THEOLOGY OF PAUL
PNEUMATOLOGY OF PAUL
Perhaps the greatest contribution of Paul to Theology was in the
area of Pneumatology, the importance of the Holy Spirit.
The English word Pneumatology comes from two Greek words:
πνευμα (pneuma, spirit) and λογος (logos, teaching
about). Pneuma (πνεύμα) is an ancient Greek word for
"breath," and in a religious context for "spirit" It is given
various technical meanings by medical writers and philosophers of
"air in motion, breath, wind," equivalent in the material monism of
"air") as the element from which all else originated
Pneuma (ancient medicine), the circulating air that is necessary for
the systemic functioning of vital organs
The connate pneuma (Aristotle), the warm mobile "air" that in the
sperm transmits the capacity for locomotion and certain sensations
to the offspring;
Pneuma (Stoic), the Stoic philosophical concept of the animating
warm breath, in both the cosmos and the body
Jesus himself compares the Holy Spirit with the wind.
3:8 The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it,
but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is
with every one who is born of the Spirit."
Pneumatology would normally include study of the person of the Holy
Spirit, and the works of the Holy Spirit which included new birth,
spiritual gifts (charismata), Spirit-baptism, sanctification, the
inspiration of prophets, and indwelling of the Spirit. Most of
these find their origin from the writings of Paul.
The simple means of getting saved through faith is clearly stated by
Paul which is the basis of most mission and revival thrusts.
if you confess with your lips
that Jesus is Lord
believe in your heart
that God raised him from the dead,
you will be saved.
For man believes with his heart and so is justified,
and he confesses with his lips and so is saved.
"Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved."
"Even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to
all and on all who believe. For there is no difference."
In Paul’s theology it is the new birth
2Co 5:17-19 Therefore, if any one is in Christ, he is a new
creation; the old has passed away, behold, the new has come. All
this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and
gave us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was
reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses
against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation.
This process of new creation Man and the redemption is attained
through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit that is renewed in the new
birth. It is described in various terms such as "regeneration."
(Titus 3:5) “ receiving new life” (Rom. 6:4), “receiving the
circumcision of the heart” (Rom. 2:29; Col. 2:11–12), and
John 3:3 Jesus replied, 'Very truly I tell you, no one can see the
kingdom of God without being born again.'
Before his agony Jesus clearly told his disciples that they should
not depart from Jersualem until they have received the Holy
Spirit. After all this was the whole plan of the salvation.
Through the death and resurrection Jesus was able to start the new
creation through the sealing of the Holy Spirit within those who are
willing to receive.
At the Pentecost, the Kingdom of God arrived with new power with the
coming of the Holy Spirit. Since then this power has been available
to those who are willing.
John 14:16-17 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you
another Counselor to be with you forever-- the Spirit of truth. The
world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him.
But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.
Acts 2:32-33 God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all
witnesses of the fact. Exalted to the right hand of God, he has
received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out
what you now see and hear.
Eph 1:13 "After that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy
spirit of promise, which is the earnest [the pledge] of our
inheritance until the redemption
With that the believer becomes the temple of God, because the Holy
Spirit resides in the person, in person.
Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ?
17 But he who is united to the Lord becomes one spirit
19 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the
Holy Spirit within you, which you have
from God? You are not your own; 20 you were
bought with a price. So glorify God in your
Eph 4:30 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, in whom you were
sealed for the day of redemption.
The function of the Holy Spirit in every believer is to transform
him into the image of Christ. This process is called Sanctification
in the western theology and theosis in the eastern theology.
By cooperating with the Holy Spirit, the Christian is enabled to do
Eph 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for
good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in
The transformation is found in the everyday life of the believer.
Every good tree will bring forth good fruit. Thus good works are
the outward expression of the state of sanctity of the individual
believer. It is through the practical expression of faith through
good works that the Christian is "sanctified". Through the process
of sanctification, the Christian is prepared for final
"glorification," when the believer will enter into the divine realm
of existence and to the sonship of God and brotherhood in Christ and
become a participant in the eternal life of God
1Th 4:3 For this is the will of God, your sanctification:
2Th 2:13 But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you,
brethren beloved by the Lord, because God chose you from the
beginning to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and
belief in the truth.
2Th 2:14 To this he called you through our gospel, so that you may
obtain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Koinonia (κοινωνία/communion). The Unity of the Church
Now so far we have been talking about individuals and their
salvation. But Redemption is more than individual salvation. As we
had discussed earlier, it is the redeeming of both Mankind and then
the release of the entire cosmos. Hence individualism will have to
give way to more complex systems. Among the first step was the
Church. The initial outpouring of the Spirit was upon a group who
immediately formed a group with one accord – a unity. This is
symbolic of any living body where there are parts and individuals
which are all united together by the life which is the expression of
It is the spirit that gives life. When man dies, the spirit returns
to its sender. Early
Christian community referred to themselves as the”Israel of God”
(Gal 6:16), the ”saints” (Acts 9:32, 41; 26:10; Rom1:7; 8:27; 12:13;
15:25), “the elect” (Rom 8:33; Col 3:12 etc), “the chosen race” (1
Pe 2:9 ), “the royal priesthood” who were partakers in the
redemptive process with Christ.
Galatians 3:26,27 "For you are all sons of God through faith in
Christ Jesus. For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have
put on Christ"
1 Corinthians 12:13 "For by one spirit we were all baptized into one
body - whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free - and have all
been made to drink in one spirit"
Acts 1:14 The 120 met in the upper room for the outpouring of the
Holy Spirit, men and women. "These all continued with one accord
in prayer and supplication, with the women, and Mary, the mother of
Jesus, and with his brethren."
The whole description is based on the body
Eph 4:4 -6
There is one body,
and one Spirit,
even as also ye were called in one hope of your calling;
one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in
Rom 12:4 -6 For even as we have many members in one body, and all
the members have not the same office: so we, who are many, are one
body in Christ, and severally members one of another.
This forms the community of God koinonia (κοινωνία/communion). The
Holy Spirit, therefore, is incompatible with individualism,
His primary work being the transformation of all reality into a
relational status. This includes every individual and the Holy
Spirit pervades each and forms the binding life energy of the
Each individual is given the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Spirit's
gifts were given to build them into a community.
Trinity in the Redemption
The whole trinity is at work in the process of redemption each
giving diversities of gifts to the edification and sanctification of
Gifts of the Lord
And his gifts were that some should be apostles, some prophets, some
evangelists, some pastors and teachers, to equip the saints for the
work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ,
Gifts of the Holy Spirit
1Co 12:4-14 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same
Spirit. And there are diversities of ministrations, and the
same Lord. And there are diversities of workings, but the
same God, who worketh all things in all.
But to each one is given the manifestation of the Spirit to
For to one is given through the Spirit the word of wisdom;
and to another the word of knowledge, according to the same
Spirit: to another faith, in the same Spirit; and to
another gifts of healings, in the one Spirit; and to another
workings of miracles; and to another prophecy; and
to another discernings of spirits; to another divers
kinds of tongues; and to another the interpretation of
tongues: but all these worketh the one and the same Spirit,
dividing to each one severally even as he will.
For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members
of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. For in one
Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks,
whether bond or free; and were all made to drink of one Spirit. For
the body is not one member, but many.
Gal 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace,
patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness,
self-control; against such there is no law.
Gifts of Christ The Nine Charisms for Service
Rom 12:4-8 For even as we have many members in one body, and all the
members have not the same office: so we, who are many, are one body
in Christ, and severally members one of another.
And having gifts differing according to the grace that was given to
us, whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the
proportion of our faith; or ministry, let us give
ourselves to our ministry;
or he that teacheth, to his teaching; or he that exhorteth,
to his exhorting: he that giveth, let him do it with
liberality; he that ruleth, with diligence; he that showeth
Each part of the body is given gifts (coded within the organ) so
that the body may work perfectly in accordance with the will of the
Eph 4:8-11 Therefore it is said, "When he ascended on high he led a
host of captives, and he gave gifts to men." (In saying, "He
ascended," what does it mean but that he had also descended into the
lower parts of the earth? He who descended is he who also ascended
far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things.)
And his gifts were that some should be apostles, some
prophets, some evangelists, some pastors
To this must be added
the Judaism traditional gifts for the sanctification of the
Isa 11:2 And the Spirit of the LORD. the spirit of wisdom and
understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of
knowledge and the fear of the LORD.
The purpose of
the gift is
to equip the saints for the work of ministry,
for building up the body of Christ,
until we all attain to the unity of the faith
and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood,
to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ;
Php 3:20-21 But our commonwealth is in heaven, and from it we await
a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ,
who will change our lowly body to be like his glorious body, by the
power which enables him even to subject all things to himself.
There is an on going struggle between the outer man (the
unregenerated man of this world) and the inner man (the regenerated
part of the world). Paul characterizes this struggle as a war
between the Principalities and Powers of this world and the
Spiritual man within.
So we do not lose heart. Though our outer nature is wasting away,
our inner nature is being renewed every day.
Heb 9:8 By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the
sanctuary is not yet opened as long as the outer tent is still
Eph 6:11-18 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to
stand against the wiles of the devil. For we are not contending
against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the
powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness, against
the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. Therefore
take the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in
the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having
girded your loins with truth, and having put on the breastplate of
righteousness, and having shod your feet with the equipment of the
gospel of peace; besides all these, taking the shield of faith, with
which you can quench all the flaming darts of the evil one. And take
the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the
word of God. Pray at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and
supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making
supplication for all the saints,
Thus, Paul depicts the process of theosis as a progressive and
life-long struggle between the outer world and its selfish
destructive philosophies and the Spirit of Christ by which the
believer dies more and more to self and sin and transforms himself
more and more into the likeness of Christ.
since we are justified by faith,
we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.
we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand,
in our hope of sharing the glory of God.
This is a group dynamics whereby believers are called to acquire
"the full measure of perfection of Christ," This is the work of the
Holy Spirit. It is not an individual growth it has to be through
the body of Christ as an organism
Through the process of sanctification,
with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord,
are being changed
into his likeness
from one degree of glory to another;
for this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.