God and Universe
Sir Isaac Newton (1642 –
"And for rejecting such a Medium, we have
the Authority of those the oldest and most celebrated Philosophers
of Greece and Phoenicia, who made a Vacuum, and Atoms, and the
Gravity of Atoms, the first Principles of their Philosophy; tacitly
attributing Gravity to some other Cause than dense Matter. Later
Philosophers banish the Consideration of such a Cause out of natural
Philosophy, feigning Hypotheses for explaining all things
mechanically, and referring other Causes to Metaphysicks: Whereas
the main Business of natural Philosophy is to argue from Phenomena
without feigning Hypotheses, and to deduce Causes from Effects, till
we come to the very first Cause, which certainly is not mechanical;
and not only to unfold the Mechanism of the World, but chiefly to
resolve these and such like Questions.
What is there in places almost empty of Matter,
and whence is it that the Sun and Planets gravitate towards one
another, without dense Matter between them?
Whence is it that Nature doth nothing in vain;
and whence arises all that Order and Beauty which we see in the
... does it not appear from phaenomena that
there is a Being incorporeal, living, intelligent, omnipresent, who
in infinite space, as it were in his Sensory, sees the things
themselves intimately, and thoroughly perceives them, and
comprehends them wholly by their immediate presence to himself.
— Sir Isaac Newton
Opticks, 2nd edition (1718), Book 3, Query 28, 343-5.
"And from true lordship it follows that
the true God is living, intelligent, and powerful; from the other
perfections, that he is supreme, or supremely perfect. He is eternal
and infinite, omnipotent and omniscient; that is, he endures from
eternity to eternity; and he is present from infinity to infinity;
he rules all things, and he knows all things that happen or can
— Sir Isaac Newton The Principia:
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687),
"He rules all things, not as the world
soul but as the lord of all. And because of his dominion he is
called Lord God Pantokrator. For 'god' is a relative
word and has reference to servants, and godhood is the lordship of
God, not over his own body as is supposed by those for whom God i~
the world soul, but over servants. The supreme God is an eternal,
infinite, and absolutely perfect being; but a being, however
perfect, without dominion is not the Lord God. "
— Sir Isaac Newton
The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural
"It seems probable to me that God, in the
beginning, formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable,
moveable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other
properties, and in such proportions to space, as most conduced to
the end for which He formed them; and that these primitive
particles, being solids, are incomparably harder than any porous
bodies compounded of them, even so very hard as never to wear or
break in pieces; no ordinary power being able to divide what God had
made one in the first creation. "
— Sir Isaac Newton
Opticks (1730), 344
Albert Einstein (1879
– 1955) Says:
"But, on the other hand, every one who is
seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that
a spirit is manifest in the laws of the Universe—a spirit vastly
superior to that of man, and one in the face of which we with our
modest powers must feel humble.— Albert Einstein
Letter (24 Jan 1936). Quoted in Helen Dukas and
Banesh Hoffman, Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1981), 33.
"In the beginning (if there was such a
thing), God created
’s laws of motion together with the necessary masses and forces.
This is all; everything beyond this follows from the development of
appropriate mathematical methods by means of deduction.
— Albert Einstein
Autobiographical Notes (1946), 19. In
Albert Einstein, Alice Calaprice, Freeman Dyson , The Ultimate
"Physical concepts are free creations of
the human mind, and are not, however it may seem, uniquely
determined by the external world. In our endeavour to understand
reality we are somewhat like a man trying to understand the
mechanism of a closed watch. He sees the face and the moving hands,
even hears its ticking, but he has no way of opening the case. If he
is ingenious he may form some picture of a mechanism which could be
responsible for all the things he observes, but he may never be
quite sure his picture is the only one which could explain his
observations. He will never be able to compare his picture with the
real mechanism and he cannot even imagine the possibility or the
meaning of such a comparison. But he certainly believes that, as his
knowledge increases, his picture of reality will become simpler and
simpler and will explain a wider and wider range of his sensuous
impressions. He may also believe in the existence of the ideal limit
of knowledge and that it is approached by the human mind. He may
call this ideal limit the objective truth. "
— Albert Einstein Albert Einstein and Leopold
Infeld, The Evolution of Physics (1938), 33.
"Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing.
But an inner voice tells me that this is not yet the real thing. The
theory says a lot, but does not bring us any closer to the secrets
of the Old One. I, at any rate, am convinced that He is not playing
— Albert Einstein
Letter to Max Born, 4 Dec 1926. The Born-Einstein Letters:
Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from
"Science is the attempt to make the
chaotic diversity of our sense-experience correspond to a logically
uniform system of thought."
— Albert Einstein
"Scientific research is based on the idea
that everything that takes place is determined by laws of nature,
and therefore this holds for the actions of people. For this reason,
a research scientist will hardly be inclined to believe that events
could be influenced by a prayer, ie by a wish addressed to a
However, it must be admitted that our actual knowledge of these laws
is only imperfect and fragmentary, so that, actually, the belief in
the existence of basic all-embracing laws in Nature also rests on a
sort of faith. All the same this faith has been largely justified so
far by the success of scientific research. "
— Albert Einstein Letter (24 Jan 1936)
replying to a a letter (19 Jan 1936) asking if scientists pray, from
a child in the sixth grade in a Sunday School in
New York City
. In Albert Einstein, Helen Dukas (ed.) and Banesh Hoffmann (ed.), Albert
Einstein, The Human Side (1981), 32-33
"You believe in the God who plays dice,
and I in complete law and order in a world that objectively exists.
— Albert Einstein
Letter to Max Born (7 Sep 1944). In Born-Einstein Letters,
146. Einstein Archives 8-207. In Albert Einstein, Alice Calaprice,
Freeman Dyson, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (2011), 393.
Chargaff (1905 – 2002)
"In science, attempts at formulating
hierarchies are always doomed to eventual failure. A
will always be followed by an Einstein, a Stahl by a Lavoisier; and
who can say who will come after us? What the human mind has
fabricated must be subject to all the changes—which are not
progress—that the human mind must undergo. The 'last words' of the
sciences are often replaced, more often forgotten. Science is a
relentlessly dialectical process, though it suffers continuously
under the necessary relativation of equally indispensable absolutes.
It is, however, possible that the ever-growing intellectual and
moral pollution of our scientific atmosphere will bring this process
to a standstill. The immense library of ancient
was both symptom and cause of the ossification of the Greek
intellect. Even now I know of some who feel that we know too much
about the wrong things. "
— Erwin Chargaff
Voices in the Labyrinth: Nature, Man, and Science
Jay Gould (1941
– 2002) says
Jay Gould (1941
– 2002) was an
American paleontologist, evolutionary
biologist, and historian
"Facts and theories are different things,
not rungs in a hierarchy of increasing certainty. Facts are the
world's data. Theories are structures of ideas that explain and
interpret facts. Facts do not go away while scientists debate rival
theories for explaining them. Einstein's theory of gravitation
's, but apples did not suspend themselves in mid-air pending the
— Stephen Jay Gould
'Evolution as Fact and Theory', in Hen's Teeth and Horse's
Toes (1983, 1994), Chap. 19.
Atheism defines the
cosmos with all the properties that are assigned to God to Matter
law is the creator.
1988 book, A Brief History of Time, Hawking drew on the
device so beloved of Einstein, when he described what it would mean
for scientists to develop a "theory of everything" – a
set of equations that described every particle and force in the
entire universe. "It would be the ultimate triumph of human
reason – for then we should know the mind of God,"
How did the universe
really begin? Most astronomers would say that the debate is now
over: The universe started with a giant explosion, called the Big
Bang. The big-bang theory got its start with the observations by
Edwin Hubble that showed the universe to be expanding. If you
imagine the history of the universe as a long-running movie, what
happens when you show the movie in reverse? All the galaxies would
move closer and closer together, until eventually they all get
crushed together into one massive yet tiny sphere. It was just this
sort of thinking that led to the concept of the Big Bang.
The Big Bang marks the instant at which the universe began, when
space and time came into existence and all the matter in the cosmos
started to expand. Amazingly, theorists have deduced the history of
the universe dating back to just 10-43s ( what is called Plank
after the Big Bang. Before this time all four fundamental
forces—gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear
forces—were unified, but physicists have yet to develop a workable
theory that can describe these conditions.
During the first second or so of the universe, protons, neutrons,
and electrons—the building blocks of atoms—formed when photons
collided and converted their energy into mass, and the four forces
split into their separate identities. The temperature of the
universe also cooled during this time, from about 1032
(100 million trillion trillion) degrees to 10 billion degrees.
Approximately three minutes after the Big Bang, when the temperature
fell to a cool one billion degrees, protons and neutrons combined to
form the nuclei of a few heavier elements, most notably helium.
The next major step didn’t
take place until roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang, when the
universe had cooled to a not-quite comfortable 3000 degrees. At this
temperature, electrons could combine with atomic nuclei to form
neutral atoms. With no free electrons left to scatter photons of
light, the universe became transparent to radiation. (It is this
light that we see today as the cosmic background radiation.) Stars
and galaxies began to form about one billion years following the Big
Bang, and since then the universe has simply continued to grow
larger and cooler, creating conditions conducive to life.
Three excellent reasons
exist for believing in the big-bang theory. First, and most obvious,
the universe is expanding. Second, the theory predicts that 25
percent of the total mass of the universe should be the helium that
formed during the first few minutes, an amount that agrees with
observations. Finally, and most convincing, is the presence of the
cosmic background radiation. The big-bang theory predicted this
remnant radiation, which now glows at a temperature just 3 degrees
above absolute zero, well before radio astronomers chanced upon it.
Big Bang Theory - Evidence for the Theory
What are the major evidences which support the Big Bang theory?
* First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a
* Second, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds
proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law,"
named after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) who discovered this phenomenon
in 1929. This observation supports the expansion of the universe and
suggests that the universe was once compacted.
* Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big
Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat.
In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree
Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave
Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe.
This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for.
Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for
* Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen
and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support
the Big Bang model of origins.
Thus according to
Hawking the Universe
began as a singularity. Since
it began as a singularity it has a beginning.
Therefore it has a cause.
It is this their
second book attempt to coverup to show up. In his 2010 book,
"The Grand Design," Hawking said, "Because there is a
law such as gravity, the Universe can and will create itself from
nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something
rather than nothing, why the Universe exists, why we exist."
"It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue
touch paper and set the universe going."
predicts that a great many universes were created out of nothing.
Their creation does not require the intervention of some
supernatural being or god. Rather, these multiple universes arise
naturally from physical law.
is the argument as seen in "Was the Universe Created?",
Vic Stenger to establish that laws of Physics just came from
nothing. Here is the
- Not everything that begins has a cause.
This is because quantum transitions can occur without a
- The universe did not really
began as a singularity because, the t=0
by the quantum uncertainity principle.
- Therefore the universe need not have had a beginning or a cause and so
no God is needed.
The uncertainity is because of the 10^ 32 s the
Planck's uncertainity value of time.
We cannot make any certain statements what happens during
this time. Quantum
transitions occur without a cause.
problem is where did the quantum uncertainity Law come from?
As Paul Davies writes,
"But what of the laws?... Quantum physics has to exist (in
some sense) so that a quantum transition can generate the cosmos in
the first place." Davies, Paul, 'God and the New Physics'
inability to identify a cause does not necessarily mean that there is
(Prakriti in Sanskrit)- I am sorry - It is "Nothing"
eternally existed with that Planck's constant and the uncertainity
Principle as the Physical
Law even before it came to existence?
In the article A
modern creation myth David Pratt points out.
"In the beginning,
a tiny bubble of spacetime, a billion-trillion-trillionth of a
centimetre across (10-33 cm), popped spontaneously into
existence out of nothing as the result of a random ‘quantum
fluctuation’. Due to a ‘phase transition’, it was suddenly
seized by an intense antigravitational force which caused it to
expand trillions of time faster than the speed of light for a few
billion-trillion-trillionths of a second. The antigravitational
force then disappeared, and the inflationary phase of accelerating
expansion came to an abrupt halt amid an enormous burst of
radiation. The heat energy and gravitational energy of expanding
space then produced matter and, as the universe cooled, more and
more structure began to ‘freeze out’ – first nuclei, then
atoms, and finally stars, galaxies, and planets." David
Pratt May 2012
is the Potential energy of the universe of Hawking.
Notice the existence of an unphysical region.
Correspondingly the unphysical region has a real wave
function. The only
conclusion is there is a wavefunction for "Nothing" the
implication seems to be that the unphysical region is not physical,
but what then? A consciousness? A person even though there is no
material body? Does that
indicate the existence of a God.
Uncertainly only means we cannot have certain information
from that region. It is
the built in freedom of the universe. If this is not evidence of
something beyond the physical world what is?
The argument seems to be, "But if we're willing to admit the
existence of uncaused things, why not just admit that the universe
is uncaused and cut out the middleman? David
Hume wondered the same thing: "But if we stop, and go no
farther, why go so far? Why not stop at the material world?"
He goes on... " By supposing it to contain the principle
of its order within itself, we really assert it to be god; and the
sooner we arrive at that Divine Being, so much the better. When you
go one step beyond the mundane system, you only excite an
inquisitive humor, which it is impossible ever to satisfy."
David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, ed. Norman
Kemp Smith (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merril, 1947), pp. 161-62.
Mechanics and Causality
It appears that many people has been trying to prove that in Quantum
Mechanics virtual particles can appear and disappear without a
cause. This is certainly
wrong. Quantum Mechanics
is still within the Physical Law which is basically the Uncertainty
Principle which is defined. Apart
from that the Quantum Space is not empty or vacuum or nothingness.
When we speak of nothingness we are simply thinking of
non-existence of matter. The
quantum essence is not necessary material.
It is usually described as probability waves (whatever that
means) which give potential to create mass.
So even in the quantum world the law of cause and effect
still remains. Only that
the beginning of the quantum field is still at large and needs to be
explained as a beginning. So the universe as we propose is again
inclusive of the quantum field.
is certainly possible to assume that the universe existed alongside
of the One Ultimate or within the Ultimate.
If the universe had a beginning the following argument is
If the Universe was
potentially within the Ultimate when was it realized?
When did the time start? Because
time starts only when changes occur and is only a measure of change.
One of the problem with the modern Philosophy and Physics is to
assume space and time apart from matter and change.
it all we miss the total picture of the Philosophy of Science.
“We have learned that we do not see directly, but
mediately, and that we have no means of correcting these colored and
distorting lenses which we are, or of computing the amount of their
errors. Perhaps these subject-lenses have a creative power; perhaps
there are no objects.” Emerson
defines the cosmos as isolated, filled with beings (with qualities
of Mind, Spirit and Cosciousness) and Matter as seperate from God,
outside of God, created
by God from nothing - ex
It is clear what is
happening here. Theism
has taken God the creator out of the cosmos and placed him outside
the cosmos with all the Supreme Mind, Spirit and Consciousness.
The problem therefore is more of the process and what defines
universe. All this
problem has in fact been solved long before they were created by the
ignorance of later religious philosophers.
This solution is the Theology of the Person - The theory of