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INTRODUCTION
The Mandukya Upanishad is the shortest of all the Upanishads,
and is assigned to Atharvaveda.
It is listed as number 6 in the Muktikā canon of 108 Upanishads.
It is in prose, consisting of twelve terse verses.
It discusses the syllable Om, presents the theory of four states of
consciousness, asserts the existence and nature of Atman (Soul,
Self).
Etymology
The root of Mandukya is sometimes considered as Manduka
which literally has several meanings.
It means "frog", "a particular breed of horse", "the sole of
horse's hoof", or "a kind of coitus".
Another root for the Upanishad's name arises from Mānduka
which literally means"a Vedic school" or "a teacher". Paul
Deussen, the German Orientalist and Sanskrit scholar,
states the etymological roots of Mandukya Upanishad is from
a "half lost school of Rigveda". This school may be
related to the scholar named Hrasva Māṇḍūkeya, whose
theory of semi vowels is discussed in Aitareya Aranyaka of
Rigveda.
Manduka means "son of Manduki". Brihadaranyaka
Upanishad mentions a teacher called Mandukeyas, his
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disciples. Bhagavata Purana mentions one Mandukeyasas
as one of the receivers of a branch of the Rig Veda from
Indra.
Sri Madhwacharya in his commentary on Mandukya,
professes on the significance of the word Mandukya. Varuna
in the form of a frog eulogizing Srimannarayana with the
mantras of upanisad. The frog embodiment of Varuna being
impassionate, meditating upon the imperishable
supreme-being Narayana, begins to commend him with
pranava chant of upanisad. This upanisad belonging to
Atharvaveda perceived by Varuna in the form of a frog
earned its eponym Mandukyopanisad.
Chronology
Mandukya is written in classical Sanskrit prose. Since Classical
Sanskrit came into existence by 150 AD, it must post-date this
period unless it was translated later into it by some one.
Nakamura dates the Mandukya Upanishad to "about the first or
second centuries A.D."
Richard King too dates the Mandukya Upanishad at the first two
centuries of the Common Era.
Olivelle states, "we have the two late prose Upanisads, the
Prasna and the Mandukya, which cannot be much older than the
beginning of the common era".
In fact the”AUM” which is the subject of this Upanishad is not
found in any of the Vedas.
It certainly belongs to the Upanishadic Period under the influence
of Jewish Mysticism Kaballah, Christian Trinity with its concept of
Logos and Buddhist concepts of Sunya
Authorship
The text of the Mandukya Upanishad is fully incorporated in the
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Mandukya Karika, a commentary attributed to the 6th century CE
of Gaudapada, and is not known to have existed independent of
this commentary. Isaeva states that some scholars, including
Paul Deussen, presumed that Gaudapada may be its author.
In contrast to the older Upanishads, the Mandukya Upanishad is
very short, with clear and concise formulations. It has twelve
terse prose paragraphs.
The Mandukya Upanishad is central to Advaita Vedanta school.
It tersely presents several central doctrines, namely that "the
universe is Brahman," "the self (soul, atman) is Brahman," and
exists in "the four states of consciousness". The Mandukya
Upanishad also presents several theories about the syllable Om,
and that it symbolizes self.
The Mandukya Upanishad is one of several Upanishads that
discuss the meaning and significance of the syllable AUM (Aum).
The Mandukya Upanishad opens by declaring, "AUM, this
syllable is this whole world". Thereafter it presents various
explanations and theories on what it means and signifies. This
discussion is built on a structure of "four fourths" or "fourfold",
derived from A + U + M + "silence" (or without an element)
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THE MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
AUM
With our ears may we hear what is good.
With our eyes may we behold thy righteousness.
Tranquil in body, may we who worship thee find rest.
AUM
Shanti Shanti Shanti
AUM
Hail to the supreme Self!
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Om-ity-etad-aksharam-idam sarvam, tasyopavyakhyanam
bhutam bhavad bhavishyaditi sarvam-omkara eva.
Yaccanyat trikalatitam tadapy omkara eva.
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This letter AUM is everything.
This is the explanation.
All the past, the present and the future is verily the AUM.
That which transcends beyond time, that also is verily the AUM.
AUM means Akshara, the Indestructible and Imperishable.
It stands for the Supreme Reality.
It is a symbol for what was, what is, and what shall be - past,
present and future..
AUM represents also what lies beyond past, present, and future.
All this is nothing but AUM.
All that is also nothing but AUM.
In the beginning God alone existed, whatever God was.
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If this is true then everything that came into existence in the past
and in the present and those that will come into existence in the
future must be God.
Where else could they arise?
The means of creation was the sound, the creative Word of God.
This word is AUM
In the New Testament we have this statement:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and
the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God;
all things were made through him, and without him was not
anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was
the light of men.
John 1:1-4
Creation itself is the Word becoming the flesh
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Tandya Maha Brahmana echoes this:
This, [in the beginning] was the only Lord of the Universe.
His Word was with him.
This Word was his second.
He contemplated.
He said, “I will deliver this Word so that she will produce and
bring into being all this world.”
Tandya Maha Brahmana 20.14.2
This verse was actually put into symbolic form in saivism in the
form of Gana-Pathy. Gana-Pathy is the Son of Siva and
Parvathy. The word means “Lord of Hosts”. The elephant faced
Ganapathy (The Lord of Host), the son of Siva came out of the
symbolism of Word becoming Flesh – the Incarnation. The AUM
in tamil placed on the symbol of the formless form known as
Lingam forms the basis of the elephant face.
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In Karaikkudi lingam, two hands were also added to show that
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the formless took the form of a man. In Valampuri and Karpaka
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idols an AUM was placed over the Lingam which culminated in
the elephant head. This explanation fits well with the picture
because Ganapathi has only one tusk corresponding to one tusk
in AUM
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Historically, the concept of One Creator God is not found in any of
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the Vedas. Vedic religion was a religion of worship of nature and
its forces. The upanishadic teachings - the end of vedas -
Vedanta - started only by 600 BC when it totally vanquished all
Vedic gods under the Dravidic takeover of Early Aryan Religion.
Dravidians were essentially children of Abraham from his second
wife Keturah. (See my book “Brahman, the Discovery of the God
of Abraham”) . It took over a millenium to assert the monism
and bring back Brahman, the God of Abraham. The concept of
creative power of the Word - AUM appears only centuries after
the ministry of Thomas the Apostle in India. The creation through
the Word was expounded in the very first chapter of the
Pentateuch, in Genesis chapter one. It was first presented in
the Gospel in the Gospel According to John in the very first
chapter verse one.
The symbol and mantra AUM emerged in Indian scene soon after
the mission of St.Thomas the Apostle and were seen only after
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that time.
All early churches in Kerala had used this as the
Christian symbol and they appeared at the entrance of the seven
original churches established by Thomas. You can see them
even today over the main entrance of many of the churches.
AUM was clearly part of the Malankara (Malabar – Kerala)
Christian tradition from the first century.
They however
associate it with the Christian Trinity and to Christ – the word who
became flesh. An objective conclusion would be that Aum was
indeed the original Christian concept as introduced by Thomas.
The Hebrew word Amen, which translates as “Let it be so” as an
agreement within Trinity has close association with AUM. In a
sense, the three sounds in the letter AUM represents the Trinity.
It is the consonant work of the Saguna Brahman Trinity that
created the Cosmos within their body. Hence we have this
statement in Revelation of John:
“This is the message from the one who is called The Amen, the
faithful and true witness, the beginning of God’s new creation.”
Revelation 3:14
The goal, which all Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at,
and which humans desire when they live a life of continence, I
will tell you briefly it is Om. The syllable AUM is indeed Brahman.
This syllable AUM is the highest. Whosoever knows this symbol
obtains all that he desires. This is the best support; this is the
highest support. Whosoever knows this support is adored in the
world of Brahman. (Katha Upanishad I, ii, 15-17)
Aum in Buddhist tradition
Since Buddhism arose out of Hinduism, it is not surprising that
the mantra 'Aum' was absorbed into the Buddhist tradition;
however, Buddhists almost never transliterate it as ‘Aum,’ but use
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‘Om’ instead.
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The mantra "Om mani padme Hum" in Tibetan script
The common translation of this mantra is, "Hail the jewel in the
lotus" (‘Aum’ = Hail, ‘Mani’ = Jewel, ‘Padme’ = Lotus and Hum).
Manipadme is actually the one who sits on Lotus is bodhisattva, a
form of Avalokiteshvara ( In tibet known as Chenrezig) - the
God of Compassion.
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11th century Rock cut Tibetan Mantra
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Pure Land Trinity
Amitābha Buddha(center) bodhisattvas Avalokiteśvara (right)
and Mahāsthāmaprāpta (left)
Amitābha Buddha, Self born (dhyani-buddhas) one, who have
existed eternally, Buddha of Immeasurable Light and the Buddha
of the Western Paradise or the Pure Land of Sukhavati (Tibetan -
Dewachen)
Avalokiteśvara =" the Lord who looks down on the World" or "
the Regarder of the Cries of the World".
Mahāsthāmaprāpta is a bodhisattva mahāsattva that represents
the power of wisdom
In China, the character ‘AUM’ appeared in Chinese Buddhism,
and was also in prayers towards Amitbha Buddha in Pure Land
Buddhism, which is exact duplication of Christianity in Buddhist
terms which developed after the mission of St.Thomas in China.
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Sikhism is an off shoot of Hinduism with Islamic emphasis on
monism. The Sikh prayer, known as the Moola mantra, begins
with the expression, Ek Onkar . (“One AUM sound” “God is
One”).
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One AUM
Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, placed the number
"One" in front of AUM symbol, defining the basic principle of
Sikhism,"absolute monotheistic unity of God"
Ik Onkar is the symbol that represents the One Supreme Reality
one or united, supreme brahma (God), and the Atman (Soul) of
the entire universe or system.
The opening phrase of the Mul Mantar, present as opening
phrase in the Guru Granth Sahib, and the first composition of
Guru Nanak. Reads:
ikk ōnkār satināmu karatā puraku nirapǎ'u niraver akāl mūrat
ajūnī sep ng gurprasād
One God Exists, Truth by Name, Creative Power, Without Fear,
Without Enmity, Timeless Form, Unborn, Self-Existent, By the
Guru's Grace
“Oankar ('the Primal Sound') created Brahma,
Oankar fashioned the consciousness,
from Oankar came mountains and ages,
Oankar produced the Vedas,
By the grace of Oankar,
people were saved through the divine word,
By the grace of Oankar,
they were liberated through the teachings of the Guru.”
— Ramakali Dakkhani, Adi Granth 929-930, Translated by
Pashaura Singh
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Sarvam hyetad brahmayam-atma
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Brahma soyamatma catushpat.
All this is assuredly Brahman.
This self (Atman) is Brahman.
This Atman is four footed
The last sentence can be interpreted as
This Atman has Four Aspects:
or.
This Self has four states of consciousness
In verses 3 to 6, the Mandukya Upanishad enumerates four
states of consciousness:
wakeful, dream, deep sleep and the state of ekatma (being one
with Self, the oneness of Self).
These four are A + U + M + "the silence that follow the sound"
respectively.
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The first foot - The fist State of Consciousness: Viswanara - the
Cosmic Man
common all men
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The first state of the Atman is Vaiswanara (the Cosmic Man);
whose field is waking life;
whose consciousness is external;
having seven limbs and ninteen faces,
who is the enjoyer of the gross world,
who is in all beings and where all beings live.
Vaishvanara means "of or related to Visvanara"
Vishva means Universe or Cosmos + Narah means Man
giving us the meaning as the Universal Man. It probably mean
that this is the cosciousness found in every man.
Visvanara is that which is universally related to every Man which
is the life giving spirit - the consciousness.
Vaisvanara [Man, Atman] is always looking outward
He has seven limbs and nineteen mouths,
By which he experiences gross outside world.
The first state of existence of AUM is the “Waking State” as the
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Adam Kadamon - the Cosmic Man - Viswanara - who is the
enjoyer of what he perceives and receives.
In the manifested world, Consciousness appears in three states
(Avastha), viz: waking (Jagrat), dreaming (Svapna), and
dreamless slumber (Susupti).
In the waking state the jiva is conscious of external objects
(Bahih-prajna), and is the gross enjoyer of these objects through
the senses (Sthula-bhuk). The jiva. in this state is called
jagari—that is, he who takes upon himself the gross body
(material body) called Visva (Cosmic) and is called Visvanara
(Adam - Man).
This Vaiswanara has 7 limbs. Sankara refers this 7 as in the
Chandogya Upanishat 5.15.2 where this Viswanara is
described as below
The seven limbs are:
Antariksha - the space between heaven and earth which is the
head
Surya - the sun is the eye
Vayu - the air is the pranaa - the breath
Akaasha - the space is the waist
Agni - fire his heart
Aapa - the water is his stomach
Prithvi - the earth is his feet
This of course do not refer to ordinary man, but to the Cosmic
Man, the Virat Purusha
This is similar to the Kabbalistic Structure
If we want to take this in wider sense of Cosmic Man it is no more
talking about common man but Cosmic Man implying the idea of
Virat Purusha, Adam Kadamon, The Primeval Man,
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Protanthropos. Now we are looking at the whole cosmos as a
being who is identical with the Brahman. The Vaiswanara is
referring to Adam Kadamon, who is the first appearance of
Brahman in human form.
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Hebrew rendition of Adam Kadamon and Virat Purusha
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The first reflection of Saguna Brahman Ein Sof
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His body encompass the entire universe
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To Adam Kadmon, the Idea of the Universe, the Kabalah assigns
a human form, where His body forms the various dimensions of
existence of Cosmos. In taking the form of Adam Kadamon, the
Brahman transforms from Ein, Ein Sof, Ein Sof Aur the Nirguna
form of Brahman into the Saguna form and within him creates all
life forms. Man was created in the image of Saguna Brahman
Genesis 1:26-27 reveals, "Then God said, 'Let us make man in
our image, in our likeness' ... So God created man in his own
image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he
created them."
The Hebrew root of the Latin phrase for image of God—imago
Dei—means image, shadow or likeness of God. Man is a
snapshot or facsimile of God.
Hence this Upanishad is a two edged sword. It divides the
consciousness of common man, and sees it as a reflection of the
Supreme Person. In fact Sankara takes this reflection seriously
to declare that the reflection really do not exists. It is the reflection
of the Reality. However the mirror which reflects is Maya (Vanity)
which really do not exist. Where is this maya mirrror? In the
plane of vanity. It becomes a circumlocution. It is rather in the
dream space of the supreme person.
Gaudapada's Karika recognizes this dual approach:
“7 Some of those who contemplate the process of creation
regard it as the manifestation of God’s powers; others imagine
creation to be like dreams and illusions.”
However Sankara did not allow it.
The heavens are his head, the sun his eyes, the air his breath,
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the fire his heart, the water his stomach, the earth his feet, and
space his body.
In man -
The nineteen “mouths” are:
Five Jnanendriyas -The five sense organs (Eye, Ear, Nose,
Tongue, touch)
Five Karmendriyas - The five organs of action (walking, talking,
expelling, procreating, and handling)
The five pranas - the five viral energies
the mind,
the intellect,
the ego sense, and
thought (çitta)
These are called mouths because it is through these the man
enjoys the external world.
The first (jagrat) state is that of sense perception. Here the ego
lives in a mental world of ideas whereby the perceptions are
interpreted by the mind and believe it to be true. The objects
perceived when awake have such reality for all who
are in that state.
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The second foot - Taijus - The Shining One
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The second state of the Self is the Taijus- the Dream State -
Svapna State
whose field is the dreaming life,
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Whose consciousness is turned inward.
Taijusa has seven limbs and nineteen mouths.
Taijus enjoys only the mental impressions.
This state is called Taijasa, the Luminous Mind.
Taijasa is always looking inwardly dreaming,
With seven limbs and nineteen mouths,
He experiencer subtle objects inside his mind
In dreaming (Svapna) state, the Jiva is conscious of inner objects
(Antah-prajna), and the enjoyer of what is subtle
(Pra-vivikta-bhuk)-that is, impressions left on the mind by objects
sensed in the waking state. The objects of dreams have only an
external reality for the dreamer, whereas the objects perceived
when awake have such reality for all who are in that state. The
mind ceases to record fresh impressions, and works on that
which has been registered for that particular person in the waking.
State. Whatever can be experienced in the waking state can also
be experienced in this state, but with different agents of
perception.
"Seven limbs": The word limbs is used here to denote parts of
the body.
The seven limbs are the head, the eyes, the mouth, the breath,
the middle part of the body, the kidney, and the feet.
They have their counterparts in the universe, namely the
heavens, the sun, fire, air, akasa (space), water, and earth.
"Nineteen mouths": Namely,
Ten Senses or Indriyas: The human being is like a building with
ten doors.
Five are entrance doors, and five are exit doors.
The five organs of perception
Jnanendriyas: The five entrance doors are the five cognitive
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senses, which are
called Jnanendriyas (Jnana means knowing; Indriyas are the
means or senses).
hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell,
the five organs of action :
Karmendriyas: The five exit doors are five means of
expression, which are called Karmendriyas (Karma means
action: Indriyas are the means or senses).
the organs of speech or the tongue, hands (for grasping
etc.),
feet (for locomotion), generation (for procreation), and
excretion,
the five pranas
the vital breath in its five aspects:
prana, apana, samana, udana, and vyana,
Prana Vayu operates From the heart area, and is an upward
flowing energy, having to do with vitalizing life forces.Prana
Vayu, deals with inhalation.
Apana Vayu operates from the base of the torso, in the rectum
area, is a downward flowing
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energy, and has to do with
eliminating or throwing off
what is no longer needed.
Samana Vayu operates from
the navel area, deals with
digestion and allows the
mental discrimination between
useful and not useful thoughts.
Udana Vayu operates from
the throat and drives
exhalation, operating in
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conjunction with
Vyana Vayu operates throughout the whole body, having no
particular center, and is a coordinating energy throughout the
various systems.
Four functions of mind:
the mind (manas), sensory, processing mind
the intellect (buddhi), knows, decides, judges, and
discriminates
I-consciousness (ahamkara), "I-maker" or Ego and
the mind-stuff (chitta). storage of impressions
This gives a total of Twenty-Six inward doors.
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The macrocosmic aspect of Atman in the dream state is here
called Taijas - the shining one which correspond to the Kaballistic
“Einsof Aur”. It is also referred to in Indian thought as
Hiranyagarbha.
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5
Third foot - Prajna - One who knows
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The third state is Prajna,
He is in Sushpti deep sleep state,
The sleeping man has no desire of objects of outside world
He does not have any dreams.
His consciousness are gathered within
He is unconscious or rather sub-conscious and is alone.
There is peace within
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He enjoys a bliss (peace),
He is the cause of all knowledge.
There are no mouths in deep sleep, consciousness alone is the
mouth – Cetvmukhah You experience Satchidananda and you
are in the Isvara State. Being the cause for everything since both
the Sleep State and Waking State arise from it, its body is the
Causal Body.(Karana Sareera)
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These three states are known to medical science and they call
them
Wake State, Dream State = Rapid Eye Movement (REM) State,
No Rapid Eye Movement Stat (NREM)
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The following quotes are from the scientific explanation of the
three states from
http://www.end-your-sleep-deprivation.com/stages-of-sleep.html
“Eye Movements: The rapid eye movements for which REM sleep
takes its name are a result of the brain trying to scan the events in the
dream world. In other words, if one looks left and right during a dream,
the sleeper's actual eyes will follow the dream gaze and move left and
right under his or her eyelids. This is known as the scanning
hypothesis,......
In many ways these eye movements during REM sleep are entirely
indistinguishible from the eye movements that occur during
wakefulness. In both cases they are characterized by darting
movements and binocularly synchronicity, meaning that both eyes
move together. There are also, however, features of eye movements
during REM sleep that are not real similar at all to that of wakefulness.
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Namely, during REM sleep there is a lack of eye centering and fixation,
which are essential to waking sight, but a presence of occasional slow,
drifting movements that never occur during wakefulness......
High Brain Activity: In order to conjure a dream, as you might imagine,
the brain has to be highly active. In waking life the brain perceives and
reacts to the world around a person. During dreaming the brain is not
only perceiving and reacting, but also creating the environment. Thus,
it makes sense that mental activity is very high during REM sleep.
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B
rain activity during REM sleep is very comparable to activity during
wakefulness, as evidenced in these EEG recordings showing very fast,
quick waves in both states.
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Non-REM Sleep
Unlike REM sleep, the sleeper is not fully paralyzed during non-REM
sleep. In fact, non-REM is characterized by continuous low-level
muscle movements in the neck and jaw muscles.
The sleeper can also more commonly roll around and shift positions
during non-REM, but movement is still typically very infrequent
compared to wakefulness, as you might cunningly have imagined ;-)
(This is to say nothing of the intriguing occurrences of such events as
sleepwalking and sleep terrors though!)
Throughout the night, your body progresses in and out of the stages of
non-REM sleep, and each stage has its own very unique
characteristics.
Stage 1
Stage 1 sleep is a transition period from wakefulness to the other 3
stages of non-REM sleep. It is of short duration, usually lasting only
from 1 to 7 minutes. Stage 1 sleep is characterized by low voltage,
mixed frequency EEG, as well as some slow,rolling eye movements
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and some relatively higher EMG activity.
The brain activity is shown below in the following EEG recording
.
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Stage 2
Stage 2 makes up the bulk of an average person's sleep each night,
around 40 to 45 percent. A sleep researcher can easily recognize stage
2 sleep because of the presence of sleep spindles and K-complexes in
the EEG waves. A sleep spindle is a rapid wax and wane of the EEG
waves in a 1 to 2 second interval, while a K-complex is a large wax
and wane of the wave that somewhat resembles a mountain.
Image_145_0
Stage 3
Stage 3 and stage 4 are similar and both fall into the category of slow
wave sleep. They are so named because of the high amplitude waves
in the EEG. In order to qualify as stage 3 sleep, these slow waves must
be present in no more than 50 percent of the epoch. The waves are
also referred to as delta waves.
Image_146_0
Stage 4
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Stage 4 is the other slow wave sleep period. In order to qualify as stage
4 sleep the high amplitude delta waves must be present in more than
50 percent of the epoch, like in the EEG recording below.
Image_149_0
......The following graph is one of the best visual representations of how
we generally progress through the different stages of sleep in a typical
night. Look it over, and then read the paragraphs below it for a bit of an
explanation.
Image_150_0
The graphic representation above shows the transitions and relative
amount of time spent in each stage of sleep in a typical night for a
human adult. Notice that deep, slow-wave sleep is most prevalent at
the start of the night, and that as the night progresses proportionally
more and more time is spent in REM sleep.
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6
Image_160_0
This Lord of All,
This omniscient One
This indweller and controller of all and the cause of all
Is indeed the cause of dissolution of everything.
This is the Almighty,
this is the Omniscient,
this is the Inner Soul,
this is the Womb of the Universe,
this is the Birth and Destruction of creatures.
This is the Isvara State
It here Sankara being Advaitist introduces his concept of Maya.
Maya is the Upadhi (means) of the dream and wake states.
Since the ultimate reality is this Isvara - the Brahman, He is the
creator, preserver and destroyer of the cosmos what is in the
dream and wake states. Since Iswara alone is the ultimate reality
everything is within him and he creates its through his Maya
Sakthi - the Power to create Vanity. When Brahman in his saguna
form is Iswara, everything is the transformed form of Iswara.
Hence Iswara is in-homogeneous. Iswara is potentially
everything and hence Iswara can create. But creation should
take place within Him as there is nothing else beyond that. This
leads us to Vishista Advaita of Ramanuja.
Narayana (The one who took the form of Man) is the Absolute
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God. The Soul and the Universe are only parts of this Absolute
and hence, Vishishtadvaita is panentheistic. The relationship of
God to the Soul and the Universe is like the relationship of the
Soul of Man to the body of Man. Individual souls are only parts of
Brahman. God, Soul and Universe together form an inseparable
unity which is one and has no second. This is the non-duality part.
Matter and Souls inhere in that Ultimate Reality as attributes to a
substance. This is the qualification part of the non-duality.
The Abrahamic religions explains this in this way.
Since Iswara alone is the ultimate reality. Iswara create space,
time and prajna within himself by first creating the space within
his body. The image is not reflection but a part within Iswara with
similar characteristics. Thus man is not Brahman, but part of the
Brahman. There is nothing other than Brahman and there is
nothing called nothing outside of Brahman.
The following is a quote from
http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Articles/kabbalah/Creation/cr
eation.html
“Tzimtzum - Creation "Out of Nothing"
In the beginning there was only God... and nothing else. God, or
Ein Sof, was an all-encompassing Divine Presence/Light called
Or Ein Sof (the Light of Infinity). Since nothing but God existed
before creation, when God decided to create yesh (i.e.,
"something") from its Ein (i.e., "nothing"), God needed to "make a
space" or to "provide room" for that which was not God (i.e.,
otherness). God therefore "emptied himself" by contracting his
infinite light to create a conceptual space for the creation of the
universe. In a great cosmic flash, God then "condensed" into a
point of infinite density and infinite energy called tzimtzum
( "contraction") and "exploded out" in all directions (i.e., the
cosmic "Big Bang"). In a sense, this self-imposed
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"contraction"of the Infinite Light is a picture of God "sacrificing"
Himself for the sake of creation
Image_166_0
Here's how Isaac Luria (the Ari) describes the doctrine of
tzimtzum:
“Prior to Creation, there was only the infinite Or Ein Sof filling all
existence. When it arose in God's Will to create worlds and
emanate the emanated...He contracted (in Hebrew "tzimtzum")
Himself in the point at the center, in the very center of His light.
He restricted that light, distancing it to the sides surrounding the
central point, so that there remained a void, a hollow empty
space, away from the central point... After this tzimtzum... He
drew down from the Or Ein Sof a single straight line [of light] from
His light surrounding [the void] from above to below [into the void],
and it chained down descending into that void.... In the space of
that void He emanated, created, formed and made all the
worlds.” - Isaac Luria, Etz Chaim
This concept is in total disagreement with Sankara’s Maya which
does not exist but acts as mirror somehow. The Abrahamic
thought is identical with the Modified Monism - Visishta Advaita
Since everything is part of God, the creation itself is real. But
the Dream being a reflection of the real experience is virtual
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created by the mind.
Beyond all that lies the Turya State
7
Image_170_0
The Fourth is the state,
that which is not conscious of the internal world,
nor conscious of the external world,
nor conscious of both the worlds,
nor dense with consciousness,
nor simple consciousness,
nor unconsciousness.
This state is unseen, actionless, incomprehensible, un-inferable,
unthinkable, indescribable, whose proof consists in the identity of
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the Self (in all states),
in which all phenomena come to a cessation,
and which is unchanging, auspicious, and non-dual.
That is the Self; that is to be known.
Four states of consciousness
These are the four states of every man. Mandukya Upanishad
proposes that there are the same four states in Brahman too
leading to the Cosmos
The first state is the waking state.
In this state every individual is aware of their daily world. "It
is described as outward-knowing (bahish-prajnya), gross
(sthula) and universal (vaishvanara)". In this gross body each
individual feels seperate experiences. But they are all the
same Atman which is identical with Brahman.
This is the gross body.
The second state is the dreaming state. "It is described as
inward-knowing (antah-prajnya), subtle (pravivikta) and
burning (taijasa)". But this experience is based on the gross
body experience and hence is individualised.
This is the subtle body.
The third state is the state of deep sleep.
In this state the underlying ground of concsiousness is
undistracted, "the Lord of all (sarv'-eshvara), the knower of all
(sarva-jnya), the inner controller (antar-yami), the source of
all (yonih sarvasya), the origin and dissolution of created
things (prabhav'-apyayau hi bhutanam)".
This is the causal body.
The fourth state is Turiya, pure consciousness. It is the
background that underlies and transcends the three common
states of consciousness. This is the cosmic consciousness
and is pure existence. It is the true state of experience of
the infinite bliss (ananta) and non-different (advaita/abheda),
free from the individualistic experiences.
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“1:15 Dreaming is the wrong cognition and sleep the
non—cognition, of Reality. When the erroneous knowledge in
these two is destroyed, Turiya is realized.” Gaudapada's Karika
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http://www.thespiritualscientist.com/2012/07/the-mysterious-soul/
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Is there a state beyond Turiya? A primal cause which cannot be
Image_184_0
known or described which transcends the consciousness?
Image_184_0
This is the Nirguna Brahman.
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www.swamij.com
Image_473_0
Are we here talking about the consciousness alone or
consciousness and body - Jiva and Jada? The upanishad seems
to be talking only about the consciousness (Atman). It does not
talk about the Body being Brahman. Body according to Advaita
is produced by Maya which in itself is not real. It asserts Atman is
Brahman or Atmans form the Brahman in Union. If we take this
view we come to a third possibility as propounded by Dvaita
Philosophy where there are two eternal realities Brahman and
Prakriti. This is forced upon us because of the inhomogenity of
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Brahman.
“2:14 The separateness of the jiva and Atman, which has been
declared in the earlier section of the Upanishads, dealing with the
creation, is figurative, because this section states only what will
happen in the future. This separateness cannot be the real
meaning of those passages.” Gaudapada's Karika
If we start with Brahman as reality its four states can be
represented as follows as Jayram presents it.
Image_476_0
V Jayaram, http://www.hinduwebsite.com/brahmanaspects.asp
Here Jayaram presents the Advaita in the Judeo-Christian way of
looking. Kaballah presents it also.
He was quick to recognise the Christian aspect and makes it
clear in the following figure where Isvara - the word who became
flesh became the creator and redeemer of cosmos within himself.
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Here is how he presents it:
Image_479_0
“When God wakes up from His sleep He becomes Iswara ! In His
awakened state He exercises His creative will and sets in motion
the creative process. Thus Iswara is the creative Spirit, the Being,
the awakened Non-Being, the Saguna Brahman, the Brahman
with qualities, who exercising His will, His Power and His wisdom
creates the worlds and the world order (Rita)
He is the Truth Consciousness, the combination of knowledge
and will, the directing and causative aspect of the Universal Self.
He is the creative consciousness, who in the aspect of Purusha
(the Universal Male) joins with His other aspect Prakriti ( Divine
Energy) and brings forth the worlds and the beings. The word
"Brah" means 'to grow or to burst forth'. Thus Iswara is the
Brahman who bursts out of his own sleep (non-existence)”
As the creator, sustainer and destroyer of the worlds, He is also
the Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesa. They are but one
though they appear differently to the mortal world. They are the
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three qualities of His Primal Nature (Prakriti), and the three
aspects of his Will and consciousness (Purusha), in their pure a
3. Hiranya Garbha
He is the World Soul (Mahan Atma), the Cosmic Egg, that arises
out of cosmic waters and engages Himself in the creation of
forms and beings. He is the First Born (prathamaja), who
manifests forms that are already contained in Him. He is the
Sutratman (the soul of a necklace) the thread on which all beings
and all the worlds (the world of the devas, of the ancestors, of the
humans, of the demons etc) are strung like beads in a necklace.
While Iswara is the causative principle (karanabhutam),
Hiranyagarbha is the dynamic or the active principle
(kriyabhutam or karyabhutam). He is also called Brahma who as
the creative and dynamic principle uses the forms existing in Him
and brings forth the Beings.
The word "brah" means "bursting out or bringing forth" and "ahm"
means ego. Brahma is therefore he who brings forth many
"ahms" or egos or beings into this world using his divine power
and matter and pouring life (breath) into them. Hiranyagarbha is
not an eternal being, but comes into existence at the beginning of
creation and becomes dissolved in Iswara at the end of creation.
4. Viraj
Viraj is the manifest world, that which is created, or which is
brought forth. He is the result of the creative process set in
motion by Iswara and accomplished by Hiranyagarbha. He is the
manifested aspect of Iswara through the hands of the latter.
It is a world that is in perpetual motion and subject to illusion. It is
a reality that is different and distinct in nature from that of Iswara
or Hiranyagarbha since the interplay of the gunas, the elements
and the senses result in the formation of numerous individual
beings and ego forms (ahamkaras) who suffer from the illusion of
individuality and feelings of separateness. Viraj like
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Hiranyagarbha is also subject to dissolution at the end of
creation.”
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Adam Kadmon (Keterim)
Image_486_0
This image is called the Adam Kadmon, (Hebrew,
primal man“) and represents the primordial, pre-created
Man, an image of the Godhead that existed before any
other divine emanation.
It is a vertical arrangement of the four letters of the
Tetragrammaton, the four letter name of God as given to
Moses in the Hebrew Bible. In this shape, they represent
Keterim, the first reflection or image of the Ain Sof. The
image is derived from the book of Ezekiel, where the
“Divine Glory” is described as appearing in the shape of a
man.
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In verses 9 to 12,
the Mandukya Upanishad enumerates fourfold etymological roots
of the syllable
Image_497_0
8
Image_498_0
That same Self, from the point of view of the syllable, is AUM,
and viewed from the stand point of the letters, the quarters are
the letters, and the letters are the quarters. The letters are A, U
and M.
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9
Image_502_0
Vaisvanara seated in the waking state is the first letter A, owing to
Image_503_0
its all-pervasiveness or being the first. He who knows thus verily
accomplishes all longings and becomes the first.
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10
Image_507_0
Taijasa seated in the dream is u, the second letter (of AUM),
Image_509_0
owing to the similarity of excellence or intermediate position. He
who knows thus verily advances the bounds of his knowledge
and becomes equal (to all) and none who is not a knower of
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Brahman is born in his family.
11
Image_513_0
Prajna seated in the state of deep sleep is m, the third letter (of
Image_515_0
AUM), because of his being the measure or the entity wherein all
become absorbed. He who knows thus measures all this and
absorbs all.
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12
Image_519_0
That which is without letters (parts) is the Fourth, beyond
apprehension through ordinary means, the cessation of the
phenomenal world, the auspicious and the non-dual. Thus AUM
is certainly the Self. He who knows thus enters the Self by the
Self.
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Here ends the Mandukyopanishad, of Atharva-Veda.
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CLASSICAL COMMENTATORS
GAUDAPADA
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SHRI GURU GAUDAPACHARYA (c.6th century CE)
One of the first known extant metrical commentary on this
Upanishad was written by Gaudapada, probably the author of
this upanishad. This commentary, called the Māndūkya-kārikā, is
the earliest known systematic exposition of Advaita Vedanta.
Gaudapada took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality
is pure consciousness and the Christian concept of the WORD
as God weaved them into a philosophy of the Mandukya
Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara.
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SHANKARACHARYA
Shankaracharya, a disciple of Govindapada who himself was a
disciple of Gaudapada, He lived when Christianity and Buddhism
were the major religion in Kerala.
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He was probably the first to expound Advaita Vedanta in a
systematic manner.
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Shri Adi Shankaracharya (AD 788-820 )
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Brahma Satyam
Jagan Mithya
Jivo Brahmaiva Na Parah
Sri Shankaracharya
God alone is real.
The world is illusory.
The individual is none other than God.
Sri Shankaracharya
Swami B.V. Giri says in:
http://gosai.com/writings/mayavada-and-buddhism-are-they-one-and-the-same
In the Padma Purana Siva tells Parvati:
mayavadam asat-sastram
pracchanam-baudham ucyate
mayaiva kalpitam devim
kalau brahmana rupinah
O goddess, in the age of Kali, I will appear in the form of a
brahmana to preach the false doctrine of Mayavada which is
simply covered Buddhism. (Padma Purana 6.236.7)
Siva continues:
vedarthan maha-sastram mayavadam avaidikam
mayaiva kathitam devi jagatam nasakaranat
This powerful doctrine of Mayavada resembles the Vedas, but is
by nature non-Vedic. O goddess, I propagate this philosophy in
order to destroy the world. (Padma Purana 6.236.11)
Bhaskara (9th Century CE), the propounder of
bhedabheda-siddhanta was one of the earliest Indian
philosophers to attack Mayavada.
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vigitam vicchinna-mulam mahayanika-bauddhagathitam
mayavadam vyavarnayanto lokan vyamohayanti
Expanding on the contradictory and baseless philosophy of maya
propagated by the Mahayanika Buddhists, the Mayavadis have
misled the whole world. (Bhaskara’s Brahma-sutra-bhasya
1.4.25)
ABHINAVA GUPTA
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Abhinava Gupta (c. 950 – 1020 AD)
Kashmiri Saivism objects to the concept of maya or avidya as the
cause for the cosmos
Piyaray L. Raina (http://www.shaivism.net/articles/11.html)says:
“Advaita Vedanta explains the problem of phenomenal existence
on the basis of two mutually exclusive and independent entities.
The first is known as Brahman (pure consciousness) and the
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second Avidya (inexplicable ignorance) as an attachment (upadi).
Both are said to be beginning less in existence. Kashmir
Shaivism does not agree with the concept of Avidya to explain
the phenomenal existence. Abhinavgupta in his treatise on
Kashmir Shaivism, Tantraloka, refutes this concept. “The
principle of absolute existence of ‘Brahman’ along with ‘Avidya’
as an upadi cannot be accepted as a definite principle of pure
monotheism” (ibid. 111:404) because it implies the eternal
existence of two entities – Brahaman and Avidya, which amounts
to clear dualism. He further states “there is self- contradiction in
saying that Avidya is indescribable as very statement that Avidya
is a divine power of God implies that such a power is describable.
It is like a dream or a mirage – Vivarta. Brahman exists but
appears falsely as God, finite soul (Purusha), and insentient
matter.
“how can it be unreal when it is manifested. This has to be given
due consideration. An entity that appears clearly and creates the
whole universe must be something real and substantial and
should be described as such”. (Ishvarpritabijna 111-80)
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http://www.kheper.net/topics/Trika/emanation.htm gives the
following perspective of the Kashmiri Trika philosophy.
“According to Trika, the Absolute Reality, or Paramashiva
("Supreme Godhead") polarises into Static Consciousness or
Shiva and the dynamic Power of Consciousness or Shakti.
Shiva and Shakti together constitute Universal Divine Existence;
the Manifest Godhead as opposed to the Unmanifest
Paramshiva. Shiva is of the nature of Prakasha or the pure
Light of Consciousness
It is only through the Light of Consciousness that things exist,
there being, in Kashmir Shaivite philosophy, no existence apart
from non-dual Consciousness (or Chit). Shiva is also the
principle of Universal I-ness (Aham)
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Shakti is of the nature of Vimarsha or the self-reflection of that
Prakasha. Without Vimarsha there could be no existence and
no creation, Prakasha would be eternally inert and unmanifest.
This self-contemplation is also Universal That-ness (Idam), or the
Cosmos or Creation as a whole.
From the Shakti-pole of the lowest Pure Tattwa (Sadvidya-tattwa)
there results maya (or Maya-shakti), the force of multiplicity and
separation (shown as the single black circle in the diagram).
This veils the universal "I" Shiva-consciousness, thus bringing
about a duality between Subject and Object, and a multiplicity of
pure souls or centres of Consciousness (called purushas).”
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RAMANUJA
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Ramanuja(1017–1137 AD)
Ramanuja’s Vishista Advaita - qualified Monism
The differentiation we perceive is real at least for man. There can
be no ultimate proof of non-differentiated substance. Hence
Ramanuja took the position of the Christians and Kaballah..
Consciousness (Atman) is not identical with Brahman. There is
in-homogenity within Brahman. Atman is distinctive part of the
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essence of Brahman. Jiva (Souls), Jada (matter) and Iswara(God)
all three constitute the one reality Brahman together.
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MADHAVACHARYA
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Madhavacharya (1238–1317 AD)
Madhavacharya, the proponder of Dvaita Vedanta, has written
commentaries on Mandukya upanishad and offers an emotional
and theistic perspective of the scripture.
In the Dvaita Philosophy there exist two eternal realities -
Brahman and Prakriti - God and Matter. Thus there is an
outside reality besides Brahman which is not part of It.
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