Who are the Dravids?
Harappans and Dravids of Nilotic Origin
JUST GENESIS through the lens of Anthropology gives the following insight:
The Eastern Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builders
Indus civilization had several large cities, including Mohenjo-daro and
Harrapa. That civilization is known by the name “Harappa” and the
people of this civilization were Dravidians.
archaeologist, B. B. Lal,(He was the Director General of the
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) from 1968 to 1972,Prof. Lal was
awarded the Padma Bhushan by the President of India in 2000) contends
that the Dravidians came from southern Egypt and Sudan (Nubia). This
would explain their dark complexion. Lal writes: "At Timos the Indian
team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an
uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are
found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The
intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found
near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and
Nubians to hold pots were identical." The Nubian megaliths of which Lal
speaks date from around 1000 B.C. (From
archaeologists, Friedrichs and Muller identified some of the skulls of
Mohenjo Daro as "Hamitic." The term Nilotic would probably be more
Paleontologists B.K. Chatterjee and G.D. Kumer
reported in "Comparative Study and Racial Analysis of the Skeletal
Remains of the Indus Valley Civilization" that the 18 Mohenjo-Daro and
Harappa skulls that they examined are "similar to skulls from Nubia
during the third to second Millennium B.C."
were Nilotic peoples who migrated north and east
and inhabited Pakistan, southern India and Sri Lanka. The Sudra
Kingdom, mentioned in the epic of Mahabharata, was one of the ancient
Saraswati Valley kingdoms. Herodotus referred to the
Sudra/Dravidians as the “eastern Ethiopians” and described them
thus: “The Eastern Ethiopians differed in nothing from the other
Ethiopians, save in their language, and the character of their hair.
For the Eastern Ethiopians have straight hair, while they of Libya are
Indus civilization preceded the Aryans
by at least 1000 years and they were of Sudanese Kushite origin. The
city of Harappa dates from between 2300-1750 BCE and was
contemporaneous with other River Civilizations such as Sumer, with
evidence of trade with Sargon of Akkad which existed 2334-2279 BCE.
They were highly civilized.
Route of Kushite expansion from Africa to AsiaThe
Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia by Clyde
A. Winters Uthman dan Fodio Institute, Chicago, 60643, United States of
America; Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(5): 294-299,
”They buried their dead in wooden coffins with the heads toward
the north (symbol of God’s throne and the place of judgment) and the
feet toward the south (the symbol of fertility and rebirth). This
distinguished the Sudra from other Indians who practiced cremation.
This parallels the burial practices at ancient Hierakonpolis, where
archeaologists have discovered a 3000 B.C. life-sized statue of a
Horite priest, a 2300 B.C. golden hawk head of Horus, and
a ruler's grave with a triple interment of a bull, cow and
calf. It is not certain that all Dravidians venerated Horus
and his Father, Osiris, as divine... The Vedas speak
of falcon-shaped fire-altars. These are associated with
Horus, whose totem is the falcon. Vedic tradition teaches
that "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the
form of a falcon."
Kingdom Building and Missionary Priests
oldest Dravidian traditions speak of ancient prehistoric kingdoms in
southern India, extending further south into land that is now under the
seas. The Sudra didn’t establish cities in the north, but their priests
traveled as far as Nepal where they are called "Harwa", the
ancient Egyptian word for priest. These ruler-priests are largely
responsible for the diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic religious
life that took root around the large water systems from west
central Africa to the Indus River Valley. It is a religious life that
shares eight distinctive features, all of which are found in the
Bible and constitute the biblical worldview.”
Possible Nubian Origin of Dravidians
is general agreement among ethnologists that the Dravidian population
is a branch of the Mediterranean race, or at least a closely allied
one. while the Mediterranean race is White, the Dravidians are
much darker, ranging from the dark Greek and Italian complexion to
black. There is also a wide range of difference in the shape of
the skull, the color and texture of the hair, the color of the eyes,
and the shape of the nose. These deviations can be explained with
a probable interbreeding between the Dravidians and Mundas, as it is
still taking place in the Chotanagpur region between the Dravidian
Oraons and the neighboring Mundas.
The Dravidians entered India
before the Aryans, before 2000 B.C., after passing through Mesopotamia,
Iran, and Baluchistan where the Brahuis, a Dravidian race, still
live. On grounds of cultural affinities such as inheritance
through women, snake cults, organization of society, and structure of
temples, some historians connect the Dravidians with the Elamites and
Mesopotamians. The evidence of Indian skulls from the Indus Valley
indicates that the Mediterranean stock became established in north
India before the Harappab Civilization came into existence around 2000
Granted that the Dravidian were,originally Mediterraneans
and that they passed through Mesopotamia, Iran, and Baluchistan,
exactly from which Mediterranean region did they come?
particular significance is archaeologist B. B. Lal's contention that
the Dravidians probably came from Nubia, Upper Egypt. This theory
would give them among other things their Mediterranean features and
dark complexion. Lal writes: "At Timos the Indian team dug up
several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny
resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all
over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing
similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near
them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and
Nubians to hold pots were identical." According to Lal, the
Nubian megaliths date from around 1000 B.C.
studies of scholars like S. K. Chatterji have discovered many cognate
words in ancient Egyptian and Nubian languages and Tamil.
Further, the new findings on the Indus hieroglyphics by M. V. N.
Krishna Rao, Fateh Singn, H. S. Parpola, K. A. Parpola, S. J.
Koskenniemi, and Yu. Knorozov claim to have deciphered the script in
terms of Proto-Dravidian and thus confirm the findings of the venerable
Indian historian Father Heras that the Harappan people spoke a
Dravidian language in the third millennium B.C.
My own comparative
analysis of the Dravidian myth of Kovalan and Kannaki celebrated in the
ancient Tamil Shilappadikaram with the ancient Egyptian myth of Osiris
and Isis confirms the Egyptian origin of the ancient Dravidians. These
two myths are very similar in content and help explain each other and
argue for a common ethnic origin. The long ships used by the
Egyptians in the third millennium B.C. could have easily carried the
Dravidians to the banks of the Indus River and/or all the way to South
India. The sea-route-however, does not exclude the possibility of
the early Dravidians taking a land route from the Phoenician shores
through Iran and Baluchistan to India. No wonder, similar hieroglyphic
writings are found both in Egypt and India.”
Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Alice C. Linsley
can verify the connection between the Nile and Indus Valley by
comparing the Egyptian and Indus pottery inscriptions in which 17
figures are virtually identical (see above).
distinct symbols (some say 600) have been recovered from the sites of
Indus Valley cities, on seals, small tablets, or ceramic pots, and on
over a dozen other materials. This compares with many thousands of
texts from ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt; and typical inscriptions are
no more than four or five characters in length, most of which are tiny.
Ten Indus Signs, dubbed Dholavira Signboard
modern scholars have wondered whether these symbols actually
constituted a proper writing system. Whatever the case, the lack of
decipherable texts means that we can gain no real insight into many of
the details of Indus society,
recently as 1000 BC the Nubian-Dravidian connection, based on pottery
samples, seems definitive. The Indian archaeologist B.B. Lal believes
that the Dravidians belonged to the C-Group. C-Group people spread
culture from Nubia into Arabia, Iran and India between 2300-1500 BC as
evidenced by the presence of Black-and-Red Ware (BRW).
writes: "At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of
ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of
early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar
to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the
subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware
ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were
The C-Group people of Nubia, southern Egypt and
Sudan are commonly called Kushites. Their black and red pottery that
has been found from the Sudan, across Southwest Asia and India to China
(Singh 1982). This BRW was used as early as the Amratian period
The C-group people - who we might call
"Proto-Saharans" - maintained herds of cattle which were used for
sacrifice and food. Bovine skulls were used to decorate their graves
in archaeologically rich Sudan.
ancient C-Group people were agro-pastoral. They were the first to
cultivate wild sorghum and millet. These became staple grains in Egypt
and were taken to Pakistan and India between 3000 and 1000 BC. The
evidence indicates that all of the African domesticates arose north of
the equator and were introduced to the south relatively late. (Salas
Clyde A. Winters believes that the Dravidian speakers of
C-Group took millet to India. B. B. Lal contends that the
Dravidians/Proto-Dravidians came from southern Egypt and Sudan. This
explains the darker complexion of the "Sudra." Lal also noted common
burial practices incorporating megaliths, circular rock enclosures and
The origin of genetic diversity found in South
Asia is much older than 3,500 years when the Indo-Aryans were supposed
to have migrated to India. The Indo-Aryan migration theory was proposed
in mid-19th century by German linguist Max Muller. Muller
suggested that 3,500 years ago, Indo-European speakers from Central
Asia introduced the Indo-European language family and the caste system
in India. However, genetic studies indicate that this is not
the case. A study led by scientists from the Centre for Cellular and
Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad, India (published in American
Journal of Human Genetics in December 2011) shows clearly that there
was no genetic influx 3,500 years ago.
apparently migrated from ancient Nubia across Arabia to India. The
oldest known civilization in Arabia was the Tihama culture which
flourished on the coastal plain along the Red Sea in present day
Yemen. Rodolfo Fattovish believes that the Tihama civilization
originated in Nubia, exactly what Genesis 10 indicates. He also
recognizes the societal organization of chiefs in the Gash
River region in Sudan (2,700-2,300 BC). Fattovich's
excavations in the Gash Delta demonstrated a clear relationship
between the C-Group and Kerma cultures in northern Nubia. His findings
were confirmed by the Italian expedition to the eastern
Sudan of 2011.”
fire altars at the Harappan water shrines of Kalibangan
and Lothal provide further evidence for the dispersion
of the Nilo-Saharans. The Dravidian word Har-appa means "Hor is father"
and these altars are built in the shape of a falcon in flight. The
falcon was the totem of Horus, called "Son" or "Seed" of Ra.
The Shulba Sutras state that "he who desires heaven is to
construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."
recent phoneme study has identified the Nile Valley as the
point of origin of modern languages and the comparison of African
phonemes with those found in ancient Hebrew suggest that Hebrew is
an African language.
Evidence of genetics
mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA
macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the human mtDNA
phylogenetic tree. As such, it represents the most ancestral
mitochondrial lineage of all currently living modern humans. L3 is the
haplogroup from which the vast majority of modern humans outside
of Africa are descended, beginning about 70,000 years ago.
The “Indians” bearing these genes live on the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands and have negroid features. They represent this early,
though probably not earliest, migration out of Africa.
estimated 60% of Indian DNA consists of haplogroup
M which emerged from haplogroup L3 emerged. The apparent point of
origin for M is the Nile and Sudan. A study by Afonso et al.
(2008) found M in over 72% of the population of Sudan (112
samples). Molecular genetics has shown that Dravidians are
phenotypically Africa.The most frequent haploids in India belong to L3M
and L3N lineages. ”
Onges of Andaman and Nicobar IslandsThe Onges and Jarawas belong almost exclusively to Haplogroup D
to Maca-Meyer et al. (2001), "L3 is more related
to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most
divergent African clusters L1 and L2"
This image illustrates the serial founder model of human migrations.
circle represents a population, from which a subset of individuals
(embedded smaller circle) moves outward to form a new population during
a migration wave out of Africa. The figure is based on the work of
DeGiorgio et al. (Explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic
variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration
outward from Africa; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
USA 106: 16057-16062).
the long before Aryans invaded Indian continent, there was a Cushite
invasion which produced the civilization of Mohenjoredero
Harappa. I am sure there were many others from Africa and else
where even before that.
The Eurasian populations to which
Maca-Meyer refers are mainly in Haplogroup D, believed to have arisen
in Asia some 48,000 years ago. It is a descendant
of haplogroup M. Haplogroup D is of special interest for Biblical
Anthropologists as many of the peoples identified in Genesis fall into
this mtDNA group. Here we find the Habiru (Hebrew), the Ainu,
black and red Nubians, and other Kushites, such as the Afro-Sumerians
and the Proto-Dravidians.
Source: Metspalu et al. Haplogroup D
Likely time of appearance about 40,000 years ago
Nubian and Nilotics DNA trace to Dravidians of Harappa and South India
The Dravidian invasion of India
Tamil Literature Society (1963), Tamil Culture 10, Academy of Tamil Culture, retrieved 2008-11-25,
with the evidence of archaeology would seem to suggest that the
original Dravidian-speakers entered India from Iran in the fourth
millennium BC ...”
Dhavendra Kumar (2004), Genetic Disorders of
the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2, retrieved
2008-11-25, ... “The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and
Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001).
Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians
indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and
then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was
historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and
may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from
south-west Iran” (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001).
There is much evidence for the Kushite migration out of Africa, as it is described in Genesis 10.
studies are but one method of tracing the Kushite dispersion. As Clyde
Winters states, "The archaeological and molecular evidence
provides footprints of a recent hg M ancestral migration from Nubia to
India."This is not the first migration out of Africa, but it is the one
to which Genesis refers when it speaks of Kush's sons and grandsons
moving from the Nile Valley into Arabia and Mesopotamia.
rulers were great kingdom builders who controlled the major
water systems and the ancient world. Nimrod, the son of Kush, is but
There is genetic evidence that the Proto-Saharan
ancestors of the Kushites moved west along the interconnected water
systems between the Nile, Lake Chad, and the Niger-Benue Trough.
Outside of the Nile Valley and some north African countries, this is
the only other place in Africa where the M haplogroup is found.’”
Wikipedia gives the following:
genetic analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides
insightful data. Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians,
Indians and Pakistanis indicate an expansion of populations to around
9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration
originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to
the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of
Dravidian speakers from south-west Iran. Subsequently, the Indo-Aryan
migration into subcontinent from Sintashta culture about 4,000 ybp. and
the Tibeto-Burmans and Austroasiatics possibly from the Himalayan and
north-eastern borders of the subcontinent.
The most frequent mtDNA haplogroups in the Indian subcontinent are M, R and U.
major Y chromosome DNA haplogroups in the subcontinent are Haplogroup
F's descendant haplogroups R (mostly R2a, R2 and R1a1), L, H and J
(mostly J2). Haplogroup F itself is found highest in Dravidian speakers
Arguing for the longer term "rival Y-Chromosome
model", Stephen Oppenheimer believes that it is highly suggestive that
India is the origin of the Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups which he calls
the "Eurasian Eves". According to Oppenheimer it is highly probable
that nearly all human maternal lineages in Central Asia, the Middle
East and Europe descended from only four mtDNA lines that originated in
South Asia 50,000-100,000 years ago.
According to the
phylogeographic distribution of haplotypes observed among South Asian
populations defined by social and linguistic criteria, the possibility
arose of haplogroup F might have originated in or near India. The
presence of several subclusters of F-M89 and K that are largely
restricted to the Indian subcontinent is consistent with the scenario
that a coastal (southern route) of early human migration out of Africa
carried ancestral Eurasian lineages first to the coast of the Indian
subcontinent, or that some of them originated there.
In a 2009 study
of 132 individuals, 560,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 25
different Indian groups were analysed, providing strong evidence in
support of the notion that modern south Asians (both Indo-Aryan and
Dravidian groups) are a hybrid population descending from two
post-Neolithic, genetically divergent populations referred to as the
'Ancestral North Indians' and the 'Ancestral South Indians'. According
to the study, Andamanese are an ASI-related group through maternal
subgroup of M mtDNA without ANI ancestry, showing that the peopling
of the islands must have occurred before ANI-ASI gene flow on the
Haplogroup F and it's descendant haplogroups.
to the phylogeographic distribution of haplotypes observed amongSouth
Asian populations defined by social and linguistic criteria, the
possibility arose of Y-DNA haplogroup F and
mtDNA Haplogroup M might have originated inSouth Asia.
The presence of several haplogroup F, Haplogroup
M and K that are largely restricted to the Indian
subcontinent is consistent with the scenario that a coastal
of early human migration out of Africa carried ancestral
Eurasian lineages first to the coast of the Indian subcontinent, or
that some of them originated there. Studies based
on mtDNA variation have reported genetic unity across various
Indian sub–populations. The genetic analysis of two Y
chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides insightful data.
Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis
indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP
in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration
originated in what was historically termed Elam in
south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been
associated with the spread of Dravidian speakers from south-westIran
Subsequently, the Indo-Aryan migration into
subcontinent from Sintashta culture about 4,000 ybp. and the
Tibeto-Burmans and Austroasiatics possibly from the Himalayan and
north-eastern borders of the subcontinent around 4,200 ybp.
The most frequent mtDNA haplogroups in the Indian subcontinent are M, R and U.
major Y chromosome DNA haplogroups in the subcontinent are
Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups R (mostly R2a,
R2 and R1a1), L, H and J (mostly J2).
Haplogroup F itself is found mostly in South Asia.
other notable haplogroups include O3 among Tibeto-Burman
speakers, O2a among Austroasiatic
speakers, G, Haplogroup P and T.
the longer term "rival Y-Chromosome model", It is highly
suggestive that India is the origin of
the EurasianmtDNA haplogroups which he calls the "Eurasian
Eves". According to Oppenheimer it is highly probable that nearly all
human maternal lineages in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe
descended from only four mtDNA lines that originated in South Asia
50,000-100,000 years ago.”
Dravidian Kinship and Abrahamic Kinship
Dravidian kinship system still continues with its preference for
cross-cousin marriage. Exogamous marriage outside of their
clans are found only in Brahmanic traditions. Kinship
Terminology. For a male, all females are classified as sister (or
parallel cousin, unmarriageable) or as female cross cousin
(marriageable). The preferred marriage for a male is generally to his
mother's brother's daughter, while in some groups his father's sister's
daughter and his own elder's sister's daughter are also quite
acceptable, as are more distant cognates classifiable as female cross
cousins. Marrying a step sister is common both in Nubian culture and
Dravidian Cultue. I have been to all these cultures from Ethiopia
to Middle East and Dravida that I could see the great similarity of
their kinship traditions.
Religion of Nubian and Nilotic Tribes
1983 when I came into the University of Juba my interest was to know
what are the traditional religious beliefs and practices of the tribes
around this region. A survey of existing literature showed a lack of
understanding of the African mind. Most of them were written from the
point of view of western materialism or from. the point of view of
early missionaries who considered the African religions as totally
pagan. A perusal of the literature in this field includes such great
anthropologists as Lienhardt G (Divinity and Experience: The Religion
of the Dinka, Oxford, 1961),Seligman C.G (Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic
Sudan, London, 1932), Frances Madtrig Dang (The Africans of the Two
Worlds Yale, 1978) and Evens Pritchard E.E (The Nuer Religion, Oxford
1956) All of them indicated similarities between Hebrew culture and
Southern Sudanese culture. But their subject matter were along
different lines and no one the comparative study. Recently Lazarus Leek
Mawut (Proc. of Conf. On the Role of Southern Sudanese, Khartoum, 1985)
attempted a study of comparison from data available from the various
literature. But the data was very meager and the conclusions so arrived
were not conclusive or compelling. Since I felt the need of more direct
information, I have made an attempt to collect data directly from the
field, from the elders of the various tribes with the help of a group
of dedicated young people from the Sudan Theological College. Fifteen
of these people went out and gathered a lot of information from the
various tribes. Their studies were codified and are in the library of
Juba University. I myself took up the interesting study of
comparison between Kuku and Hebrews to show their equivalence. In this
paper I am dealing only with the Kuku tribe which I believe is
representative of the agricultural tribes of this area. The results are
startling and the conclusions even more.
The concept of God.
is only one God and he lives Somewhere. This God is a good God, who do
not want people to sin. He is very powerful and is everywhere. He is
very wise. He is good to the people as long as they are good. But if
the people went in evil ways God punished them. No one can hide their
sin from the God and escape his punishment because Ngun is all knowing
and omnipresent. Ngun is a loving God, merciful and kind and his care
will extend to generations to whomsoever pleases Him. But he is also a
terrible God and will visit the iniquities of the fathers upto three
generations. In comparison the identical concept of God is seen in the
revelation of God to Moses. God's character was announced before he
revealed himself to Moses.
The announcement in Exodus 34:6-7 is
as follows: 'The Lord, the Lord, a merciful and gracious, slow to anger
and abounding in steadfast love, and faithfulness, keeping steadfast
love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgressions and sin, but
who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the
fathers upon the children and children's children to the third and the
Actually the word 'God' in Kuku is Ngun and the
word for man is 'Nguto" or ‘Ngutu' meaning, the image. The Kukus
believe that Nguto came from Ngun. Man is created in the image of God.
The word for spirit is 'Nguteet" with its plural as 'Nguloko'.
This also means ghost. The Ngutelet is an image of God in the sense
that the ghost is an image of man. There is another word for Angels,
'Muloko'. However the Nguloko are also considered as Angels.
implication seems to be that it is good people's spirit that are used
as angels. There are other types of beings which are spirit beings
also. These angels have the responsibility of roaming over. the earth
executing God's orders. There are special spirits who are responsible
for each family to protect them and guide them. These spirits are often
thought of as the spirits of the ancestors of the family. There are two
types of spirits - the good spirits called Muloko lobut and the bad
spirits called Muloko lorpk.
The correspondence with the
Biblical concept of man as created in the image of God and of the
angels who roam around the earth executing God's orders are evident.
The presence of angels protecting the families are probably a recent
concept in the Christian thought. 'So God created man in his own image,
in the image God He created him; male and female crated He them.
Gen.l:2 'These are they whom the Lord has sent to patrol the
'There is also an extremely interesting
concept of "Ngunto" which means exactly like God. In Christian concept
this corresponds to the concept of the only begotten Son of God who "is
the image of the invisible God, the first born of all creation'.
Co1.1:15 However we could not get much information about this concept.
There are stories which indicates the existence of the Sons of God as
we will illustrate later. There also are indications that Nguto could
become Nyunto under certain conditions. If this is so Ngunto could
imply a special class of beings rather than the "only begotten son"
This could accommodate the class of beings like Melchizedek.
is also the concept of a designer, creator God who is unknown and
unknowable called Ngun Kagwtyantt. "In him all thinge were created in
heaven and on earth, visible and invisible ...... "Col 1:16
supreme God is always held in reverence so that the ultimate oath is
based on his name. When a person escapes a danger or trouble, the
common expression will be 'Ngun let' meaning luck that God brought.
Taking an oath in Kuku is called 'milyo'. If someone accuses you
wrongly of any misdeed, the absolute denial is done as follows. You
take the sand or soil from the ground with your first finger and put it
on your tongue. Then make a cutting motion over your neck and point
towards heaven. Then you say 'Ngun lo-ki' which means God is in heaven.
is given death as a consequence of sin. However he lives on as a
spirit. This leads to the the cult of the ancestors who becomes
the proper mediator between the living and God. A small hut is
built for the forefathers who remains with the clan even after their
There are a large Spirit world with living beings who are in interaction with the humans.
study has shown the idenity of the Jewish and Kuku culture which I
believe would have been the belief system of the Dravids of Indus
Valley and later that of the South India. Those castes who were
forcibly seperated from the main stream like the Ezhavas, Paravas and
Kuravas etc retained these religious forms until recently.
Scopas Poggo in his studies on Who are the Kuku People shows that Kukus
were part of the migratory tribes from Nubia. All these ties well with
the Migratory path traced by the DNA of Dravids. This also
explains much of the symbolisms of Indus Valley seals and explains the
lack religious symbolisms during the period of Indus Valley
was known by the Hittites (Aryans) as a "prince of God among us" (Gen.
23:6). He is the descendant of Nilo-Saharan peoples who dispersed
across the ancient world. His ancestors were known by various names:
Habiru (Hebrew); Horim (Horite); Shasu of Yahweh, Anu or Hanu (Ainu),
and the Tera-neter (priest of God). Tera-neter refers to a ruler-priest
of the Anu, a pre-dynastic people of the Upper Nile. Abraham’s father
has the title Tera, which means priest. The Ainu spread abroad, taking
their religious beliefs and practices with them. The Habiru/Hapiru were
Kushite devotees of Horus.”
Pangea theory is that the five continents were together in the
beginning of creation of the land. According to Genesis
10:25 and 1 Chronicles 1:19, it was during the time of Peleg
that "the earth was divided". traditionally, this is often
assumed to be just before, during, or after the failure
of Nimrod's Tower of Babel. Continents drifted apart to
the present position in time. This is given in millions of years by the
scientists and may not be valid in this case. The statement
“earth was divided” is usually interpreted as division within different
tribes by the Bible scholars. But it is a possibility that it
refers to the shifting of continents. Originally the continents
formed one large land mass, which drifted to the current
position. This is how it was originaly. It is referred to
as PANG-AEA which means the entire earth as one land mass. If
this if before the time of Peleg, it will explain the migrations
easily. (See figure below.) Peleg was the son of Eber. Hence
those who migrated to India were Hebrews.
Continents at the time of Peleg and Joktan? “And
unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; for in his
days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. And
Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah; and
Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah; and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba; and
Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. And
their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, the
mountain of the east. These are the sons of Shem, after their families,
after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. These are the
families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their
nations: and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the
flood.” (Gen 10:25-32)
Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab
and their Dravidian families were the first to settle in the Indus
Valley which became the center of the early civilization after the
flood. They covered all the areas from the Northern Iran and
Afghanistan. These were the children of Eber through his eldest son
“Historically, the word Hindu was also derived from the
Aryan description for the Indian culture just as the Hindu-Kush
Mountain is the Aryan description of the meeting point between the
Hindu and the Kushan tribes of Afghanistan. In the earliest times, the
Hindu-Kush Mountain was known as mount Sephar, which is the Himalayan
mountain range that covers part of Afghanistan and India. The scripture
below reveals how the dwelling of the Dravidians and East Asian
families began from the ancient regions of Meshed in the northeastern
boundaries of Iran that links Afghanistan into East Asian Himalayan
mountain range that was called mount Sephar in ancient times.
‘And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goes unto Sephar, a mount of the east.’ (Genesis 10:30)
reference to above scriptural context, the territory called Mesha is
still known today as Meshed (Masshad) in the region of northeastern
Iran that is around Afghanistan. Besides, great Mountains separate the
region of northern India that began from this region from the rest of
Asia and the southern half of India is a triangular peninsula that
extends into the Indian Ocean. Although Ophir the eleventh son of
Joktan was the ancient name of India and the most prominent Dravidian
families known to the ancient the world but Havilah his immediate
younger brother also had a name in the Indus valley where the Indian
civilization originally began....”
......the land of Ophir and
Havilah where there is gold was the valley of the ancient River Pison
(now River Indus). In ancient times, India was commonly referred to, as
the land of Ophir but the modern name India was later derived from this
Indus River, which supported the cradle of the earliest civilization in
East Asia that began in regions now known as Pakistan and northern
(Nations of the World -.How They Evolved, Part 2, Nations That Evolved From the Five Sons of Shem by Olufolahan Akintola)
of IVC were Hebrews as they were descendants of Eber. To this was
added the children of Abraham who were descendants of the covenant with
the God of Abraham. We cannot call them Israel as Israels were
descendants of Jacob and we cannot call them Jews because Jews are
descendants of Judah. They were all inter-related and were all
Map of the Akkadian Empire Based on the Table of Nations
Typhon: A Chronology of the Holocene Period by Stephen E. Franklin
Again he assigns the Indus and Gangetic tribes to Hadoram, Almodad and Havila - all children of Joktan
Chronology of the Genesis Kings
is a chronology of Abraham's ancestors and his first born son, Yaqtan
(Joktan). The approximate dates have been calculated using the king
lists of Genesis 4, 5, 10 and 11.
B.C. 2490-2415 - Noah, Nilo-Saharan ruler who experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966)
B.C. 2438-2363 - Ham, son of Noah
B.C. 2417-2342 - Kush, son of Ham, Nimrod and Ramah
B.C. 2290-2215 - Nimrod, possibly Sargon the Great. His brother was Ramah (Samuel's family)
B.C. 2238-2163 - Arpacshad, son by Asshur's daughter, probably his cousin-wife.
B.C. 2217-2042 - Salah
B.C. 2196-2121 - Eber
B.C. 2175-2100 - Peleg, Joktan the Elder's brother.
B.C. 2154-2079 - Reu, likely the head of Leah's line, who named her first-born son Reu-ben.
B.C. 2133-2058 - Serug
B.C. 2112-2037 - Nahor
B.C. 2091-2016 - Terah
B.C. 2039-1964 - Abraham, Terah's son
B.C. 1987-1912 - Joktan, Abraham's firstborn son by Keturah, his cousin wife.”
centuries before the Aryan invasion, there was this Hebrew or Jewish
(if we can call all the migratoty evidence. When they invaded
were there others before them who came from Africa? You
bet. They are still living in India as marginal tribes with
religions similar to the African tribes. But this Jewish invasion
took place around 2100 B.C. The invaders were the children of
Eber through his eldest son Joktan while Abraham was from the lineage
of the younger son Peleg.
It is quite likely that they went deep south into the subcontinent.
Dravidian Origins: A Tamil Perspective
that Indian scholars used archaeological, linguistic and
anthropological evidence to prove that African and Dravidian people are
South India under Sangam Period