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ARYAN INVASION AND EXPANSION IN INDIA


Was there an Aryan Invasion of India?  Was there a massacre of the natives at that time?  These may look very sensitive issues at the present time.  However these questions must be looked upon from the point of view of the society, which existed at that period, and the methods of migration and occupation extant at the period. It was normal for large family groups to migrate from one place to another as it is done even today.  The means of transportation and methods of occupation are different.  But the basic philosophy and thrust has always been the same. Aryans were good agriculturists and it is normal that Aryans expanded into other territories.  Especially at the onslaught of Semitic tribes into their own land they were naturally forced to find greener pastures.  With their superior war techniques and weapons of mass destruction made out of iron it is not in anyway surprising that they were able to conquer and weed out the Indo-Dravidian occupants from their settlements. The conquest of Canaan in the Bible, conquests of Alexander the Great, Persian and Assyrian conquests, the colonization of America and India by the colonialists and all history repeats the same process.

There is nothing to be ashamed of by the descendants of these powerful people about the past history.  It simply was the norm and it still is.

We do not have any details about how the Dravidians came to be the occupants of India at the time the Aryans came in.  Were there others in the region before them?  Some analysts believe that the Dravidians are of Negro origin others purpose that they were the children of Abraham through his handmaids.  The fact remain that the Mohan-Jodaero and Harrappa culture existed at the time of the onslaught of Aryans into India.

The best detailed analysis I have read on this issue is the book on Introduction To The Bible of Aryan Invasions, Aryan Invasions & Genocide of Negroes, Semites & Mongols, and The Bible of Aryan Invasions, by Prof. Uthaya Naidu. Prof. Uthaya presents the history as ethnic genocide of the same nature as the genocide of Jews by Nazis.  It is true.  But then it is not only the Aryans who do that; Africans tribes witness it even today.

Like every other nations and warfare, these were indeed massacres and genocides.  To try to ignore that fact will be unrealistic.  That was what had been happening all through history.  A discerning student can see the same techniques and massacres and genocides in the Old Testament descriptions of invasion of Israel into the land of Aryans.  In the portions below I practically quote most of the relevant descriptions and the documentary evidence given by Prof. Uthaya Naidu

Evidently invasion of India by the Aryans was a slow process and was not by the same group.  As one group of Aryans were able to drive out the local people and occupy some land others of different tribe came in.  It probably took over a thousand years or more to reach the entire peninsula from the Himalayas to Sri Lanka.  At every stage the local occupants gave a vehement fight.  The war was won not by force alone, but also through tactics, clever manipulations and even treachery. “Everything is permitted in War and Love”.   But then we cannot call them foreigners because they did integrate with the people.  Just as all immigrations, the group tried to maintain ethnic purity.  But naturally it is impossibility as the generations rolled by.  New forms of social structures and class divisions evolved in time.  Thus in time we have the evolution of the four castes and the outcastes.  These were the dictates of the society to exploit the have-nots by the haves.  It so happened that the Dravidians were pushed back to the tip of the peninsula and were forced to surrender and remain as outcastes.  Some group found ways to rise up in the hierarchy and assimilate and mimic the upper castes for social promotion.  But that is another story in sociology of India.

The Scriptures of all nations are the history of those nations whereby God of the nation is seen in action.  We can indeed know God only through his action in people’s life and in the life of the nation.  Thus Yhvh is the God of Israel; Indra is the God of Vedic Aryans. The wars were won by the gods not by people.  Again Kings were always considered a god.  Thus they were worshipped in Egypt, in Rome, in Syria etc.  The Gods of Vedas and the Puranas were Kings, who were later deified.  Myths began to grow around them.  Thus it is legitimate and proper to see the story of Aryan invasion in the stories of Rg Veda and in the later Puranas.

Prof Uthaya traces these invasions in his book in detail.  I will quote the salient parts in summary as I try to make a coherent picture of the growth of Aryan influence in India.

 Indra Invasion  (1500 BC)

In the Rig Veda, Indra is the king of the gods. He has power over the sky and rain and his weapon is the thunderbolt. Indra is depicted   with four arms and ride horse chariot in the earlier versions and later depicted as riding a white elephant Airavata. Indra is the god of battle and a drunkard. Before each battle, he drinks enormous quantities of intoxicating soma   juice prepared from a plant.  He has even killed his father when his father took some of his soma.  He defeated Vritra the Naga.   By killing the serpent, Indra separated land from ocean, and caused the sun to rise.

 

Indra was the first of the nomadic Aryan leaders to descend into India.

Sack of the Minor Towns


Initially, Indra sacked and pillaged the minor towns and villages of the Indus countryside. He is thus praised by the Vedic sages as Puroha or Purandhara, `sacker of cities' [ S+T.366 ] and is later elevated into godhood, ultimately becoming an incarnation of Vishnu. He destroyed 100 minor Indus towns:

" Indra overthrew 100 Puras made of stone ( asmanmayi ) for his worshipper Divodasa [ RgV.IV.30.20 ], evidently belonging to Sambara who is a Dasa ( non-Aryan black ) of the mountain " [ RgV.VI.26.5 ]
-- [ Chan.V ] [ Chan.S ] [ Chan.H ] [ S+T.364 ]

Destruction of the Indus Dam System & Flooding


The larger metropolises of the Indus managed to withstand the Aryan onslaught due to the protection of massive walls. To force their capitulation, the Aryans smashed the sophisticated Indus dam and irrigation system, no trace of which now remains. This led to widespread monsoon flooding, causing slit deposits which are still to be found in the ruins of the Indus cities, and destruction of the fertile topsoil. This meant the end of settled agriculture in the Indus basin. Thus the Vedas proudly praise Indra as the destroyer of this irrigation system, no trace of which now remains (vrtra=dam in Sanskrit) :

+ He smote Vrtra who encompassed the waters [ RgV.VI.20.2 ]
+ He smote Vrtra who enclosed the waters, like a tree with the bolt [ RgV.II.14.2 ]
+ He is referred to as `conquering the waters' ( apsujit ), which is his prime attribute.
+ Indra let loose the streams after slaying Vrtra [ RgV.IV.19.8 ]
+ He cleaves the mountian, making the streams flow [ RgV.I.57.6; X.89.7 ], even with the sound of his bolt [ RgV VI.27.1]
-- [ RgV I.57.6; II.14.2; IV.19.8; VI.20.2; VI.27.1; X.89.7 ] [ S+T.368 ]

In Sanskrit, `vrtra' is an `obstacle', and denotes a barrage or blockage [ Kos.70-71]. It is thus a word for `dam'. Dams now called Gebr-band are found on many water-courses of the western parts of the Indus region. Aryans shattered the dam system of the Indus, leading to silt deposits in Mohenjo-daro [ S+T.369]. This is vividly described in the Rig Veda:

+ When he [Indra] laid open the great mountain, he let loose the torrents and slew the Danava, he set free the pent up springs, the udder of the mountain. [ RgV V.32.1-2 ]
+ He slew the Danava, shattered the great mountian, broke open the well, set free the pent up waters. [ RgV I.57.6; V.33.1 ]
+ He releases the streams which are like impisoned cows [ RgV I.61.10 ]
+ He won the cows and soma and made the 7 rivers flow. [ RgV I.32.12; II.12.12 ]
+ He releases the imprisoned waters [ RgV I.57.6; I.103.2 ]
+ He dug out channels for the streams with his bolt [ RgV II.15.3 ], let the flood of waterrs flow into the sea. [ RgV II.19.3 ]
+ He caused the waters pent up by Vrtra to flow [ RgV III.26.6; IV.17.1 ]
-- [ Mac ] [ S+T.368-9 quotg Macdonell ]

Another verse explicitly mentions him as a destroyer of dams:

rinag rodhamsi krtrimani
= " he removed artificial barriers"
-- [ RgV 2.15.8 ]

 

Fall of Harappa
 

The larger Indus cities, their agricultural supply base gone, and crowded with refugees fleeing the Aryan onslaught, finally fell to the barbarian invader. Indra besieged Harappa, defeated the Indian army at their last stand, and then sacked Harappa itself, the queen of cities with massive ziggurats and large-scale industries.   The fractured skulls and thick ash layers survive in the upper layers of the Indus cities. This is recounted in the famous Rig Vedic Harappa hymn :

" In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of Virasakha."
"At Hariyupiyah he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the rear fled frighted."
-- [ Rg.V. XXVII.5 ]

This Hariyupiyah is the Harappa excavated in the 1920s.

  No doubt the invasion of India by the Aryans were more ferocious than the invasion of Canaan by the Hebrews.  The mass destructions and methods of warfare are very similar to those described in the Bible.
 

[Deut. 7: 2  and when the LORD your God has delivered them over to you and you have defeated them, then you must destroy them totally. Make no treaty with them, and show them no mercy.]

*   " Thou, Indra, art the destroyer of all the cities, the slayer of the Dasyus, the prosperer of man, the lord of the sky."
< " Tvam hi shasvatinam Indra daita puram asi
hanta dasyor manor vridhah patir divah " - Sans. >
-- [ RgV.VIII.87.6 ] [ Muir I.175 ]

*   " Indra, the slayer of Vrittra, the destroyer of cities, has scattered the Dasyu (hosts) sprang from a black womb. "
-- [ RgV. II.20.6 ] [ Muir I.174 ]

*   The ancient singer praises the god who "destroyed the Dasyans and protected the Aryan colour." [ Rg.V. III.34.9 ] [ Ann. 114 ] and "the thunderer who bestowed on his white friends the fields, bestowed the sun, bestowed the waters." [ Rg.V. I.100.18 ] [ Ann. 114 ] Numerous are the references to "the black skin" `Krishnam Vacham' [ RgV. IX.41.1, Sam.V. I.491, II.242 ] [ Ann. 114 ] which is mentioned with abhorrence.

*   Again " stormy gods who rush on like furious bulls and scatter the black skin." [ RgV.IX.73.5 ]

*   The singers mention "the black skin, the hated of Indra", being swept ourtof heaven [ RgV.IX.73.5 ]

*   "Indra protected in battle the Aryan worshipper, he subdued the lawless for Manu, he conqured the black skin." [ Rg.V. I.130.8 ] [ Ann.114 ]

*   The sacrificer poured out thanks to his god for "scattering the slave bands of black descent", and for stamping out " the vile Dasyan colour." [ Rg.V. II.20.7, II.12.4 ] [ Ann. 115 ]

*   "Black skin is impious" <"Dasam varnam adharam" -Sans.> [ Rg.V. II.12.4 ] [ Muir Pt.I, p.43, II, p.284, 323 etc. ] [ Ann. 114 ff ].

*   "[Indra] made the impious varNa of the dAsas lower and hidden." <"[i'ndro] dA'saM va'rNaM a'dharaM gu'hA'kaH" - Sans> [ RV. II.12.4 ]

 They burnt the cities

[Deut 13: 15  you must certainly put to the sword all who live in that town. Destroy it completely, both its people and its livestock.]

" Thou, a hero, a benefactor, hast impelled the character of man; vicotiruos, thou hast burnt up the rite-less Dasyu, as a vessel is consumed by a blaze"
-- [ RgV. I.175.3 ] [ Muir I.174 ]

 The warriors were urged even to destroy all foreigners who lived among the 

" Ye mighty ones [ Aryan Asvins ] what do you do there;
why do you stay there among the people who are held in high esteem through not offering sacrifices;
ignore them, destroy the life of the Panis "
-- [ RgV I.83.3 ] [ S+T.365 ]

 

Bharata Invasion (1400 BC) :

 

Bharata's Invasion from Afghanistan defeating Indra and created Bharata varsha


Bharata was a descendant of Kashyapa, who is named after the Caspian sea, where the lunar race of Aryans is thought to have originated. Bharata's legendary capital lay in the Kabul valley, ie. the Yusufzai territory of modern Afghanistan:

" According to local tradition, the original seat of the empire of Bharata was much further to the morth-west, namely, at the site now occupied by the ruins of Takh-i-Bahi, in the country of the Yusufzais to the northward of Peshawur."
-- [ Mah.wh.48n.2 ]

From this base he descended onto the plains of India. There he defeated Indra [ Mah.wh.45 ], a descendant of the ancestor-god Indra, earning himself the title "most renowned of the Lunar race" [ Mah.wh.47 ]. He then conquered the Upper Ganges valley, exceeding Indra's dominion.

 `Bharatavarsha'   was confined to a  part of the Indo-Gangetic valley.    

Hastin son of Bharata


Bharata's son Hastin founded Hastinapur further down the Ganges valley, after this second wave of Aryans had pushed on from the neighbourhood of Peshawar up to the banks of the Ganges [ Mah.wh.48n2 ].

War of the Ten Kings (Dasarajanya Yuddh)


Later in the history of the Bharata dynasty is the War of the Ten Kings described in the Dasarajanya hymn of the Rig Veda   [ EB 21 `ind' 32 ] [ Bash.34 ]. This war pitted the pure Aryans of the Bharata dynasty (located on the upper Sarasvati) under king Sudas and their Caucasoid allies against the mixed and non-Aryan races. The ten non-Aryan tribes under Vishvamitra (himself of mixed race, being a Kshatriya who claimed, but never received, Brahman status) including the Puru, Yadu, Turvasas, Anu & Druhyu were defeated by the pure Aryans on the Ravi river. The king of the Purus, Purukutsa, was killed [ Bash.34 ].

 

 Mahabharata Wars  (900 - 500 BC)

 

 

The Aryan king of Hastinapur, Yudhishitra, consolidated the Aryan Kingdom of Panchala and embarked on an enormous military build-up. Shortly after his coronation, he launched the massive Digvijay Aryan Invasions, subjugating all the non-Aryans of India to the Aryan yoke. The subjugated races then united and rose against the Aryan conquerors, leading to the Great Battle of Kurukshetra between the Aryans on the one hand and all the non-Aryan & mixed races on the other. The ensuing Aryan victory ensured Aryan dominance for several centuries.

 

The Mahabharatan Wars include these long drawn-out conflicts (ie. Digivjay Aryan invasions etc) in addition to the Battle of Kurukshetra, and represent several Aryan invasions that are loosley grouped as the Fourth Aryan Invasion.

DigVijay Aryan Invasions

  The Aryans spread across the Vindhya into the Deccan, and eventually comprised the majority of the population in Maharastra. Aryans also annexed Dravidia, but the bulk of the population remained Dravidian

 

The Nakulite Aryan Invasion of Western India


General Nakhul set out from Panchala with a massive army, and annexed Western India [ Alld.938 ].   Indus Valley people consisting of `Panis' (Phoenicians) and `Asuras' (Assyrians) were now totally annihilated.

 

The Bhimaite Aryan Invasion of Eastern India


General Bhima invaded Eastern India, subjugating the Mon-Khmer races of Bengal to the Aryan yoke [ Alld. 937-8 ]. Several of these native races were exterminated by `Bloody Bhim', as he is referred to by the Nagas today. 

 

The Arjunite Aryan Invasion of Northern India

General Arjun set out for the conquest of Northern India, conquering the independant nations. 

 

The Sahdevan Aryan Invasion of South India


General Sahdev embarked on the invasion of South India with a massive army. 

 

Battle of Kurukshetra  (900 BC)

 

The Kurukshetra Battle ( c.900 BC [ Bash 39 ] ), is the climax of the Mahabharatan Wars  with the Aryans on the one side and the non-Aryans and mixed races on the other, as evidenced by :

*   The Kauravas were joined by blacks (Mlecchas) and non-Aryans (Sindhu), Kalingans, Trigarttas, etc.

*   The Pandavas were supported by the Aryan Yadavas, Matsyas, Magadhas, Panchalas and Vrishnis, Chedis.

*   The ancestor of the Kauravas, Dhritarashtra, had non-Aryan wives: Gandhari (from Gandhara, modern Afghanistan), and a Vaishya woman. Thus the Kauravas were of mixed blood.

Hence, the Kauravas represented the mixed and non-Aryan races, while the Pandavas represented the pure Aryans who eventually won against thier foes.

The Pandavas raised 7 armies as opposed to the Kauravas' 11. On the 14th day of the battle Arjun annihilated 5 of the 11 armies ( `akshoumin' ) amassed by the Kauravas. Attacking the Pandavas, Drona destroyed 1 army, Karna 2, and Bhishma 1. Al-Beruni has estimated that the total of 18 akshouhinis add up to 8,267,094 humans [ al-B.i.408 ]. A description  of one of these  invasions follows below :

" Saineya, destroying thy host, converted the beautiful earth into a mass of mud with the flesh and blood of thousands of Kambojas, Sakas [ Scythians ], Shabaras, Kiratas [ Mongoloid Keraits ] and Varvaras. The ground was covered with the shorn and hairless but long-bearded heads of the Dasyus [ Chadic Dajus ], and their helmets, as if with birds bereft of their plumes. "
-- [ MBh.Dron.4747 ] [ Muir I.483 ]

 

Nagaland


From the Mahabharata we learn that there were Naga kingdoms between the Jumna and the Ganges about the 13th century BC [ 1800,p.39 ]. When the kings of the Lunar race of Aryans wanted to found a second capital near the spot where Delhi stands at present, they had to dislodge the Nagas who occupied it [ 1800,p.39 ]. This is the first reference to a conflict with the Nagas, and it occurred before the Mahabharata War. This was soon followed by a much larger-scale war under Krishna, Arjun and Agni.

 

The Khandav Massacre


The first genocide of Mongoloids occurred in the Panchala region near Indraprastha. Arjun, Krishna and Agni burned the Khandav forest, and, making sure that there was no route left for their escape, they burnt all the Nagas  alive in that forest [ Mah.wh.141 ].

 

Janamejaya's  Conquest


  Janameya, in revenge for the death of his father, who had been killed by a Naga destroyed the forest area of Nagaland. Thus `an ancient race of serpent worshippers known as Nagas, are said to have been forced by certain Brahmaical incantations to enter the fire of a great sacrifice' [ Mah.wh.46.n1 ]. Thus, according to the Mahabharata the Nagas were burnt alive en masse in the manner of concentration camps.

In another account, Pariskhit, the grandson of Arjuna was killed by Takshaka, a Naga king, and hence "Janmejaya, the son of Parikshit had to wage a long and bloody war with the Nagas and killed thousands of them" [ 1800,p.40 ].

 

  Solar Aryan Invasion  (800 BC)

 

The preceding waves of Aryans were members of the Lunar race (Chandravamsi), including the victors of the Mahabharata & Digvijay Wars. Following this is the invasion by Solar Aryans (Suryavamsi). It can be traced as the Solar king Ikshvaku, son of Manu Vaivasvat established his capital at Ayodhya & is the first king of Ayodhya, while his grandson Mithi conquered Mithila, which was named after him. Ikshvaku is in turn descended from Kashyapa `the Caspian', who resided near the Caspian Sea. A clear pattern of migration down the Ganges valley is thus apparent. This movement occurred concordant with the  wars of Parasurama

 

Brahman-Kshatriya Wars

 

The Brahman sovereign Parasurama embarked upon an enormous program of arming Brahman militias in preparation for a war of extermination against the Kshatriya races. Parasurama then embarked upon a full-scale conflict with the Kshatriya races, plunging Northern India into massive civil war.

 

Creation of the New Kshatriya Race

 

It will be wrong to assume that the purity of race was kept during these periods.  The Aryans got intermingled with the natives.  The political expediency required that new acceptable groups within the society be built up as a support group.


The list also includes the Aryan Kshatriyas, who had opposed the rights of the pure Aryan Brahmans, as well as the non-Aryan Kshatriyas. Of course the Brahmins then cohabited with the Kshatriya widows to propagate a pure Brahmin-fathered race of obedient Kshatriyas. Needless to say, no such charity was done for the non-Aryan widows, and many of the races exterminated by Parasurama are never heard of since, nor do they exist today.

 

Aryan Vaishnavite Invasion of Kerala


There was an Aryan invasion of Kerala shortly prior to Parasuram's wars. This is recorded in the legend of Vamana, the dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, who invaded Kerala and defeated the indigenous black Malabari King.

 

Mahabali was banished because he became too popular on earth. The devas became resentful of him. In response to their plea, Lord Vishnu came down to earth as a small Brahmin boy, Vamana and, by trickery pushed him down to Patala loka. The native Malayali population worship and adore their ancient king, Bali, but the Aryans of the North worship Vamana.  Mahabali returns to visit his people in Kerala every year during the Onam and the people puts up a show of festivity to please him.

.

The native Malayali population worship and adore their ancient king, Bali, but the Aryans of the North worship Vamana.  Mahabali returns to visit his people in Kerala every year during the Onam and the people puts up a show of festivity to please him.

 

Picture

 

Ramaite Aryan Invasion (600 BC)

 

The Ramayana is a historical narrative recounting the 6th Aryan invasion, under Rama, who conquered the last forts of the Dravidian south. The final victory was won when he defeated `Rakshasa' king Ravana  and conquered Sri Lanka.  He was aid in this conquest by “monkey kings” who betrayed their own people.

 

Thus the whole land of India from the Himalaya to Srilanka came under the control of the Aryans.

 

 I am keeping the references for those who are interested

Aryan Invasions & Genocide of Negroes, Semites & Mongols

The Bible of Aryan Invasions, Vol. IV

by Prof. Uthaya Naidu

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39.     [ Ling ] = `Religion and Society among the Lingayats of South India', K.Ishwaran, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad, UP, 1983

40.     [ Mac ] = `The Vedic Mythology', A.A.MacDonell, Strassburg 1897, reprint Varanasi 1963.

41.     [ Mah.raj ] = `Mahabharata', transl. C. Rajagopalachari, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Bombay 1990.

42.     [ Mah.wh ] = `India of the Vedic Age with Reference to the Mahabharata', Vol. I of `The History of India', J. Talboys Wheeler, 1973 reprint Cosmo Publns. Delhi 1973

43.     [ Man ] = `Storia do Mogor', by Niccolao Manucci, Venetian, transl. William Irvine, in 4 vols. Indian Text Series London 1907-9; repriint Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi 1989.

44.     [ Manu ] = `Manusmrti', for translations see [ Manu.D+S ]; for online Internet tranlations go to: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/india/manu-full.html , or
http://rbhatnagar.ececs.uc.edu:8080/scriptures/law_manu

45.     [ Manu.Buh ] = `Manu Dharma-Shastra' or Manu-Smrti, eng tr. G.Buhler, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXV Oxford 1886

46.     [ Manu.D+S ] = `The Laws of Manu' W.Doniger and B.K.Smith, Penguin India N.Delhi 1991

47.     [ MBh. ] = `Mahabharata'; Adi = Adiparvan, Anu = Anushashanaparvan, Van = Vanaparvan, Dron = Dronaparvan, Santi = Shantiparvan. For Eng. transl. se [ Mah.raj ], [ Mah.wh ].

48.     [ Metcalfe ] = `The Rajpoot Tribes', C.T.Metcalfe reprinted in `Landmarks of Indian Anthropology' vol.52(i) and 52(ii), Cosmo Publishers New Delhi 1987, = [ Met ]

49.     [ Muir ] = `Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of hte People of India.', J.Muir reprt Oriental Publishers Delhi 1972 part I Mythical and Legendary Accounts of hte Origin of Caste.

50.     [ Mutt ] = `Sultans of Mysore and Sringeri Mutt', V.R.Ramachandra Dikshitar, in `A Volume of Indian and Iranian Studies', ed. S.M.Katre & P.K.Gode, p.99-101, Karnatak Publishing House Bombay 1939

51.     [ Neim ] = `Sinhala Buddhist Fundamentalism', by M.Neiminathan ( from 'Destruction of Hindu Temples in Tamil Eelam and Sri Lanka'; Print copy published by the Federation of Saiva (Hindu) Temples U.K. 288, Haydons Road, Wimbledon, London SW 19 8JZ, web-published 1998 at http://tamilnation.org/fundamentalism/hindutemples.htm

52.     [ Non ] = `The Non-Brahmin Movement', by Kumaravel Jagasivamani http://www.ee.vt.edu/kumaran/tamizh/tn/tn2.html

53.     [ Noor ] = `How secular is Vande Mataram ?', A.G.Noorani, Frontline 16 #1 (Jan 2-15, 1999) p.94-97

54.     [ Opp ] = `On the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsha or India', Gustav Oppert, Madras 1893, (1972 reprint Oriental Publishers Delhi)

55.     [ Ori_c ] = `Origin of Caste', by Dalit Christians, http://dalitchristians.com/dalit%20and%20caste.htm

56.     [ Ori_u ] = `Origin of Untouchablity', by Dalit Christians, http://dalitchristians.com/untouchablity.htm

57.     [ Pier ] = Paul E. Pieris, `Nagadipa and Buddhist Remains in Jaffna' Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch Vol.28.

58.     [ Pig ] = `Prehistoric India', S.Piggott, Penguin Books Ltd., Middlesex UK, 1952.

59.     [ Pract ] = `Untouchability in Practice', by Babri Masjid Archive, web-published 1996 at http://muslimsonline.com/babri/notouch.htm

60.     [ Ptol ] = Ptolemy

61.     [ Ram.wh ] = `India of the Brahmanic Age with reference to the Ramayana', J. Talboys Wheeler, Cosmos Publaications, Delhi 1973

62.     [ Raj ] = `Dalit: The Black Untouchables of India', V.T.Rajshekar, 3rd ed., Clarity Books, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

63.     [ Rash_i ] = `The African Presence in India', by Runoko Rashidi, Saxakali Publications, 1998, http://www.saxakali.com/Saxakali-Publications/runoko19.htm

64.     [ Rash_t ] = `Trivandrum Talk: Statement of Solidarity with the Kerala Dalit Panthers and the Black People of India', by Runoko Rashidi, April 14, 1998, web-published at http://www.saxakali.com/Saxakali-Publications/runoko1.htm

65.     [ RgV. ] = Rig-Veda

66.     [ route ] = Route of Rama, web-published 1998 at http://www.maxwell.syr.edu/maxpages/special/ramayana/immaproute.jpg

67.     [ S+T ] = `History of Science and Technology in Ancient India - The Beginnings', Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd. 1986 1st ed.

68.     [ Sam.V. ] = Sama-Veda

69.     [ Satye ] = `The Tamils are an Ancient People', by Nadesan Satyendra, web-published 1998 at http://www.tamilnation.org/heritage.htm

70.     [ Sinh_b ] = `The Belligerent Face of Sinhala Buddhist Fundamentalism' by Tamil Nation, web-published 1998 at http://tamilnation.org/fundamentalism.htm

71.     [ Sita ] = `Women in Indo-Aryan Societies', Sita Agarwal, Indopaedia, 1998, web-published at: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/1335/Soc/w_ary.html

72.     [ Spear ] = `The Spear of Destiny', Trevor Ravenscroft, Samuel Weiser, Inc. York Beach, Maine, 1973

73.     [ Stat ] = `Status of the Sudras', by Babri Masjid Archive, web-published 1996 at: http://muslimsonline.com/babri/sudra.htm

74.     [ Steve ] = `Bengal Tiger and British Lion - An Account of the Bengal Famine of 1943' , Richard Stevenson, Lion Heart Pres, extracts published at http://www.lionheartpress.com/FAMINE.htm

75.     [ Subra ] = `The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1700', by Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Longman Group UK Ltd., London & NY, 1993.

76.     [ Sud ] = `The Sudroid or Indian Negro Race', by Rakesh Mishra, web-published 1998 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/1335/Anthro/sud_afr.html

77.     [ Tait.Br. ] = Taittriya Brahmana

78.     [ Tait.Sam. ] = Taittriya Samhita

79.     [ Thurs ] = `Castes and Tribes of Southern India', E.Thurston, 1909, reprinted in `Landmarks of Indian Anthropology', Vol.14(i)-(v), Cosmo Publications, New Delhi 1987

80.     [ Tirth ] = `History of Hindu Imperialism', Swami Dharma Theertha, Madras, 1992.

81.     [ Tod ] = `Annals and Atiquities of Rajast'han', or `The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India', Lieut.-Col. James Tod in 2 vols., York Place, Portman Square 1832, reprint 1971, K.M.N.Publishers, N.Delhi, of orig. of Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. London.

82.     [ Trinc ] = `Tricomalee - Holy Hill of Siva', S.J.Gunasegaram (from `Selected Writings' published 1985), web-published at http://www.tamilnation.org/heritage/trincomalee.htm

83.     [ Vis.Pur ] = `Vishnu Purana', for Eng. transl. see [ Vis.Pur.Wil ]

84.     [ Vis.Pur.Wil ] = `The Vishnu Purana A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition' transl. H.H.Wilson London 1840

85.     [ West ] = `Western Countries', N.N.Bhattacharya, in Cultural History of India, vol. V, 773-784, Ramakrishna Institute Mission Institute of Culture Calcutta, 1937.

86.     [ Wilk ] = Wilkins, `Modern Hinduism', London, 1975.

87.     [ Womn ] = `Dalit Women: Victims or Beneficiaries of Affirmative Action Policies in India - A Case Study', by Moses Seenarine Paper presented at a Brown Bag Lecture held by the Southern Asian Institute, Columbia University, on April 10th, 1996; web-published 1996 at http://www.saxakali.com/Saxakali-Publications/dalit1.htm

88.     [ Yech ] = `What is This Hindu Rashtra ? On Golwalkar's Fascistic Ideology and the Saffron Brigade's Practice', by Sitaram Yechuri, published by Dalitstan Journal, http://www.dalitstan.org/journal/recthist/yech/yech.html

89.     [ 1800 ] = `The Tamils 1800 Years Ago', V.Kanakasabhai, Madras, 1904, 1979 reprint, Asian Educational Services, N.Delhi