, and sacrifice to us, God withdraws from those who sacrifice, and we do not take away the sufferings of their bodies, but retire into their souls.

 

Then the apostle says to the people: Behold, the god whom you thought to cure you, does the more mischief to your souls and bodies. Hear even now your Maker who dwells in the heavens, and do not believe in lifeless stones and stocks. And if you wish that I should pray for you, and that all these may receive health, take down this idol, and break it to pieces; and when you have done this, I will sanctify this temple in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; and having baptized all of you who are in it in the baptism of the Lord, and sanctified you, I will save all.

 

Then the king gave orders, and all the people brought ropes and crowbars, and were not at all able to take down the idol.

 

Then the apostle says to them: Unfasten the ropes.

 

And when they had unfastened them, he said to the demon dwelling in it: In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, come out of this idol, and go into a desert place, where neither winged creature utters a cry, nor voice of man has ever been heard. And straightway he arose at the word of the apostle, and lifted it up from its foundations; and in that same hour all the idols that were in that place were broken to pieces.

 

Temple purified

Then all cried out with one voice, saying: He alone is God Almighty whom Bartholomew the apostle proclaims.

 

Then the holy Bartholomew, having spread forth his hands to heaven, said: God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, who for the salvation of men hast sent forth Your only begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, in order that He might redeem by His own blood all of us enslaved by sin, and declare us to be Your sons, that we may know You, the true God, that You exist always to eternity God without end: one God, the Father, acknowledged in Son and Holy Spirit; one God, the Son, glorified in Father and Holy Spirit; one God, the Holy Spirit, worshipped in Father and Son; and acknowledged to be truly one, the Father unbegotten, the Son begotten, the Holy Spirit proceeding; and in You the Father, and in the Holy Spirit, Your only begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ is, in whose name You have given us power to heal the sick, to cure paralytics, to expel demons, and raise the dead: for He said to us, Verily I say unto you, that whatever you shall ask in my name you shall receive. Matthew 21:22 I entreat, then, that in His name all this multitude may be saved, that all may know that You alone are God in heaven, and in the earth, and in the sea, who seeks the salvation of men through that same Jesus Christ our Lord, with whom You live and reign in unity of the Holy Spirit for ever and ever.

 

And when all responded to the Amen, suddenly there appeared an angel of the Lord, shining brighter than the sun, winged, and other four angels holding up the four corners of the temple; and with his finger the one sealed the temple and the people, and said: Thus says the Lord who has sent me, As you have all been purified from all your infirmity, so also this temple shall be purified from all uncleanness, and from the demons dwelling in it, whom the apostle of God has ordered to go into a desert place; for so has God commanded me, that I may manifest Him to you. And when you behold Him, fear nothing; but when I make the sign of the cross, so also do ye with your finger seal your faces, and these evil things will flee from you.

 

Then he showed them the demon who dwelt in the temple, like an Ethiopian, black as soot; his face sharp like a dog's, thin-cheeked, with hair down to his feet, eyes like fire, sparks coming out of his mouth; and out of his nostrils came forth smoke like sulphur, with wings spined like a porcupine; and his hands were bound with fiery chains, and he was firmly kept in.

 

And the angel of the Lord said to him: As also the apostle has commanded, I let you go; go where voice of man is not heard, and be there until the great day of judgment. And when he let him go, he flew away, groaning and weeping, and disappeared.

 

And the angel of the Lord went up into heaven in the sight of all.

 

Then the king, and also the queen, with their two sons, and with all his people, and with all the multitude of the city, and every city round about, and country, and whatever land his kingdom ruled over, were saved, and believed, and were baptized in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

 

And the king laid aside his diadem, and followed Bartholomew the apostle of Christ.

 

And after these things the unbelievers of the Greeks, having come together to Astreges the king, who was the elder brother of the king who had been baptized, say to him: O king, your brother Polymius has become disciple to a certain magician, who has taken down our temples, and broken our gods to pieces.

 

And while they were thus speaking and weeping, behold, again there came also some others from the cities round about, both priests and people; and they set about weeping and making accusations before the king.

 

Then King Astreges in a rage sent a thousand armed men along with those priests, in order that, wherever they should find the apostle, they might bring him to him bound. And when they had done so, and found him, and brought him, he says to him: Are you he who has perverted my brother from the gods?

 

To whom the apostle answered: I have not perverted him, but have converted him to God.

 

The king says to him: Are you he who caused our gods to be broken in pieces?

 

The apostle says to him: I gave power to the demons who were in them, and they broke in pieces the dumb and senseless idols, that all men might believe in God Almighty, who dwells in the heavens.

 

The king says to him: As you have made my brother deny his gods, and believe in your God, so I also will make you reject your God and believe in my gods.

 

The apostle says to him: If I have bound and kept in subjection the god which your brother worshipped, and at my order the idols were broken in pieces, if you also are able to do the same to my God, you can persuade me also to sacrifice to your gods; but if you can do nothing to my God, I will break all your gods in pieces; but believe in my God.

And when he had thus spoken, the king was informed that this god Baldad and all the other idols had fallen down, and were broken in pieces.

 

Then the king rent the purple in which he was clothed, and ordered the holy apostle Bartholomew to be beaten with rods; and after having been thus scourged, to be beheaded.

 

And innumerable multitudes came from all the cities, to the number of twelve thousand, who had believed in him along with the king; and they took up the remains of the apostle with singing of praise and with all glory, and they laid them in the royal tomb, and glorified God. And the king Astreges having heard of this, ordered him to be thrown into the sea; and his remains were carried into the island of Liparis.

 

And it came to pass on the thirtieth day after the apostle was carried away, that the king Astreges was overpowered by a demon and miserably strangled; and all the priests were strangled by demons, and perished on account of their rising against the apostle, and thus died by an evil fate.

 

And there was great fear and trembling, and all came to the Lord, and were baptized by the presbyters who had been ordained by the holy apostle Bartholomew. And according to the commandment of the apostle, all the clergy of the people made King Polymius bishop; and in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ he received the grace of healing, and began to do signs. And he remained in the bishopric twenty years; and having prospered in all things, and governed the church well, and guided it in right opinions, he fell asleep in peace, and went to the Lord: to whom be glory and strength for ever and ever. Amen

 

 

 

The Indian Version

The Legend as interpreted in Indian historic context:
Most of it is verbatim same as the Armanian Version except for names and country contexts.

 

St. Bartholomew converted many Hindus to Christianity and built churches there. He eventually ended up in Kalyan on 62 AD, where he took up his quarters at the temple of Astarudra, which was the abode of the idol Astarudra that was supposed to heal the infirm and sick, but which allegedly was a demon which harmed its worshipers. The demon brought upon them troubles, infirmities, damage, violence, and affliction; and when anyone sacrificed to him, the demon appeared to give a cure to the person in trouble; which people saw and believed in the idol. However, when St. Bartholomew stayed there, Astarudra gave no response and was not able to cure. The temple was full of sick persons who sacrificed to him daily and sick people who had come from distant places had been lying there, but Astarudra could give no response. The same was the case for the other idols of the temple.

 

The pilgrims were thus forced to go to a temple in another city, which had many idols, where their greatest and most eminent god was called Bachiran. Having sacrificed there, they demanded to know why their god Astarudra had not responded to them. And the demon Bachiran answered:

“From the day and hour that the true God, who dwells in the heavens, sent his apostle Bartholomew into the regions here, your god Astarudra is held fast by chains of fire, and can no longer either speak or breathe.

 

They inquired: “And who is this Bartholomew?”

He answered: “He is the friend of the Almighty God, and has just come into these parts, that he may take away all the worship of the idols in the name of his God. The servants asked the demon Bachiran to describe him so that they would find him, and the demon gives his description..........

“He has black hair, a shaggy head, a fair skin, large eyes, beautiful nostrils, his ears hidden by the hair of his head, with a yellow beard, a few grey hairs, of middle height, and neither tall nor stunted, but middling, clothed with a white undercloak bordered with purple, and upon his shoulders a very white cloak; and his clothes have been worn twenty-six years, but neither are they dirty, nor have they grown old. Seven times a day he bends the knee to the Lord, and seven times a night does he pray to God. His voice is like the sound of a strong trumpet; there go along with him angels of God, who allow him neither to be weary, nor to hunger, nor to thirst; his face, and his soul, and his heart are always glad and rejoicing; he foresees everything, he knows and speaks every tongue of every nation. And behold now, as soon as you ask me, and I answer you about him, behold, he knows; for the angels of the Lord tell him; and if you wish to seek him, if he is willing he will appear to you; but if he shall not be willing, you will not be able to find him. I entreat you, therefore, if you shall find him, entreat him not to come here, lest his angels do to me as they have done to my brother Astarudra.”

 

The pilgrims then scoured the city of Kalyan looking for St. Bartholomew, and after two days finally found him exorcising a demon out of a person who had been afflicted with it for many years. The Satavahana empire’s viceroy, Pulumayi was standing opposite St. Bartholomew and observed all of this. He had a daughter who was possessed by a demon. So he sent messengers to St. Bartholomew who in turn demanded that they free the daughter from the chains which held her in bondage. They went and did that, and the demon immediately left her.

 

Upon seeing this, Pulumayi became overcome with joy and in gratitude, he loaded elephants with gold and silver, precious stones, pearls, and clothing, and sought to meet St. Bartholomew. However, he failed to him and brought everything back to the palace. St. Bartholomew appeared to Pulumayi the next day in his bed chamber, and said to him:

“Why did you seek me yesterday the whole day with gold and silver, and precious stones, pearls, and raiment? For these gifts those persons long for who seek earthly things; but I seek nothing earthly, nothing carnal. Wherefore I wish to teach you that the Son of God deigned to be born as a man out of a virgin’s womb. He was conceived in the womb of the virgin; He took to Himself her who was always a virgin, having within herself Him who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and all that therein is. He, born of a virgin, like mankind, took to Himself a beginning in time, He who has a beginning neither of times nor days; but He Himself made every beginning, and everything created, whether in things visible or invisible. And as this virgin did not know man, so she, preserving her virginity, vowed a vow to the Lord God. And she was the first who did so. For, from the time that man existed from the beginning of the world, no woman made a vow of this mode of life; but she, as she was the first among women who loved this in her heart, said, I offer to You, O Lord, my virginity. And, as I have said to you, none of mankind dared to speak this word; but she being called for the salvation of many, observed this — that she might remain a virgin through the love of God, pure and undefiled. And suddenly, when she was shut up in her chamber, the archangel Gabriel appeared, gleaming like the sun; and when she was terrified at the sight, the angel said to her, Fear not, Mary; for you have found favour in the sight of the Lord, and you shall conceive. And she cast off fear, and stood up, and said, How shall this be to me, since I know not man? The angel answered her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon you, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow you; wherefore also that holy thing which is born of you shall be called Son of God. Thus, therefore, when the angel had departed from her, she escaped the temptation of the devil, who deceived the first man when at rest. For, having tasted of the tree of disobedience, when the woman said to him, Eat, he ate; and thus the first man was cast out of paradise, and banished to this life. From him have been born the whole human race. Then the Son of God having been born of the virgin, and having become perfect man, and having been baptized, and after His baptism having fasted forty days, the tempter came and said to Him: If you are the Son of God, tell these stones to become loaves. And He answered: Not on bread alone shall man live, but by every word of God. Luke 4:1–13 Thus therefore the devil, who through eating had conquered the first man, was conquered through the fasting of the second man; and as he through want of self-restraint had conquered the first man, the son of the virgin earth, so we shall conquer through the fasting of the second Adam, the Son of the Virgin Mary.”

The king says to him: And how is it that you said just now that she was the first virgin of whom was born God and man?

St. Bartholomew answered:

“I give thanks to the Lord that you hear me gladly. The first man, then, was called Adam; he was formed out of the earth. And the earth, his mother out of which he was, was virgin, because it had neither been polluted by the blood of man nor opened for the burial of any one. The earth, then, was like the virgin, in order that he who conquered the son of the virgin earth might be conquered by the Son of the Virgin Mary. And, behold, he did conquer; for his wicked craft, through the eating of the tree by which man, being deceived, came forth from paradise, kept paradise shut. Thereafter this Son of the virgin conquered all the craft of the devil. And his craft was such, that when he saw the Son of the virgin fasting forty days, he knew in truth that He was the true God. The true God and man, therefore, has not given Himself out to be known, except to those who are pure in heart, Matthew 5:8 and who serve Him by good works. The devil himself, therefore, when he saw that after the forty days He was again hungry, was deceived into thinking that He was not God, and said to Him, Why have you been hungry? Tell these stones to become loaves, and eat. And the Lord answered him, Listen, devil; although you may lord it over man, because he has not kept the commandment of God. I have fulfilled the righteousness of God in having fasted, and shall destroy your power, so that you shall no longer lord it over man. And when he saw himself conquered, he again takes Jesus to an exceeding high mountain, and shows Him all the kingdoms of the world, and says, All these will I give you, if you will fall down and worship me. The Lord says to him, Get behind me, Satan; for it is written, You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him only shall you serve. And there was a third temptation for the Lord; for he takes Him up to the pinnacle of the temple, and says, If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down. The Lord says to him, You shall not tempt the Lord your God. And the devil disappeared. And he indeed that once conquered Adam, the son of the virgin earth, was thrice conquered by Christ, the Son of the Virgin Mary.

And when the Lord had conquered the tyrant, He sent His apostles into all the world, that He might redeem His people from the deception of the devil; and one of these I am, an apostle of Christ. On this account we seek not after gold and silver, but rather despise them, because we labour to be rich in that place where the kingdom of Him alone endures for ever, where neither trouble, nor grief, nor groaning, nor death, has place; where there is eternal blessedness, and ineffable joy, and everlasting exultation, and perpetual repose. Wherefore also the demon sitting in your temple, who makes responses to you, is kept in chains through the angel of the Lord who has sent me. Because if you shall be baptized, and wish yourself to be enlightened, I will make you behold Him, and learn from how great evils you have been redeemed. At the same time hear also by what means he injures all those who are lying sick in the temple. The devil himself by his own art causes the men to be sick, and again to be healed, in order that they may the more believe in the idols, and in order that he may have place the more in their souls, in order that they may say to the stock and the stone, You are our God. Jeremiah 2:27 But that demon who dwells in the idol is held in subjection, conquered by me, and is able to give no response to those who sacrifice and pray there. And if you wish to prove that it is so, I order him to return into the idol, and I will make him confess with his own mouth that he is bound, and able to give no response.”

 

The following day, as the priests are about to make sacrifices, St. Bartholomew and Pulumayi visit the temple of Astarudra where they witness the devil cry out:

“Refrain, you wretched ones, from sacrificing to me, lest you suffer worse for my sake; because I am bound in fiery chains, and kept in subjection by an angel of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, whom the Jews crucified: for, being afraid of him, they condemned him to death. And he put to death Death himself, our king, and he bound our prince in chains of fire; and on the third day, having conquered death and the devil, rose in glory, and gave the sign of the cross to his apostles, and sent them out into the four quarters of the world; and one of them is here just now, who has bound me, and keeps me in subjection. I implore you, therefore, supplicate him on my account, that he may set me free to go into other habitations.”

Then St. Bartholomew answered: “Confess, unclean demon, who is it that has injured all those that are lying here from heavy diseases?

The demon answered: “The devil, our ruler, he who is bound, he sends us against men, that, having first injured their bodies, we may thus also make an assault upon their souls when they sacrifice to us. For then we have complete power over them, when they believe in us and sacrifice to us. And when, on account of the mischief done to them, we retire, we appear curing them, and are worshipped by them as gods; but in truth we are demons, and the servants of him who was crucified, the Son of the virgin, have bound us. For from that day on which the Apostle Bartholomew came I am punished, kept bound in chains of fire. And for this reason I speak, because he has commanded me. At the same time, I dare not utter more when the apostle is present, neither I nor our rulers.”

 

St. Bartholomew said to him: “Why do you not save all that have come to you?” The demon responded: “When we injure their bodies, unless we first injure their souls, we do not let their bodies go. The apostle says to him: And how do you injure their souls? The demon answered him: When they believe that we are gods, and sacrifice to us, God withdraws from those who sacrifice, and we do not take away the sufferings of their bodies, but retire into their souls.”

 

Then St. Bartholomew said to the people: “Behold, the god whom you thought to cure you, does the more mischief to your souls and bodies. Hear even now your Maker who dwells in the heavens, and do not believe in lifeless stones and stocks. And if you wish that I should pray for you, and that all these may receive health, take down this idol, and break it to pieces; and when you have done this, I will sanctify this temple in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; and having baptised all of you who are in it in the baptism of the Lord, and sanctified you, I will save all.”

 

St. Bartholomew then exorcised the demon out of the idol, and Pulumayi had all the idols of the temple destroyed.

Then all the Hindus present cried out with one voice, saying: “He alone is God Almighty whom Bartholomew the apostle proclaims.

St. Bartholomew, having spread forth his hands to heaven, said:

“God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, who for the salvation of men hast sent forth Your only begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, in order that He might redeem by His own blood all of us enslaved by sin, and declare us to be Your sons, that we may know You, the true God, that You exist always to eternity God without end: one God, the Father, acknowledged in Son and Holy Spirit; one God, the Son, glorified in Father and Holy Spirit; one God, the Holy Spirit, worshipped in Father and Son; and acknowledged to be truly one, the Father unbegotten, the Son begotten, the Holy Spirit proceeding; and in You the Father, and in the Holy Spirit, Your only begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ is, in whose name You have given us power to heal the sick, to cure paralytics, to expel demons, and raise the dead: for He said to us, Verily I say unto you, that whatever you shall ask in my name you shall receive. Matthew 21:22 I entreat, then, that in His name all this multitude may be saved, that all may know that You alone are God in heaven, and in the earth, and in the sea, who seeks the salvation of men through that same Jesus Christ our Lord, with whom You live and reign in unity of the Holy Spirit for ever and ever. Amen!”

 

And when all responded to the Amen, suddenly there appeared an angel of the Lord, shining brightly, winged, and other four angels holding up the four corners of the temple; and with his finger the one sealed the temple and the people, and said:

“Thus says the Lord who has sent me, As you have all been purified from all your infirmity, so also this temple shall be purified from all uncleanness, and from the demons dwelling in it, whom the apostle of God has ordered to go into a desert place; for so has God commanded me, that I may manifest Him to you. And when you behold Him, fear nothing; but when I make the sign of the cross, so also do ye with your finger seal your faces, and these evil things will flee from you.”

 

Then he showed them the demon who dwelt in the temple, black as soot; his face sharp like a dog’s, thin-cheeked, with hair down to his feet, eyes like fire, sparks coming out of his mouth; and out of his nostrils came forth smoke like sulphur, with wings spined like a porcupine; and his hands were bound with fiery chains, and he was firmly kept in.

 

And the angel of the Lord said to him: “As also the apostle has commanded, I let you go; go where voice of man is not heard, and be there until the great day of judgment.” And when he let him go, he flew away, groaning and weeping, and disappeared. And the angel of the Lord went up into heaven in the sight of all.

 

After that, all those present in the temple, Pulumayi, his wife, two sons, and their followers in the kingdom converted to Christianity. Pulumayi left his viceroyship and followed St. Bartholomew as his disciple. They continued their work of destroying Hindu temples and smashing Hindu idols.

 

When disgruntled and distraught Brahmin priests and commonfolk came grieving to emperor Aristakarman, the elder brother of Pulumayi, that the temples and idols of the Hindu gods were being destroyed and that Pulumayi and many others had converted to a strange new religion, the king became enraged and ordered a thousand armed men to go with the Brahmin priests and bind St. Bartholomew and bring the apostle to him.

 

After it was done, Aristakarman inquired to St. Bartholomew: “Are you he who has perverted my brother from the gods?” To which St. Bartholomew answered, “I have not perverted them, but have converted them to God.”

 

Aristakarman further inquired: “Are you he who caused our gods to be broken in pieces?” To this, St. Bartholomew responded: “I gave power to the demons who were in them, and they broke in pieces the dumb and senseless idols, that all men might believe in God Almighty, who dwells in the heavens.”

 

St. Bartholomew’s response so enraged the king that the latter issued a challenge: “As you have made my brother deny his gods, and believe in your God, so I also will make you reject your God and believe in my gods. St. Bartholomew’s response was: “If I have bound and kept in subjection the god which your brother worshiped, and at my order the idols were broken in pieces, if you also are able to do the same to my God, you can persuade me also to sacrifice to your gods; but if you can do nothing to my God, I will break all your gods in pieces; but believe in my God.”

 

Aristakarman was then informed that his god Baladat and all the other idols had fallen down and were broken into pieces. He became so outraged that he had St. Bartholomew beaten with rods and beheaded. After his martyrdom, thousands of St. Bartholomew’s followers from all over the kingdom gathered at the martyrdom site and took the remains of the apostle to the Satavahana royal tomb, where he was buried. Upon hearing this, Aristakarman ordered his remains to be dug up and then thrown into the sea. St. Bartholomew’s remains were carried to the island of Liparis and then dumped into the Arabian sea.

 

Aristakarman didn’t live long after St. Bartholomew’s execution. He was allegedly overpowered by a demon and strangled to death along with all his priests, since their fates had become cursed by this deed. As a result of the king’s demise, thousands of Hindus converted to Christianity and received baptism from the hands of the presbyters whom St. Bartholomew had ordained. The Christian clergy appointed Pulumayi as their bishop, who began to perform miracles in the name of Jesus Christ. He remained in the bishopric for 20 years and guided the church well. Christianity prospered and thrived in the Satavahana empire during his term as bishop.

 

Large Nestorian Christian communities continued to exist throughout the Konkan coast for a long period before the inhabitants relapsed into Hinduism by the 15th century. A flourishing Christian community was found in the Mumbai region during the 6th century. In 1342, the Berber traveller Ibn Battuta reported seeing Christian settlements along the banks of the River Zuari in Goa. This community died out because the Nestorian church of Mesopotamia and Iran had been decimated and virtually destroyed by Muslims by the 14th century. So they could no longer send priests and bishops to minister to this community.

 

A century after the community disappeared, the Portuguese invaded Goa and these coastal parts of Maharashtra (Mumbai, Vasai, Chaul, Kalyan, Sopara, and Thane) evangelized by St. Bartholomew, they converted masses of Hindus to Christianity. Many of those converted were actually descendants of those who had converted in the 1st century under St. Bartholomew and Nestorian missionaries before the 15th century. They included Brahmins (as in the case of Goa) and Kshatriyas (as in the case of Sopara). The descendants of these early Christians merged with the new converts to form the Konkani Catholics and East Indian Catholics respectively.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where the Apostles were Martyred

https://medium.com/@juliannoel/proofs-that-two-of-jesus-christs-apostles-st-thomas-and-st-bartholomew-visited-india-749255c0be8

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Saint Bartholomew and the devil -
the legend of Bartholomew
in the Old English Martyrology

Today is the feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle, who is famous for his grisly method of execution, namely being flayed alive. For this reason his attribute is a flaying knife, and his saintly patronage extends to tanners and other craftsmen in skin and hide. For the feast of Bartholomew I will here give the legend as it was rendered in the Old English Martyrology, translated and edited by Christine Rauer. Here the date is given as August 25, but that is either a mistake made by the scribe or evidence of a different practice in tenth-century England.

You will realize that it is similar to the other Martyrology about Barthelomew

https://my-albion.blogspot.com/2015/08/saint-bartholomew-and-devil-legend-of.html

Bartholomew with his knife
MS Harley 2449, prayers for saints' vigils with calendar, Netherlands, c.1276-c.1296
Courtesy of British Library

 

On the twenty-fifth day of the month is the feast of the apostle St Bartholomew; he was Christ's missionary in the country of India, which is the outermost of all regions, on whose one side lies the dark land, on whose other side lies the world ocean [or 'Oceanus'], that is Garsecg. In this country he cast out idols which they had previously worshipped there. And an angel of God came to them there and revealed to the people what their god was, whom they had worshipped previously. He showed them an enormous Egyptian whose face was blacker than soot, and his beard and hair reached down to his feet, and his eyes were like hot irons, and spakrs came from his mouth, and a foul stench came out of his nostrils, and he had wings like a Thorny broom, and his hands were tied together with fiery chains, and he cried out with a terrible and loathsome voice and fled away and never appeared again anywhere. that was the devil, whom the people had earlier worshipped for themselves as a god, and they alled him Astaroth. Then the king of that people received baptism and his queen too, and all the people who belonged to his kingdom. Then the pagan bishops went and complained about that to the king's Brother; he was in another kingdom, and he was older than he was. He therefore ordered Bartholomew, the servant of Christ, to be flayed alive. Then the believing king came with many people and took his body and transported it away with great splendour, and put it in a fantastically large church. And the king became insane, who wanted him killed, and all the pagan bishops became insane and died, who had reported him.

- From The Old English Martyrology, edited and translated by Christine Rauer, D. S. Brewer 2013

The flaying of Bartholomew

Valenciennes - BM - ms. 0838, f.104, Martyrology, Notre-Dame des Prés de Douai, 13th century

Courtesy of enluminures.cultures.fr


The story of Bartholomew is an exciting and intersting story for many reasons, but perhaps especially its solid portion of exoticism and gore. From an academic point of view, this tale provides another set of details that are worth commenting. To me, for instance, it is interesting to note the geographical setting which places India as the outermost realm, and as a neighbour to the dark land, which is possibly meant to be Ethiopia which was confused with India all the way up to the sixteenth century. Bartholomew is placed in India already by Eusebius and in the Roman martyrology, although the latter gives Armenia as his place of of martyrdom.

Another significant thing here is the appearance and description of the devil. That the devil is said to be worshiped by the Indians as Astoreth harkens back to an old Christian tradition which claims that the old pagan gods were in reality fallen angels who had taken up residence on earth as gods, a treatment which is beautifully summarised in John Milton's Paradise Lost. Although it is an angel of God rather than Bartholomew in person who casts out the devil, he is associated with conquering the devil. This is something we find in the tradition around Saint Guthlac of Croyland, who came to his wild fens and established his hermitage on the feast of Bartholomew and henceforth dedicated himself to Bartholomew's patronage. Guthlac's vita was written by Felix already in the eight century, but the story was expanded by a local tradition at Croyland in the twelfth century which had Guthlac chastise demons with a scourge given to him by Saint Bartholomew.

A final point I want to comment on here is the appearance of the devil, described as a black Egyptian. The portrayal of the devil as a black man as an old tradition in Christian hagiography, and can be found already as early - and perhaps earlier - as Athanasius' Life of Antony, written in the fourth century. Here Antony struggles with his fight against a demon, and after a heavy bout of prayer, the demon finally gives in and materialises for Saint Antony:

he appeared, as was fitting, in a form that revealed his true nature: an ugly black boy prostrated himself at Antony's feet, weeping loudly and saying in a human voice, 'Many have I led astray, many have I deceived, but now I have been defeated by your efforts as I was by other holy people.' When Antony asked him who it was who was saying this, he replied, 'I am the friend of fornication. I have used many different kinds of shameful weapon to attrack young people and that is why I am called the spirit of fornication (...)'.
Life of Antony, translated by Carolinne White, Penguin Classics, 1998


The flayed Bartholomew

Valenciennes - BM - ms. 0838, f.104, Martyrology, Notre-Dame des Prés de Douai, 13th century https://my-albion.blogspot.com/2015/08/saint-bartholomew-and-devil-legend-of.html
Bibliography
Farmer, David, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Oxford University Press, 2004
Rauer, Christine, The Old English Martyrology, D. S. Brewer, 2013
White, Carolinne, Early Christian Lives, Penguin Classics, 1998

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Large Nestorian Christian communities were existing in the Konkan area.  During the coursee of history, the gnostic heresy took over this part of the world also.  It was to contradict this issue the church of Konkan area asked for help from the School of Alexandria.  They specificaly asked for the then famous professor Pantanaeus who was well versed in gnostic and pagan philosophies.  However it appears that his presence did not completely succede since the heretics moved out of the Christianity and got seperated as the religion which is now called Hinduism.  What they have done simply was to disconnect all historical connection to the incarnation of the Son of God and that resulted in the various forms of Hinduism.  This is especialy clear in Saivism which is in its essence Christianity complete with Father, Son and Ruah (female gender) =Holy Spirit ( Siva, Sakthi and Ganapathy).

 

The Christian Trinity representation
Son with cross, Holy Spirit Power as Dove, Father
Saivite Trinity representation
Siva&Sakthi (Power) as united male female YHVH+Ruah Ardha Nareeswara
Ganapathy (Lord of Hosts - Word Om became flesh forming the elephant face- Amen)

Saivism Manicaen became the second son of Siva  called Subhra Manyan showing the intervention of Gnosticism in the formation of Hinduism from Christianity.

Even today in modern Hinduism
LORD GOD is known as Para Brahman = God of Abraham
The generic word for God is Iswaran = Iso+paran = Jesus is Lord

Here is the creedal comparison

A Creed of Saivite Hindus 

“We BELIEVE Lord Siva is God, whose Absolute Being, Parasiva, transcends time, form and space.
We BELIEVE Lord Siva is God, whose immanent nature of love, Parasakti, is the substratum, primal substance or pure consciousness flowing through all form as energy, existence, knowledge and bliss.
We BELIEVE Lord Siva is God, whose immanent nature is the Primal Soul, Supreme Mahadeva, Paramesvara, author of Vedas and Agamas, the creator, preserver and destroyer of all that exists.
We BELIEVE in the Mahadeva Lord Ganesa, son of Siva-Sakti, to whom we must first supplicate before beginning any worship or task
We BELIEVE in the Mahadeva Karttikeya, son of Siva-Sakti, whose vel of grace dissolves the bondages of ignorance
We BELIEVE that each individual soul is created by Lord Siva and is identical to Him, and that this identity will be fully realized by all souls when the bondage of anava, karma and maya is removed by His grace.
We BELIEVE in three worlds of existence: the Bhuloka, where souls take on physical bodies; the Antarloka, where souls take on astral bodies; and the Sivaloka, where souls exist in their own self-effulgent form
We BELIEVE in the law of Karma — that one must reap the effects of all actions he has caused — and that each soul continues to reincarnate until all karmas are resolved and moksha, liberation, is attained.
We BELIEVE that the performance of charya, virtuous living, kriya, temple worship, and yoga, leading to Parasiva through grace of the living satguru, is absolutely necessary to bring forth jnana, wisdom
We BELIEVE that there is no intrinsic evil.
We BELIEVE that religion is the harmonious working together of the three worlds and that this harmony can be created through temple worship, wherein the beings of all three worlds can communicate.
We BELIEVE in the Panchakshara Mantra, the five sacred syllables “Namah Sivaya,” as Saivism's foremost and essential mantra.”

http://www.siddha.com.my/saivism.html

The Nicean Creed 

“ We believe in one God, the Father All-sovereign, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
We believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, and the only-begotten Son of God, Begotten of the Father before all the ages, Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father, through whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from the heavens, and was made flesh of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man, and was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and rose again on the third day according to the Scriptures, and ascended into the heavens, and sits on the right hand of the Father, and comes again with glory to judge living and dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end.
We believe in the Holy Spirit who procedes from the father and is worshipped together with the Father and the Son.......”

 Other groups made additional changes as can be seen cleary.  This was actively executed with the coming of the Gnostic Apostle Manicaen who eventually became the second son of God Subrah Manyan (Mani with the great light).

The early Nestorian group existed throughout the Konkan coast for a long period before most of the inhabitants relapsed into Hinduism.   A flourishing Christian community was found in the Mumbai region during the 6th century. In 1342, the Berber traveller Ibn Battuta reported seeing Christian settlements along the banks of the River Zuari in Goa. This community died out because the Nestorian church of Mesopotamia and Iran had been decimated and virtually destroyed by Muslims by the 14th century. So they could no longer send priests and bishops to minister to this community.

A century after the community disappeared, the Portuguese invaded Goa and these coastal parts of Maharashtra (Mumbai, Vasai, Chaul, Kalyan, Sopara, and Thane) evangelized by St. Bartholomew, they converted masses of Hindus to Christianity. Many of those converted were actually descendants of those who had converted in the 1st century under St. Bartholomew and Nestorian missionaries before the 15th century. They included Brahmins (as in the case of Goa) and Kshatriyas (as in the case of Sopara). The descendants of these early Christians merged with the new converts to form the Konkani Catholics and East Indian Catholics respectively.

 

The Konkan Coast

 

Chorao Island, Panjim (Goa) St Bartholomew church,

 

There are several claims and testimonies of where St. Bartholomew went. These claims are not necessarily contradictory. One account claims that he went to Egypt, preached Christianity and performed there, and later went to Parthia where he suffered martyrdom. Another account claims that he traveled to Armenia at around 60 AD, converted the king and whole country to Christianity, and was martyred there on 68 AD.

 

However, the most likely and reliable account is that St. Bartholomew traveled to India on 55 AD and was martyred there on 62 AD.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

IX:  Relics of   Bartholomew,  the Apostle

 

http://www.saintsinrome.com/2013/08/st-bartholomew.html

 


Feast Day:  August 24th

St Bartholomew Relics:

Rome, Italy; Benevento, Italy; Lipari, Sicily; Frankfurt, Germany

 

There are divers opinions of the manner of his martyrdom and where it happened.

Crucified, Crucified upside down, Flayed, Beheaded - one or a combination of all

For the blessed Dorotheus saith that he was crucified. . St. Theoderus saith that he was flayed and  was beheaded only.  
He died in Alban, a city of great Armenia, crucified the head downward.
Others postulate that he was beheaded in Kalyan, India.

 

 

Five centuries later and half-way across the Mediterranean his relics were found in Lipari, Sicily.

 

 

 

 

Saint Bartholomew displaying his flayed skin in Michelangelo's The Last Judgment

 

 

 

Saint Bartholomew the Apostle.

By Pierre Le Gros the Younger.

The Nave of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome. Italy.

Français: Saint Barthélemy par Pierre Le Gros le Jeune.

 

This tradition claims that the sarcophagus of St Bartholomew was thrown into the sea after beheading. It then floated upon the water until it finally  came to the shores of the volcanic island of Lipari off the shores of Italy..  It remained on this island until the middle of the 9th century.   They were then transferred to Benevento, Italy and then in the later  in  the 10th century they were brought to Rome by the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto III and were interred in the church of San Bartolomeo all’Isola, in a small island in the River Tiber as it pass through Rome.  .  

San Bartolomeo all'Isola (St Bartholomew on the Island)

 

 

 

 

Piazza San Bartolomeo, Tiber Island

Rome, Italy

 

 

Cathedrale di San Bartolomeo (St Bartholomew’s Cathedral)

Via del Concordato

Lipari, Sicily, Italy

 

The most important religious building on the island is the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew. Built in the sixteenth century is located in the central part of the island.

 

*A relic of the thumb of St Bartholomew rests within a silver arm reliquary in this church. This relic is exposed for veneration during feast days of the saint.

Frankfurter Dom (Frankfurt Cathedral)

Domplatz 1

60313 Frankfurt, Germany

 

*The skull of St Bartholomew is venerated within this church. It rests within a Gothic reliquary located on the eastern wall of the right transept. Small wooden statues of Joachim, Cleopas, and Zebedee adorn the sides of this reliquary.

Basilica di San Bartolomeo (St Bartholomew’s Basilica)

Piazza Federico Torre

Benevento, Italy

 

*As noted above the tradition in Benevento holds that the relics of St Bartholomew remain within this church. An exhibit near the front of the church portrays a recent analysis of these relics and provides support for this claim. Also a monument upon the side-wall recalls the 2001 declaration by St John Paul II which reopened the cult of St Bartholomew in this church.

 

*The relics of St Bartholomew rest within a porphyry urn below the main altar. An additional bone fragment is placed within a bust of the saint. Twice a year, on August 24th and October 25th, the city celebrates his feast.

 

Canterbury Cathedral

CT1 2EH, Canterbury, United Kingdom

*In the 11th century an arm of St Bartholomew was gifted to this church.  However, this relic does not exist here today.

*The body of St Anselm (d. 1109) originally rested in this church; however, with the closing of this monastery by the orders of King Henry VIII his relics were lost. Nevertheless, the memory of St Anselm continues within the chapel dedicated to him on the right side of the nave.

*For centuries this church also housed the tomb St Thomas Becket (d. 1170) until its destruction in 1538. Some of his relics, however, still exist throughout the world.

 

theorthodoxchurch.info/blog/ocrc/st-thomas-the-native...theorthodoxchurch.info/blog/ocrc/st-thomas-the-native...

https://torahofyeshuah.blogspot.com/2015/10/the-martyrdom-of-bartholomew.html
 

St. Barthelomew

Apostle and martyr

Born

1st century AD
Cana, Galilee, Roman Empire

Died

1st century AD
Albanopolis, Armenia
or
Kalyan, India

Major shrine

Saint Bartholomew Monastery in historical Armenia, Relics at Basilica of San Bartolomeo in Benevento, Italy, Saint Bartholomew-on-the-Tiber Church, Rome, Canterbury Cathedral, the Cathedrals in Frankfurt and Plzeň, and San Bartolomeo Cathedral in Lipari

Feast

August 24 (Western Christianity)
June 11 (Eastern Christianity)

Attributes

Knife and his flayed skin, Red Martyrdom

Patronage

Armenia; bookbinders; butchers; Florentine cheese and salt merchants; Gambatesa, Italy; Catbalogan, Samar; Magalang, Pampanga; Malabon, Metro Manila; Nagcarlan, Laguna; San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija, Philippines; Għargħur, Malta; leather workers; neurological diseases; skin diseases; dermatology; plasterers; shoemakers; curriers; tanners; trappers; twitching; whiteners ; Los Cerricos (Spain)

 

 

St Bartholomew Manuscript Leaf with the Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, from a ‘Laudario’, by Pacino di Bonaguida c.1340 Florence

A cult of Saint Bartholomew developed around his purported relics and was especially popular in southern Italy and England, as they were variously divided and distributed far and wide. One chronicler states that the arm was given as a present to Edward the Confessor from the bishop of Benevento, and that Edward then housed it in a place of honor in Canterbury Cathedral where it is still venerated to this day. Some of his skull was transferred to Frankfurt as late as 1238, and preserved in the Cathedral of Bartholomew.[6]

Popular stories surrounding the relics of Bartholomew's bodily remains have been told and retold for centuries. On the small island of Lipari a tale is recounted of his remains being washed ashore and being first discovered by the local bishop of the time. It is said that this Bishop ordered a group of men to retrieve the body, but that they failed due to its surprising, extreme weight. He then sent out the town's children who, miraculously, quite easily brought the body ashore.
In works of art he is often represented with a large knife, or, as in Michelangelo's Last Judgment, with his own skin hanging over his arm. Tradition holds that in Armenia he was flayed alive and then crucified upside down.

 


St Bartholomew by Albrecht Dürer

He is shown with the knife used to flay him and the Gospel of St Matthew he took to India

 

 

 

 

 

X: APOCRYPHAL WORKS  ATRIBUTED TO APOSTLE BARTHELOMEW

There are two apocryphal works attributed to the Apostle Barthelomew.

  The first one is THE QUESTIONS OF BARTHOLOMEW, sometimes called the GOSPEL   OF BARTHELOMEW.

The second one is

The text survives as Greek, Latin, and Old Church Slavonic manuscripts, although each copy varies from the others considerably in the wording chosen. A Gospel of Bartholomew is mentioned by Jerome (MPL XXVI. 17A) among other apocryphal works; the Decretum Gelasianum speaks of “gospels,” which  could also indicate knowledge of more than one document. Other references are rather few and late. Some scholars have linked the work with the Heb. Gospel of Matthew, said to have been carried by Bartholomew to India (Euseb. HEV. x. 3), but this seems unlikely: in view of his interest in the “Hebrew Gospel” Jerome could not have written as he did, had they been identical.

 The Decree of Pope Gelasius lists "the Gospels in the name of Bartholomew" among condemned or unacceptable scriptures.

 

https://rejectedscriptures.weebly.com/the-gospel-of-bartholomew.html

The Gospel of Bartholomew

Jerome, in the prologue to his Commentary on Matthew, mentions a number of apocryphal Gospels - those according to the Egyptians, Thomas, Matthias, Bartholomew, the Twelve, Basilides, and Apelles: probably he depends upon Origen, for he himself disliked and avoided apocryphal books, with few exceptions; the Gospel according to the Hebrews, for instance, he hardly reckoned as apocryphal. Of this Gospel of Bartholomew we have no sort of description: we find it condemned in the Gelasian Decree, which may mean either that the compiler of the Decree knew a book of that name, or that he took it on trust from Jerome. In the pseudo-Dionysian writings two sentences are quoted from 'the divine Bartholomew,' and a third has just been brought to light from the kindred 'book of Hierotheus'. But one cannot be sure that these writers are quoting real books.

We have, however, a writing attributed to Bartholomew which attained some popularity; the manuscripts do not call it a Gospel, but the Questions of Bartholomew. It contains ancient elements, and MM. Wilmart and Tisserant have made out their claim that it at least represents the old Gospel. 

It exists in three languages, and not, apparently, in a very original form in any of them: Greek is the original language, of which we have two manuscripts, at Vienna and Jerusalem; Latin 1, consisting of two leaves of extracts, of the ninth century; Latin 2, complete; and Slavonic. The Greek text may be as old as the fifth century; the Latin 2 of the sixth or seventh.

We present here the Greek version with other versions used to fill in missing parts.


​GREEK VERSION

I. The descent into Hell: the number of souls saved and lost.

1 After the resurrection from the dead of our Lord Jesus Christ, Bartholomew came unto the Lord and questioned him, saying: Lord, reveal unto me the mysteries of the heavens.

2 Jesus answered and said unto him: If I put off the body of the flesh, I shall not be able to tell them unto thee.

3 Om.

4 Bartholomew therefore drew near unto the Lord and said: I have a word to speak unto thee, Lord.

5 And Jesus said to him: I know what thou art about to say; say then what thou wilt, and I will answer thee.

6 And Bartholomew said: Lord, when thou wentest to be hanged upon the cross, I followed thee afar off and saw thee hung upon the cross, and the angels coming down from heaven and worshipping thee. And when there came darkness, 

7 I beheld, and I saw thee that thou wast vanished away from the cross and I heard only a voice in the parts under the earth, and great wailing and gnashing of teeth on a sudden. Tell me, Lord, whither wentest thou from the cross?

8 And Jesus answered and said: Blessed art thou, Bartholomew, my beloved, because thou sawest this mystery, and now will I tell thee all things whatsoever thou askest me. 

9 For when I vanished away from the cross, then went I down into Hades that I might bring up Adam and all them that were with him, according to the supplication of Michael the archangel.

10 Then said Bartholomew: Lord, what was the voice which was heard?

11 Jesus saith unto him: Hades said unto Beliar: As I perceive, a God cometh hither. And the angels cried unto the powers, saying: Remove your gates, ye princes, remove the everlasting doors, for behold the King of glory cometh down.

12 Hades said: Who is the King of glory, that cometh down from heaven unto us?

13 And when I had descended five hundred steps, Hades was troubled, saying: I hear the breathing of the Most High, and I cannot endure it.  

14 But the devil answered and said: Submit not thyself, O Hades, but be strong: for God himself hath not descended upon the earth. 

15 But when I had descended yet five hundred steps, the angels and the powers cried out: Take hold, remove the doors, for behold the King of glory cometh down. And Hades said: O, woe unto me, for I hear the breath of God.

16 And Beliar said unto Hades: Look carefully who it is that , for it is Elias, or Enoch, or one of the prophets that this man seemeth to me to be. 

17 But Hades answered Death and said: Not yet are six thousand years accomplished. And whence are these, O Beliar; for the sum of the number is in mine hands.

18 : Be not troubled, make safe thy gates and strengthen thy bars: consider, God cometh not down upon the earth.

19 Hades saith unto him: These be no good words that I hear from thee: my belly is rent, and mine inward parts are pained: it cannot be but that God cometh hither. Alas, whither shall I flee before the face of the power of the great king? Suffer me to enter into myself: for before thee was I formed.

20 Then did I enter in and scourged him and bound him with chains that cannot be loosed, and brought forth thence all the patriarchs and came again unto the cross.

21 Bartholomew saith unto him: Tell me, Lord, who was he whom the angels bare up in their hands, even that man that was very great of stature? 

22 Jesus answered and said unto him: It was Adam the first-formed, for whose sake I came down from heaven upon earth. And I said unto him: I was hung upon the cross for thee and for thy children's sake. And he, when he heard it, groaned and said: So was thy good pleasure, O Lord.

23 Again Bartholomew said: Lord, I saw the angels ascending before Adam and singing praises.

24 But one of the angels which was very great, above the rest, would not ascend up with them: and there was in his hand a sword of fire, and he was looking steadfastly upon thee only.

25 And when he had thus spoken, he said unto the apostles: Tarry for me in this place, for today a sacrifice is offered in paradise. 

26 And Bartholomew answered and said unto Jesus: Lord, what is the sacrifice which is offered in paradise? And Jesus said: There be souls of the righteous which to-day have departed out of the body and go unto paradise, and unless I be....

27 And Bartholomew said: Lord, how many souls depart out of the world daily? Jesus saith unto him: Thirty thousand.

28 Bartholomew saith unto him: Lord, when thou wast with us teaching the word, didst thou receive the sacrifices in paradise? Jesus answered and said unto him: Verily I say unto thee, my beloved, that I both taught the word with you and continually sat with my Father, and received the sacrifices in paradise everyday. 

29 Bartholomew answered and said unto him: Lord, if thirty thousand souls depart out of the world every day, how many souls out of them are found righteous? Jesus saith unto him: Hardly fifty three my beloved. 

30 Again Bartholomew saith: And how do three only enter into paradise? Jesus saith unto him: The fifty three enter into paradise or are laid up in Abraham's bosom: but the others go into the place of the resurrection, for the three are not like unto the fifty.

31 Bartholomew saith unto him: Lord, how many souls above the number are born into the world daily? Jesus saith unto him: One soul only is born above the number of them that depart.

32 And when he had said this he gave them the peace, and vanished away from them.


II.  The Virgin's account of the Annunciation

1 Now the apostles were in the place with Mary.

2 And Bartholomew came and said unto Peter and Andrew and John: Let us ask her that is highly favoured how she conceived the incomprehensible, or how she bare him that cannot be carried, or how she brought forth so much greatness. But they doubted to ask her.

3 Bartholomew therefore said unto Peter: Thou that art the chief, and my teacher, draw near and ask her. But Peter said to John: Thou art a virgin and undefiled and thou must ask her.

4 And as they all doubted and disputed, Bartholomew came near unto her with a cheerful countenance and said to her: Thou that art highly favoured, the tabernacle of the Most High, unblemished we, even all the apostles, ask thee to tell us how thou didst conceive the incomprehensible, or how thou didst bear him that cannot be

5 But Mary said unto them: Ask me not concerning this mystery. If I should begin to tell you, fire will issue forth out of my mouth and consume all the world.

6 But they continued yet the more to ask her. And she, for she could not refuse to hear the apostles, said: Let us stand up in prayer.

7 And the apostles stood behind Mary: but she said unto Peter: Peter, thou chief, thou great pillar, standest thou behind us? Said not our Lord: the head of the man is Christ ? now therefore stand ye before me and pray.

8 But they said unto her: In thee did the Lord set his tabernacle, and it was his good pleasure that thou shouldest contain him, and thou oughtest to be the leader in the prayer.

9 But she said unto them: Ye are shining stars, and as the prophet said, 'I did lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence shall come mine help'; ye, therefore, are the hills, and it behoveth you to pray.

10 The apostles say unto her: Thou oughtest to pray, thou art the mother of the heavenly king.

11 Mary saith unto them: In your likeness did God form the sparrows, and sent them forth into the four corners of the world.

12 But they say unto her: He that is scarce contained by the

13 Then Mary stood up before them and spread out her hands toward the heaven and began to speak thus:
Elphue Zarethra Charboum Nemioth Melitho Thraboutha Mephnounos Chemiath Aroura Maridon Elison Marmiadon Seption Hesaboutha Ennouna Saktinos Athoor Belelam Opheoth Abo Chrasar, ....which is in the Greek tongue:
O God the exceeding great and all-wise and king of the worlds, that art not to be described, the ineffable, that didst establish the greatness of the heavens and all things by a word, that out of darkness didst constitute and fasten together the poles of heaven in harmony, didst bring into shape the matter that was in confusion, didst bring into order the things that were without order, didst part the misty darkness from the light, didst establish in one place the foundations of the waters, thou that makest the beings of the air to tremble, and art the fear of them that are on the earth, that didst settle the earth and not suffer it to perish, and filledst it, which is the nourisher of all things, with showers of blessing: the Father, thou whom the seven heavens hardly contained, but who wast well-pleased to be contained without pain in me, thou that art thyself the full word of the Father in whom all things came to be: give glory to thine exceeding great name, and bid me to speak before thy holy

14 And when she had ended the prayer she began to say unto them: Let us sit down upon the ground; and come thou, Peter the chief, and sit on my right hand and put thy left hand beneath mine armpit; and thou, Andrew, do so on my left hand; and thou, John, the virgin, hold together my bosom; and thou, Bartholomew, set thy knees against my back and hold my shoulders, lest when I begin to speak my bones be loosed one from another.

15 And when they had so done she began to say: When I abode in the temple of God and received my food from an angel, on a certain day there appeared unto me one in the likeness of an angel, but his face was incomprehensible, and he had not in his hand bread or a cup, as did the angel which came to me aforetime.

16 And straightway the robe of the temple was rent and there was a very great earthquake, and I fell upon the earth, for I was not able to endure the sight of him.

17 But he put his hand beneath me and raised me up, and I looked up into heaven and there came a cloud of dew and sprinkled me from the head to the feet, and he wiped me with his robe.

18 And said unto me: Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the chosen vessel, grace inexhaustible. And he smote his garment upon the right hand and there came a very great loaf, and he set it upon the altar of the temple and did eat of it first himself, and gave unto me also.

19 And again he smote his garment upon the left hand and there came a very great cup full of wine: and he set it upon the altar of the temple and did drink of it first himself, and gave also unto me. And I beheld and saw the bread and the cup whole as they were.

20 And he said unto me: Yet three years, and I will send my word unto thee and then shalt conceive my son, and through him shall the whole creation be saved. Peace be unto

21 And when he had so said he vanished away from mine eyes, and the temple was restored as it had been before.

22 And as she was saying this, fire issued out of her mouth; and the world was at the point to come to an end: but Jesus appeared quickly and said unto Mary: Utter not this mystery, or this day my whole creation will come to an end. And the apostles were taken with fear lest haply the Lord should be wroth with them.

III. The apostles see the bottomless pit.

1 And he departed with them unto the mount Mauria and sat in the midst of them. 

2 But they doubted to question him, being afraid.

3 And Jesus answered and said unto them: Ask me what ye will that I should teach you, and I will show it you. For yet seven days, and I ascend unto my Father, and I shall no more be seen of you in this likeness.

4 But they, yet doubting, said unto him: Lord, show us the deep according unto thy promise.

5 And Jesus said unto them: It is not good for you to see the deep: notwithstanding, if ye desire it, according to my promise, come, follow me and behold.

6 And he led them away into a place that is called Chairoudee, that is the place of truth.

7 And he beckoned unto the angels of the West and the earth was rolled up like a volume of a book and the deep was revealed unto them.

8 And when the apostles saw it they fell on their faces upon the earth.

9 But Jesus raised them up, saying: Said I not unto you, 'It is not good for you to see the deep'. And again he beckoned unto the angels, and the deep was covered up.

IV  The devil is summoned and gives an account of his doings.

1 And he took them and brought them again unto the Mount of olives.

2 And Peter said unto Mary: Thou that art highly favoured, entreat the Lord that he would reveal unto us the things that are in the heavens.

3 And Mary said unto Peter: O stone hewn out of the rock, did not the Lord build his church upon thee? Go thou therefore first and ask him.

4 Peter saith again: O tabernacle that art spread abroad . 

5 Mary saith: Thou art the image of Adam: was not he first formed and then Eve? Look upon the sun, that according to the likeness of Adam it is bright. and upon the moon, that because of the transgression of Eve it is full of clay. For God did place Adam in the east and Eve in the west, and appointed the lights that the sun should shine on the earth unto Adam in the east in his fiery chariots, and the moon in the west should give light unto Eve with a countenance like milk. And she defiled the commandment of the Lord. Therefore was the moon stained with clay and her light is not bright. Thou therefore, since thou art the likeness of Adam, oughtest to ask him: but in me was he contained that I might recover the strength of the female.

6 Now when they came up to the top of the mount, and the Master was withdrawn from them a little space, Peter saith unto Mary: Thou art she that hast brought to nought the transgression of Eve, changing it from shame into joy; it is lawful, therefore, for thee to ask.

7 When Jesus appeared again, Bartholomew saith unto him: Lord, show us the adversary of men that we may behold him, of what fashion he is, and what is his work, and whence he cometh forth, and what power he hath that he spared not even thee, but caused thee to be hanged upon the tree.

8 But Jesus looked upon him and said: Thou bold heart! thou askest for that which thou art not able to look upon.

9 But Bartholomew was troubled and fell at Jesus' feet and began to speak thus: O lamp that cannot be quenched, Lord Jesus Christ, maker of the eternal light that hast given unto them that love thee the grace that beautifieth all, and hast given us the eternal light by thy coming into the world, that hast accomplished the work of the Father, hast turned the shame-facedness of Adam into mirth, hast done away the sorrow of Eve with a cheerful countenance by thy birth from a virgin: remember not evil against me but grant me the word of mine asking. 

10 And as he thus spake, Jesus raised him up and said unto him: Bartholomew, wilt thou see the adversary of men? I tell thee that when thou beholdest him, not thou only but the rest of

11 But they all said unto him: Lord, let us behold him.

12 And he led them down from the Mount of Olives and looked wrathfully upon the angels that keep hell, and beckoned unto Michael to sound the trumpet in the height of the heavens. And Michael sounded, and the earth shook, and Beliar came up, being held by 560 angels and bound with fiery chains. 

13 And the length of him was 1,600 cubits and his breadth 40 cubits, and his face was like a lightning of fire and his eyes full of darkness. And out of his nostrils came a stinking smoke; and his mouth was as the gulf of a precipice, and the one of his wings was four-score cubits.

14 And straightway when the apostles saw him, they fell to the earth on their faces and became as dead.

15 But Jesus came near and raised the apostles and gave them a spirit of power, and he saith unto Bartholomew: Come near, Bartholomew, and trample with thy feet on his neck, and he will tell thee his work, what it is, and how he deceiveth men.

16 And Jesus stood afar off with the rest of the apostles.

17 And Barthololmew feared, and raised his voice and said: Blessed be the name of thine immortal kingdom from henceforth even for ever. And when he had spoken, Jesus permitted him, saying: Go and tread upon the neck of Beliar: and Bartholomew ran quickly upon him and trode upon his neck: and Beliar trembled. 

18 And Bartholomew was afraid, and fled, and said unto Jesus: Lord, give me an hem of thy garments that I may have courage to draw near unto him.

19 But Jesus said unto him: Thou canst not take an hem of my garments, for these are not my garments which I wore before I was crucified.

20 And Bartholomew said: Lord, I fear lest, like as he spared not thine angels, he swallow me up also.

21 Jesus saith unto him: Were not all things made by my word, and by the will of my Father the spirits were made subject unto Solomon? thou, therefore, being commanded by my word, go in my name and ask him what thou wilt.

22 And Bartholomew made the sign of the cross and prayed unto Jesus and went behind him. And Jesus said to him: Draw near. And as Bartholomew drew near, fire was kindled on every side, so that his garments appeared fiery. Jesus saith to Bartholomew: As I said unto thee, tread upon his neck and ask him what is his power. And Bartholomew went and trode upon his neck, and pressed down his face into the earth as far as his ears.

23 And Bartholomew saith unto him: Tell me who thou art and what is thy name. And he said to him: Lighten me a little, and I will tell thee who I am and how I came hither, and what my work is and what my power is.

24 And he lightened him and saith to him: Say all that thou hast done and all that thou doest.

25 And Beliar answered and said: If thou wilt know my name, at the first I was called Satanael, which is interpreted a messenger of God, but when I rejected the image of God my name was called Satanas, that is, an angel that keepeth hell.

26 And again Bartholomew saith unto him: Reveal unto me all things and hide nothing from me.

27 And he said unto him: I swear unto thee by the power of the glory of God that even if I would hide aught I cannot, for he is near that would convict me. For if I were able I would have destroyed you like one of them that were before you.

28 For, indeed, I was formed the first angel: for when God made the heavens, he took a handful of fire and formed me first, Michael second, Gabriel third, Uriel fourth, Raphael fifth, Nathanael sixth, and other angels of whom I cannot tell the names. For they are the rod-bearers of God, and they smite me with their rods and pursue me seven times in the night and seven times in the day, and leave me not at all and break in pieces all my power. These are the angels of vengeance which stand before the throne of God: these are the angels that were first formed.

30 And after them were formed all the angels. In the first heaven are an hundred myriads, and in the second an hundred myriads, and in the third an hundred myriads, and in the fourth an hundred myriads, and in the fifth an hundred myriads, and in the sixth an hundred myriads, and in the seventh is the first firmament wherein are the powers which work upon men.

31 For there are four other angels set over the winds. The first angel is over the north, and he is called Chairoum, and hath in his hand a rod of fire, and restraineth the super-fluity of moisture that the earth be not overmuch wet.

32 And the angel that is over the north is called Oertha: he hath a torch of fire and putteth it to his sides, and they warm the great coldness of him that he freeze not the world.

33 And the angel that is over the south is called Kerkoutha and they break his fierceness that he shake not the earth.

34 And the angel that is over the south-west is called Naoutha, and he hath a rod of snow in his hand and putteth it into his mouth, and quencheth the fire that cometh out of his mouth. And if the angel quenched it not at his mouth it would set all the world on fire.

35 And there is another angel over the sea which maketh it rough with the waves thereof.

36 But the rest I will not tell thee, for he that standeth by suffereth me not.

37 Bartholomew saith unto him: Flow chastisest thou the souls of men? 

38 Beliar saith unto him: Wilt thou that I declare unto thee the punishment of the hypocrites, of the back-biters, of the jesters, of the idolaters, and the covetous, and the adulterers, and the wizards, and the diviners, and of them that believe in us, and of all whom I look upon?

39 Bartholomew saith unto him: I will that thou declare it in few words.

40 And he smote his teeth together, gnashing them, and there came up out of the bottomless pit a wheel having a sword flashing with fire, and in the sword were pipes.

41 And I asked him, saying: What is this sword?

42 And he said: This sword is the sword of the gluttonous: for into this pipe are sent they that through their gluttony devise all manner of sin; into the second pipe are sent the backbiters which backbite their neighbour secretly; into the third pipe are sent the hypocrites and the rest whom I overthrow by my contrivance. 

43 And Bartholomew said: Dost thou then do these things by thyself alone?

44 And Satan said: If I were able to go forth by myself, I would have destroyed the whole world in three days: but neither I nor any of the six hundred go forth. For we have other swift ministers whom we command, and we furnish them with an hook of many points and send them forth to hunt, and they catch for us souls of men, enticing them with sweetness of divers baits, that is by drunkenness and laughter, by backbiting, hypocrisy, pleasures, fornication, and the rest of the

45 And I will tell thee also the rest of the names of the angels. The angel of the hail is called Mermeoth, and he holdeth the hail upon his head, and my ministers do adjure him and send him whither they will. And other angels are there over the snow, and other over the thunder, and other over the lightning, and when any spirit of us would go forth either by land or by sea, these angels send forth fiery stones and set our limbs on fire. 

46 Bartholomew saith: Be still thou dragon of the pit.

47 And Beliar said: Many things will I tell thee of the angels. They that run together throughout the heavenly places and the earthly are these: Mermeoth, Onomatath, Douth, Melioth, Charouth, Graphathas, Oethra, Nephonos, Chalkatoura. With them do fly the things that are in heaven and on earth and under the earth.

48 Bartholomew saith unto him: Be still and be faint, that I may entreat my Lord.

49 And Bartholomew fell upon his face and cast earth upon his head and began to say: O Lord Jesu Christ, the great and glorious name. All the choirs of the angels praise thee, O Master, and I that am unworthy with my lips . . . do praise thee, O Master. Hearken unto me thy servant, and as thou didst choose me from the receipt of custom and didst not suffer me to have my conversation unto the end in my former deeds, O Lord Jesu Christ, hearken unto me and have mercy upon the sinners.

50 And when he had so said, the Lord saith unto him: Rise up, suffer him that groaneth to arise: I will declare the rest unto thee.

51 And Bartholomew raised up Satan and said unto him: Go unto thy place, with thine angels, but the Lord hath mercy upon all his world. 

52 But the devil said: Suffer me, and I will tell thee how I was cast down into this place and how the Lord did make man.

53 I was going to and fro in the world, and God said unto Michael: Bring me a clod from the four corners of the earth, and water out of the four rivers of paradise. And when Michael brought them God formed Adam in the regions of the east, and shaped the clod which was shapeless, and stretched sinews and veins upon it and established it with Joints; and he worshipped him, himself for his own sake first, because he was the image of God, therefore he worshipped him.

54 And when I came from the ends of the earth Michael said: Worship thou the image of God, which he hath made according to his likeness. But I said: I am fire of fire, I was the first angel formed, and shall worship clay and matter?

55 And Michael saith to me: Worship, lest God be wroth with thee. But I said to him: God will not be wroth with me; but I will set my throne over against his throne, and I will be as he is. Then was God wroth with me and cast me down, having commanded the windows of heaven to be opened.

56 And when I was cast down, he asked also the six hundred that were under me, if they would worship: but they said: Like as we have seen the first angel do, neither will we worship him that is less than ourselves. Then were the six hundred also cast down by him with me.

57 And when we were cast down upon the earth we were senseless for forty years, and when the sun shone forth seven times brighter than fire, suddenly I awaked; and I looked about and saw the six hundred that were under me senseless.

58 And I awaked my son Salpsan and took him to counsel how I might deceive the man on whose account I was cast out of the heavens.

59 And thus did I contrive it. I took a vial in mine hand and scraped the sweat from off my breast and the hair of mine armpits, and washed myself in the springs of the waters whence the four rivers flow out, and Eve drank of it and desire came upon her: for if she had not drunk of that water I should not have been able to deceive her.

60 Then Bartholomew commanded him to go into hell.

61 And Bartholomew came and fell at Jesus' feet and began with tears to say thus: Abba, Father, that art past finding out by us, Word of the Father, whom the seven heavens hardly contained, but who wast pleased to be contained easily and without pain within the body of the Virgin: whom the Virgin knew not that she bare: thou by thy thought hast ordained all things to be: thou givest us that which we need before thou art entreated.

62 Thou that didst wear a crown of thorns that thou mightest prepare for us that repent the precious crown from heaven; that didst hang upon the tree, that thou mightest give us to drink of the wine of compunction, and wast pierced in the side with a spear that thou mightest fill us with thy body and thy blood:

63 Thou that gavest names unto the four rivers: to the first Phison, because of the faith which thou didst appear in the world to preach; to the second Geon, for that man was made of earth; to the third Tigris, because by thee was revealed unto us the consubstantial Trinity in the heavens; to the fourth Euphrates, because by thy presence in the world thou madest every soul to rejoice through the word of immortality.

64 My God, and Father, the greatest, my King: save, Lord, the sinners.

65 When he had thus prayed Jesus said unto him: Bartholomew, my Father did name me Christ, that I might come down upon earth and anoint every man that cometh unto me with the oil of life: and he did call me Jesus that I might heal every sin of them that know not . . . and give unto men the truth of God.

66 And again Bartholomew saith unto him: Lord, is it lawful for me to reveal these mysteries unto every man? Jesus saith unto him: Bartholomew, my beloved, as many as are faithful and are able to keep them unto themselves, to them mayest thou entrust these things. 

67 For some there are that be worthy of them, but there are also other some unto whom it is not fit to entrust them: for they are vain, drunkards, proud, unmerciful, partakers in idolatry, authors of fornication, slanderers, teachers of foolishness, and doing all works that are of the devil, and therefore are they not worthy that these should be entrusted to them.

68 And also they are secret, because of those that cannot contain them; for as many as can contain them shall have a part in them. Herein therefore, my beloved, have I spoken unto thee, for blessed art thou and all thy kindred which of their choice have this word entrusted unto them; for all they that of my judgement.

69 Then I, Bartholomew, which wrote these things in mine heart, took hold on the hand of the lord the lover of men and began to rejoice and to speak thus: Glory be to thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, that givest unto all thy grace which all we have perceived. Alleluia. Glory be to thee, O Lord, the life of sinners. Glory be to thee, O Lord, death is put to shame. Glory be to thee, O Lord, the treasure of righteousness. For unto God do we sing.

70 And as Bartholomew thus spake again, Jesus put off his mantle and took a kerchief from the neck of Bartholomew and began to rejoice and say: I am good. Alleluia. I am meek and gentle. Alleluia. Glory be to thee, O Lord: for I give gifts unto all them that desire me. Alleluia. Glory be to thee, O Lord, world without end. Amen. Alleluia.

71 And when he had ceased, the apostles kissed him, and he gave them the peace of love.