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Acts 21:1-16



Reception at Jerusalem--Acts 21:17



(Act 21:19) After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry.

Act 21:23-24 Do therefore what we tell you. We have four men who are under a vow; take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may shave their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you but that you yourself live in observance of the law.


No gentile permitted

Surrounding the outside of the "azarah" courtyard was a low wooden fence. There were markers written in Greek and Latin stating: No gentile is allowed within the wall surrounding the sanctuary nor the enclosed courtyard. Anyone apprehended doing so is at the risk of taking his own life in his hands. This fragment is presently in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, Turkey



Another "No Gentiles Allowed" Fragment. This is fragment from another stone. It too is written in Greek. This one can be seen in the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem.

Into this area Paul entered to complete the Nazarite Vow with some Jewish brothers.



"He shall shave his head on the day that he becomes clean, he shall shave it on the seventh day. On the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the priest, at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. The priest shall offer one as a sin-offering, and the other as a burnt-offering, and make atonement for him."

Paul was accused by preaching against Mosaic Law and the temple. He was further condemned by bringing a Gentile into temple grounds and defiling the temple.



The Uprising in the Temple (21:26-30)


"Men of Israel, help! This is the man who is teaching men everywhere against the people and the law and this place; moreover he also brought Greeks into the temple, and he has defiled this holy place."

The riot was serious that it resulted in the Intervention of the army and the arrest of Paul ( Act 21:31-36)

Act 21:33 Then the tribune came up and arrested him, and ordered him to be bound with two chains.



Paul asked for permission to speak to the people.



Paul’s Defense to the Jews in Jerusalem (Acts 21:26—22:29)


Roman Tribune



Paul’s Defense (21:40—22:21)



Acts 23:1-23
Before the Sanhedrin

The Jewish council or Sanhedrin had jurisdiction over internal Jewish affairs. Since the charges against Paul had to do with his relationship to Jewish law, he was brought before the council. Paul played his resurrection trump to separate the Pharisees and Saducees Acts 23:12-26:32

In Jerusalem, some plotted to kill Paul. He was taken to Caesarea on the coast. The trip from Jerusalem to Caesarea took two days. The first night the army contingent (numbering 470 !) took Paul on the mountainous descent to Antipatras, 40 miles to the northwest... The next day the soldiers of Paul's escort returned to Jerusalem while the seventy calvary took Paul the rest of the way to Caesarea. Caesarea was the headquarters of Roman rule.


Herodian theater just outside the southern wall of Caesarea


High level aqueduct north of Caesarea, one of two that supplied water to the city at the time of Paul.

Acts  23:12-26:32 He remained in prison there for over two years.

Second Trial before Felix 57AD - Acts 24:1-23

Felix was the Roman Governor or Procurator of Judea. Caesarea was his political capital, and it's seaport was called Sebastos. The area was under Roman rule. Nero was the ruling Caesar in Rome.

Antonius Felix – Governor or Caesarea


 Herod's "Promontory Palace" at Caesarea, where Paul was judged by the Roman governors Felix and Festus.

Remains of the podium originally built by Herod for the temple to his patron Augustus Caesar; later the site of the city's main Christian church

Remains of the wall and dry moat built by King Louis IX to protect Crusader-era Caesarea.

Interior of the main eastern gate of Crusader-era Caesarea.


Five days later the high priest Ananias went down to Caesarea with some of the elders  and a lawyer named  Tertullus, and they brought their charges against Paul before the governor.

   Felix trembled as Paul talked of righteousness, temperance and judgment.



A dog named Felix  1751


Paul stands before the court to defend himself. He directly appeals to a very worried looking Felix, wearing a laurel wreath. On the left a judge tears up a piece of paper into tiny pieces frowning at Paul. A monster at his feet is putting the pieces back together. Paul is standing on a stool, with an angel slumped in the corner asleep, and a tiny devil sawing one of the stool's legs. A dog with the name Felix on its collar cautiously walks up the steps behind Paul. To the right of Paul stands a figure representing Justice holding a sword and weighing scales. Hogarth tells us at the bottom of the image that he has designed it "in the ridiculous manner of Rembrandt", and the figure of Justice has been made to look like Rembrandt.


Paul Before Felix and Drusilla

Acts 24:27
Third Trial

The 2nd time, under His Excellency Governor Felix.

It was a Roman Policy not to leave untried prisoners for your successor.

And before certain days, when Felix came with his wife Drusilla, which was a Jewess, he sent for Paul, and heard him concerning the faith of Christ. And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.  Acts 24: 24, 25.

Porcius Festus (A.D. 59 to 62)

Act 24:27 But when two years had elapsed, Felix was succeeded by Porcius Festus



"But Festus, wishing to do the Jews a favor, said to Paul, "Do you wish to go up to Jerusalem, and there be tried on these charges before me?" - Acts 25:9-12


Fourth Trial : Trial before His Excellency Governor Porcius Festus a Roman.

Acts 25:1-27

I Appeal to Caesar.

This was the right of every Roman citizen and could not be denied. So Paul was taken into Roman custody and went to Rome.

Agrippa the king and Berni'ce arrived at Caesare'a to welcome Festus.


Eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I,(Acts 12:21-23)

After the early death of her first husband Marcus), she married her uncle, King Herod of Chalcis. After his death in approximately 40 AD, she began another incestuous relationship, this time with her brother, Agrippa II. Bernice was later briefly married to King Ptolemy of Sicily, before returning to her brother. She thereafter also became the mistress of the emperors Vespasian and Titus Herod Julius Marcus Agrippa II: 48-100.AD

Almost persuaded




Emperor Titus   Destruction of Jerusalem 70 AD



"Festus declared Paul's cause unto the king"







Sea Castle, a 13th century Crusader fortress built on a small island at ancient Sidon (modern Saida, Lebanon).



Great Mosque in Saida, formerly the Church of St. John of the Hospitalers.