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SIX

THE indian model

 

Jagnath
(The Lord of the Universe)

 

The Story of Jagnath Temple and the iconic representation in the temple has a long and interesting past.  The temple was not in any way "Hindu".  According to recently discovered copper plates from the Ganga dynasty[citation needed], the construction of the current Jagannath temple was initiated by the ruler of Kalinga, Anantavarman Chodaganga Dev. The Jagamohana and the Vimana portions of the temple were built during his reign (1078 - 1148 CE). However, it was only in the year 1174 CE that the Oriya ruler Ananga Bhima Deva rebuilt the temple to give a shape in which it stands today

 

Jagannath worship in the temple continued until 1558, when Orissa was attacked by the Afghan general Kalapahad. Subsequently, when Ramachandra Deb established an independent kingdom at Khurda in Orissa, the temple was consecrated and the deities reinstalled.

 

Legendary account as found in the Skanda-Purana, Brahma Purana and other Puranas and later Oriya works state that Lord Jagannath was originally worshipped as Lord Neela Madhav by a Savar king ( tribal chief ) named Viswavasu. Having heard about the deity, King Indradyumna sent a Brahmin priest, Vidyapati to locate the deity, who was worshipped secretly in a dense forest by Viswavasu. Vidyapati tried his best but could not locate the place. But at last he managed to marry Viswavasu's daughter Lalita and eventually took over the temple. 

Evidently it was under the control of Buddhists and Jain denominations until it was taken over by the Brahmins - and today it is controlled by the Vaishnavites.  The Three deities were renamed as Jagannath (as Krishna), Balabhadra ( Krishna 's Brother) , Subhadra (his sister) a forced trinity which do not exist in Vaishnavism in order to maintain the ancient tradition.

Here is the three idols which are crudely made from wood.  This is in sharp contrast to the Hindu tradition of idols being made from Pancha Loha (five metals).

   

The Black represents the unknowable God who wakes up and creates, the white represents the knowable Crown and the female the Holy Spirit that recreates.

There are numerous smaller temples and shrines within the Temple complex where active worship is regularly conducted.  What is not normally told is that there is a legend that one of the Apostles of Jesus (name is not given) came to Puri in the first centuries of Christianity.  One of the shrines within the Temple complex even have a large cross which is made also with wood and worshipped.

This again supports my thesis "The emergence of Hinduism from Christianity".  Without the Christian and Kabbalistic background it is impossible to explain the iconographic models within the Jagnnath concept of Puri.


This figure of Jagnath, which is celebrated as the Lord of the Universe, is really an epitome of the theology, which is essentially the theology of Eastern Churches and that of the Hebrew Kabala.  It developed in India soon after the advent of Thomas.  The description of the figure can be summarized as follows:

In the beginning, God alone existed.  We cannot attribute any quality to God, because qualities are relative.  Without the existence of another, we cannot define qualities.  This God – the beginning - is referred to as Nirguna Brahman (God without Qualities).  This is represented as the darkness.  God who resides in darkness symbolized the God who cannot be known.  “Jehovah hath said that he would dwell in the thick darkness” (1 King 8:12)  “Jehovah spake unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice”  (Deu. 5:22)

Then the fact remains that we have a creation and movement.  Therefore, this Nirguna Brahman put on a variation within himself.  It is as though he differentiated himself to parts thus creating a God with Properties and Qualities.  This God is known as Saguna Brahman (God with Properties).  God is a person not a force.  This is because creation needs a purposeful act.  The two open eyes represent this waking up process.  This God has expressed himself and hence can be known through creation and in intimacy.

Saguna Brahman

Out of the mouth of this Jagnath proceeds the AUM – the Word. 

The Word became Flesh

The Aum is a person as its vibrations takes the form of a man - a person and rises to create.  It is this person Om that created the universe with all its variations – material and immaterial.  The whole creation is in a way Word becoming flesh.  The whole cosmos forms the body of God. “For in him we live, and move, and have our being”.  This concept explains the immanence and transcendence of God.  Church as the body of Christ is just an extension of this Jagnath concept

It is evident that this sophisticated concept of God which did not exist prior to Christian era appeared in crystallized form in powerful concrete expression could not have occurred except through Thomas.  This connection of Hebrew mysticism to Indian theology goes much deeper in all aspects of Hindu worship and daily living.

RIG VEDA X

 

The creation hymn of Rig Veda comes in the tenth mandala which according to scholars are of post Christian origin as it indicates  a level of philosophical speculation very atypical of the Rig-Veda, which for the most part is occupied with ritualistic invocation.  Upanishads are written in modern Sanskrit which dates later than the 3rd century AD and may reflect the Thomas Christian traditions.  Without going into the details we give the Upanishadic thought pattern.

 "In the beginning there was neither existence nor non- existence; there was no atmosphere, no sky, and no realm beyond the sky. What power was there? Where was that power? Who was that power? Was it finite or infinite?

There was neither death nor immortality. There was nothing to distinguish night from day. There was no wind or breath. God alone breathed by his own energy. Other than God there was nothing. 
In the beginning darkness was swathed in darkness. All was liquid and formless. God was clothed in emptiness.

Then fire arose within God; and in the fire arose love. This was the seed of the soul. Sages have found this seed within their hearts; they have discovered that it is the bond between existence and non-existence.

Who really knows what happened? Who can describe it? How were things produced? Where was creation born? When the universe was created, the one became many. Who knows how this occurred? 
Did creation happen at God's command, or did it happen without his command? He looks down upon creation from the highest heaven. Only he knows the answer -or perhaps he does not know."

Rig Veda 10:129.1-7

http://www.sofiatopia.org/equiaeon/theonomy.htm

The Sofiatopia explains this in the following graphic way.  This points to the existence of a unique Creator who exists before the gods & creation. In the case of the Creation Hymn, "Prajāpati" is His name.  "Prajāpati" literally means "Lord of Creatures". Together with "Brahmā" (rarely mentioned) "Pratjāpati" emerged from "Hiranyagarbha", the "golden egg" of the Rigveda, the animating principle in all creatures whom all gods obey. "Brahmā" and "Pratjāpati" are different names for the same, unique Creator.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiranyagarbha says:

Hiranyagarbha, meaning the "golden fetus" or "golden womb", in one hymn of the Rigveda (RV 10.121) is a name for the source of the creation of the Universe. The hymn is known as hiranyagarbha sukta and presents an important glimpse of the emerging monism, or even monotheism, in the later Vedic period, along with the Nasadiya sukta suggesting a single creator deity predating all other gods ("He is the God of gods, and none beside him."), in the hymn identified as Prajapati (creator).

The Upanishads elaborate that Hiranyagarbha floated around in water in the emptiness and the darkness of the non-existence for about a year, and then broke into two halves which formed the Swarga and the Prithvi.

In classical Puranic Hinduism, Hiranyagarbha is a name of Brahma, so called because he was born from a golden egg (Manusmrti 1.9)

The Hiranyagarbha Sukta in the Rig Veda, the Vayu Purana, Bhagavata Purana and Brahmanda Purana (all written later than 3c AD) mention the golden womb, the Hiranyagarbha or Brahmanda, the Cosmic Egg - that is sometimes interpreted as the golden foetus or embryo - that, floating in a dark void, contracted and gave birth to the universe and all that's part of it - containing both male and female principles in union.

 

The Hiraṇyagarbha Sūkta

The Hiraṇyagarbha Sūkta of the Ṛigveda declares that God manifested Himself in the beginning as the Creator of the Universe, encompassing all things, including everything within Himself, the collective totality, as it were, of the whole of creation, animating it as the Supreme Intelligence.

Sanskrit Verse

हिरण्यगर्भः समवर्तताग्रे भूतस्य जातः पतिरेकासीत
दाधार पृथ्वीं ध्यामुतेमां कस्मै देवायहविषा विधेम
hiraṇyagarbhaḥ samavartatāgre bhūtasya jātaḥ patirekāsīta |
sa dādhāra pṛthvīṃ dhyāmutemāṃ kasmai devāyahaviṣā vidhema ||

आत्मदा बलदा यस्य विश्व उपासते प्रशिषं यस्यदेवाः
यस्य छायामृतं यस्य मर्त्युः कस्मै देवायहविषा विधेम
ya ātmadā baladā yasya viśva upāsate praśiṣaṃ yasyadevāḥ |
yasya chāyāmṛtaṃ yasya martyuḥ kasmai devāyahaviṣā vidhema ||

यः प्राणतो निमिषतो महित्वैक इद्राजा जगतो बभूव
ईशे अस्य द्विपदश्चतुष्पदः कस्मै देवाय हविषाविधेम
yaḥ prāṇato nimiṣato mahitvaika idrājā jagato babhūva |
ya īśe asya dvipadaścatuṣpadaḥ kasmai devāya haviṣāvidhema ||

यस्येमे हिमवन्तो महित्वा यस्य समुद्रं रसया सहाहुः
यस्येमाः परदिशो यस्य बाहू कस्मै देवाय हविषाविधेम
yasyeme himavanto mahitvā yasya samudraṃ rasayā sahāhuḥ |
yasyemāḥ paradiśo yasya bāhū kasmai devāya haviṣāvidhema ||

येन दयौरुग्रा पर्थिवी दर्ळ्हा येन सव सतभितं येननाकः
यो अन्तरिक्षे रजसो विमानः कस्मै देवायहविषा विधेम
yena dayaurugrā parthivī ca darḻhā yena sava satabhitaṃ yenanākaḥ |
yo antarikṣe rajaso vimānaḥ kasmai devāyahaviṣā vidhema ||

यं करन्दसी अवसा तस्तभाने अभ्यैक्षेतां मनसारेजमाने
यत्राधि सूर उदितो विभाति कस्मै देवायहविषा विधेम
yaṃ karandasī avasā tastabhāne abhyaikṣetāṃ manasārejamāne |
yatrādhi sūra udito vibhāti kasmai devāyahaviṣā vidhema ||

आपो यद बर्हतीर्विश्वमायन गर्भं दधानाजनयन्तीरग्निम
ततो देवानां समवर्ततासुरेकःकस्मै देवाय हविषा विधेम
āpo ha yada barhatīrviśvamāyana garbhaṃ dadhānājanayantīragnima |
tato devānāṃ samavartatāsurekaḥkasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ||

यश्चिदापो महिना पर्यपश्यद दक्षं दधानाजनयन्तीर्यज्ञम
यो देवेष्वधि देव एक आसीत कस्मैदेवाय हविषा विधेम
yaścidāpo mahinā paryapaśyada dakṣaṃ dadhānājanayantīryajńama |
yo deveṣvadhi deva eka āsīta kasmaidevāya haviṣā vidhema ||

मा नो हिंसीज्जनिता यः पर्थिव्या यो वा दिवंसत्यधर्मा जजान
यश्चापश्चन्द्रा बर्हतीर्जजानकस्मै देवाय हविषा विधेम
mā no hiṃsījjanitā yaḥ parthivyā yo vā divaṃsatyadharmā jajāna |
yaścāpaścandrā barhatīrjajānakasmai devāya haviṣā vidhema ||

परजापते तवदेतान्यन्यो विश्वा जातानि परि ताबभूव
यत्कामास्ते जुहुमस्तन नो अस्तु वयं सयाम पतयोरयीणाम
parajāpate na tavadetānyanyo viśvā jātāni pari tābabhūva |
yatkāmāste juhumastana no astu vayaṃ sayāma patayorayīṇāma ||

 Translation

In the beginning was the Divinity in his splendour, manifested as the sole Lord of land, skies, water, space and that beneath and He upheld the earth and the heavens.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

It is that who bestows soul-force and vigor, whose guidance all men invoke, the Devas invoke whose shadow is immortal life and death.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

It is that who by His greatness became the One King of the breathing and the seeing, who is the Lord of man and bird and beast.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

It is that through whose glory the snow-clad mountains rose, and the ocean spread with the river, they say. His arms are the quarters of the sky.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings ?

It is that through whom the heaven is strong and the earth firm, who has steadied the light and the sky's vault, and measured out the sphere of clouds in the mid-region.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offering?

It is that to whom heaven and earth, placed in the light by his grace, look up, radiant with the mind while over them the sun, rising, brightly shines.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

When the mighty waters came, carrying the universal germ, producing the flame of life, then dwelt there in harmony the One Spirit of the Devas.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

It is that who in its might surveyed the waters, conferring skill and creating worship - That, the God of gods, the One and only One.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

Mother of the world - may that not destroy us who with Truth as his Law made the heavens and produced waters, vast and beautiful.

Who is the deity we shall worship with our offerings?

Lord of creation! No one other than thee pervades all these that have come into being.

May that be ours, for which our prayers rise, may we be masters of many treasures!

-- (RV 10:121) [Ralph T.H Griffith]

Taittiriya Upanishad

"Those who deny God, deny themselves. Those who affirm God, affirm themselves.

God said: 'Let me multiply! Let me have offspring! ' So he heated himself up; and when he was hot, he emitted the entire world, and all that it contains. 

And after emitting the world, he entered it. He who has no body, assumed many bodies. He who is infinite, became finite. He who is everywhere, went to particular places. He who is totally wise, caused ignorance. He who sees all truth, caused delusion. God becomes every being, and gives reality to every being.

Before the world was created, God existed, but was invisible. By means of the soul all living beings can know God; and this knowledge fills them with joy. The soul is the source of abiding joy. When we discover the soul in the depths of our consciousness, we are overwhelmed with delight. If the soul did not live within us, then we should not breathe -we should not live.

The soul is one. The soul is changeless, nameless, and formless. Until we understand the soul, we live in fear. Scholars may study the soul through words; but unless they know the soul within themselves, their scholarship merely emphasizes their ignorance, and increases their fear."

Taittiriya Upanishad 2:6; 7

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Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Another version of creation of the universe represents creation simply as a splitting up of the Self of God.

"In the beginning there was a single soul. This soul looked around, and saw nothing but itself. It exclaimed: 'Here I am! , From that moment the concept '1' came into existence. Realizing it was alone, this entity became afraid. Then it thought: 'Why should I be afraid, when there is no one but me?' So its fear subsided.

Yet, since pleasure can only be enjoyed in company, this soul lacked all pleasure. Thus it wanted a companion. It was as large as a man and a woman embracing. So it split into two, becoming a husband and a wife. That is why it is said that a husband and wife are two halves of a single being.

The husband and wife had sexual intercourse; and from their union human beings were born. 

She then thought: 'Since we came from the same soul, surely it is wrong for us to have intercourse. I shall hide myself.' So she became a cow. But he became a bull, and they had intercourse; and from their union cattle were born. Then she became a mare, and he a stallion; and from their union horses were born. In this way all living creatures were born, down to the smallest insect.

Thus the soul is the common vital entity in every living being. The soul is dearer than a son or daughter, dearer than wealth, dearer than all things. When people recognize that only the soul is truly dear to them, then that which is dear to them, will never perish."

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1:4.
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The Hindu Model

transcendent order

formless "Brahman"

uncreated creating Being

imperishable, impersonal "Brahman"

"Nirguna Brahman"

absolute Being

pre-creational immanent order

manifest "Brahman"

the Creator or "Brahmā"

personal Brahmā, the start of "māyā"

"Saguna Brahman" & "samsāra"

the Supreme Being creates the Gods

  Divine immanent order

manifest "Trimūrti"

create - sustain - destroy

Brahmā, Vishnu, Shiva

the balance between life & death (dharma)

Gods & Goddesses ruling the world

"BRAHMAN" = the All = the Divine

 

"Brahman"
(formless) = "ātman"

"Brahmā" 
(manifest)

 

Imperishable Absolute, the Real

Lord of the Universe & Illusion

 

the "ātman"  "purusha"

the "anātman" "prakrti"

 

http://www.sofiatopia.org/equiaeon/theonomy.htm