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Chapter Two

 ARYAN ORIGINS


 

Germans (Anglo-Saxons), Celts, Slavs (Russians.), Kurds, Persians ("Iran" = "Aryan"), Afghans, Aryans of India, etc. form an ethnic continuum within a language family which anthropologists and linguists call Indo-Hittite, Hattian, Indo-European, or simply ARYAN.   The ancestors of Aryans were Hamitic tribal clans.

 If the Universal Flood destroyed all mankind except the family of Noah, it is possible to trace all nations from the three descendants of Noah.  The three sons of Noah were Shem, Ham and Japheth. Heth (the ancestor of the Hittites) was a son of Canaan who was a descendant of Ham.  Over 230 tribes all over the world remember the flood history.  So there should be some credibility in the story and the national distribution given in the tenth chapter of Genesis.  This probably is the only record we have in tracing the history of the nations in general to the prehistoric period.

 

 Genesis 10

1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. 2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. 3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.

7  And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan. 8   And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD. 10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. |11  Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, 12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city. 13  And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, 14  And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.

15  And Canaan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth, 16  And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 17  And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 18  And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

19  And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. 20  These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, and in their nations.

21 Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born. 22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber. 25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

  According to some researchers, Hamitic tribes lived in Sahel - south of the Sahara and were forced to leave that region because of climatic changes. They settled in the abandoned forests of Canaan (the Levant) where they hunted and gathered wild grains, and began to cultivate. Canaan became the exclusive domain of Hamitic tribes. But this is only a partial story.  If the Zoroastrian Avesta documents (Vendidad) can be believed Hittites originally migrated from the Cold Arctic Anatolia peninsula to the present-day Turkey. They simply got assimilated into the Sumerian civilization and together formed the Aryans. 

                 

History of the Ancient Aryans: As Outlined in Zoroastrian scriptures.

Iran is the ancient name of Persia, and its name is derived from the root "Arya" or Aryan, the Indo-European branch of peoples who settled in that land. The Aryans of ancient Iran were Mazdayasni Zarathushtris, ie. Worshippers of Ahura Mazda (the name of God in Avestan) as revealed by the ancient prophet Zarathushtra, thousands of years before Christ.

All the ancient Zoroastrian scriptures speak of an earlier homeland from where these Aryan people came - the lost "Airyane Vaejahi" or seedland of the Aryans. From this homeland, the Indo- Europeans or Aryans moved to upper India, Iran, Russia and to the European regions of Greece, Italy, Germany, France, Scandinavia, England, Scotland and Ireland. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Yama Shah(Aryans)

 

In the first  "Fargad" or chapter of Vendidad, the Golden Age of the ancient Aryans is outlined with their greatest king, "Yima Kshaeta" (Yam Raj in the Indian Vedas). Yima was able to conquer death and banish old age and death. Then, the ice age broke on the ancient home and the Aryans were forced to migrate southwards, to the southeast and the southwest.

Mr. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a great Brahmin (Indian Aryan) scholar of India in the last century studied the Vedas and the Vendidad and identified this ancient homeland of the Aryans. The Vedas are scriptures written by the Indo-Europeans or Aryans after they migrated to India. From the descriptions of the weather patterns mentioned in the Vedas, Tilak concluded that the ancient home must be in the Artic regions in Russia.

Conflict with the Semitic Invaders

The root of the race known today as Aryans originated from the Hittite civilization, which dominated Mesopotamia from C. 2000 BC to 1200 BC. The Hittite civilization was almost unknown until excavations in the 19th century revealed the extent and importance of culture. In "The History and Geography of Human Genes", Cavalli-Sforza (1994) maps DNA evidence that traces Aryan ancestry to the Near East

 

                                              

Map by Kelley L. Ross (http://www.friesian.com)

He agrees with Renfrew (1987) in that Aryan language entered Europe from Anatolia and the Middle East.  P300 (and p280-285).  The article on AIndo-European Origins@ ( p129 of American Journal of Physical Anthropology Vol. 96, #2, Feb., 1995) asserts that  Indo-Europeans entered Europe as the first farmers as the best fit.

Though they were originally a group of savage tribes men based on the honor of the person (Aryan - the noble) they adopted the Kingship tradition later for just the same reason as given by the Hebrews.  Their Kings were warriors who were noted for the ferocity.  Though a list of Kings is mentioned in Avesta and other documents the only king of note was Suppilulimas (C. 1380-1340 BC). Hittites had very little literature in their early history because of lack of well-developed language vocabulary.  The few inscriptions remain undeciphered.  The achievements of the Hittites primarily were in the science of war.  They were well versed in the art of war and weaponry.   Hittites are most remembered for the development of Iron, which was used to forge new weapons. They were probably the first to develop the three-wheeled chariot. Hittites also developed many siege tactics and techniques, which were used throughout the Roman world and also in the early Indian Invasions. Their empire was at its greatest from 1600-1200 BC, and even after the Assyrians gained control of Mesopotamia after 1300 BC, the Hittite cities and territories thrived independently until 717 BC, when the territories were finally conquered by Assyrians. 

Each of these Hamitic clans became the progenitor of an Indo-European language and of the Aryan nations (Germans, Kelts, Slavs, etc.) around the world.

 Canaan eventually became the exclusive domain of Hamitic clans. In "The History and Geography of Human Genes", Cavalli-Sforza (1994) maps DNA evidence that traces Aryan ancestry to the Near East. The article on AIndo-European Origins@ (p129 of American Journal of Physical Anthropology Vol. 96, #2, Feb., 1995) he asserts that Indo-Europeans entered Europe as the first farmers of these wild areas. Each of these Hamitic clans became the progenitor of an Indo-European language and of the Aryan nations (Germans, Kelts, Slavs, etc.) around the world

Gen 15:18-21  On that day the LORD made a covenant with Abram and said, "To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates--the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites,  Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites and Jebusites."

Exo 23:23-33  My angel will go ahead of you and bring you into the land of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites, and I will wipe them out.   Do not bow down before their gods or worship them or follow their practices. You must demolish them and break their sacred stones to pieces.    But I will not drive them out in a single year, because the land would become desolate and the wild animals too numerous for you.   Little by little I will drive them out before you, until you have increased enough to take possession of the land.   "I will establish your borders from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the River. I will hand over to you the people who live in the land and you will drive them out before you.    Do not make a covenant with them or with their gods.    Do not let them live in your land, or they will cause you to sin against me, because the worship of their gods will certainly be a snare to you..

The Semitic people soon after the 40 years of wilderness under the able leadership of General Joshua pressured the Hamitic nations (Hittites, Amorites, etc.)  into leaving the Fertile Crescent in slow steps.  Canaanites exterminated by Israelites were all Hamitic nations.    Israelites were told by God diligently to avoid conflicts with other nations of their own  (Semitic) race (Deuteronomy 2).  In spite of the superiority of Hittite warriors the Habirus routed them from the area. (Hebrews). Habirus were nomadic shepherds with little or no war experience and no weapons of war.  Even at the time of King Saul, the only swords in the Israelite Kingdom were that of the King and of his son.

 

1 Sam 13:22 So on the day of the battle not a soldier with Saul and Jonathan had a sword or spear in his hand; only Saul and his son Jonathan had them.

Yet Yahweh promised the Hebrews the entire Hittite country: Joshua 1: 4  Your territory will extend from the desert to Lebanon, and from the great river, the Euphrates--all the Hittite country--to the Great Sea on the west.

 In spite of the lack of weapons due to the lack of understanding of metallurgy that is exactly what happened.  We know for certain that the Hittite civilization ended its glory suddenly from the area around 1200 BC.

As the Semitic herdsmen picked up the use of horses and metal weapons of war Hamites lost their military domination to Semitic clans  (Chaldeans, Hyksos, Hebrews, Arabs, etc.), The Aryans were forced into fleeing eastward into Asia and westward into Europe. 

When Abraham first came to Canaan that land was in the hands of the Hittites. (Gen 23:10 Gen 25:9-10).  Esau married women from among the Hittites against the wishes of his mother. David had Hittites in his army and in his bodyguard (I Kings, 26: 6; II Kings, 11: 6, 1 Sam 26:6 etc.). So we should assume that there were a large number of Hittites living among the Hebrews as loyal participating citizens and in respectable positions.  Bethsheeba, Solomon's mother, perhaps belonged to this race.  Bathsheba=s husband Uriah was a Hittite who lived close to the palace and was a general in the army of David.   David recalled Uriah to come home from the midst of the war so that he will sleep the night with his wife.  But Uriah was an Aryan with strong martial traditions of the Hittites and refuses to lie with his wife.       

2 Sam. 11:9-11 But Uriah slept at the entrance to the palace with all his master's servants and did not go down to his house. When David was told, "Ukiah did not go home," he asked him, "Haven't you just come from a distance? Why didn't you go home? "Uriah said to David, "The ark and Israel and Judah are staying in tents, and my master Joab and my lord's men are camped in the open fields. How could I go to my house to eat and drink and lie with my wife? As surely as you live, I will not do such a thing!"

Text of III Kings, 10: 28, --. adds that in Solomon's time Israelite merchants bought horses in Egypt and from the Syrian and Hittites.  He also had wives from among the Hittites.    We should conclude from these that the displacement of the Hittites from the land of Israel was a slow process.

Thus the Aryans were forced into fleeing eastward into Asia and westward into Europe where they are now found. The process can be thought of as a series of migration and invasion.  But we are interested only in the group, which came down to India over the mountains known generally as Indo-Aryans.

 The coming of the Aryans : Iravatham    Mahadevan  http://www.harappa.com/script/maha2.html

The new theory is based on textual-linguistic re-interpretation of the Vedic evidence in the light of the recent remarkable discoveries made by Soviet archaeologists of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization in Bactria (North Afghanistan) and Margiana (in Turkmenistan). The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) had two distinct cultural periods, the first between 1900 and 1700 BC and the second between 1700 and 1500 BC. According to Parpola a small wave of Aryan-speaking nomads from the northern steppes arrived in this region in BMAC-I period and adopted the local non-Aryan culture while retaining their own Aryan language. Parpola identifies their name as Dasa from Old Persian inscriptions and Greek and Latin sources. The presence of the horse and evidence for the practice of chariot warfare by the ruling elite appearing at this time in Bactria confirm the Indo-European origin of the Dasas. The fortified palace at Dashly-3 with three concentric circular walls belonging to this period is identified by Parpola typologically as tripura, 'triple fort' of the Dasas in Vedic mythology. Parpola suggests that the Dasa-Aryans from BMAC arrived in South Asia via Baluchistan during the time of the Late Harappan cultures, as evidenced by the typically BMAC graves and cenotaphs at Mehrgarh and other sites on the Kachi plain near the Bolan Pass. According to him these early 'Indian Dasas' are likely to have become the ruling elite in the Late Harappan cultures: the Cemetery-H culture of the Punjab, the Jhukar culture of Sind, and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. Parpola also proposes that a second wave of Indo-European speakers from the northern steppes swept over the Bactria-Margiana region in about 1700 BC. Evidence for this comes from the distinct break between the cultures of BMAC I and II at this time. Parpola identifies the newcomers as 'Sauma-Aryans' from their ritual of Soma drinking which the 'Dasa-Aryans' did not practice. Evidence for Ephedrine (identified as the Soma plant) has been discovered in the residues of liquid in ritual vessels found in the temple-forts of Togolok-21 and Goner-I in Mariana dating from the BMAC-II phase. The Sauna-Aryans too would have largely adopted the local culture, but also transforming the cult of the Aura-worshipping Dazes into the Diva-worshipping cult involving the Soma ritual. After the fusion of the two peoples, one group of the unified Proto-Indo-Aryans migrated eastwards into the Swat valley founding the Proto-Rig Vedic culture. Parole’s new hypothesis will have to be examined in detail by specialists in South Asian history and Indo-European linguistics. So far as the Indus Civilization is concerned the main implication of the new theory seems to be that the Aryan-Dada conflict recorded in the earliest portions of the Rived is the story of the hostilities and eventual fusion of two Aryan tribes, which took place before their entry into the Indian sub-continent and has thus no relevance to the demise of the mature phase of the Indus Civilization.

 

It is therefore clear that in a series of waves, the Aryan migrated to India from the North West Eurasia

 

Persian nobles


traveling on business, gold model, 5th century BC

 

 

 

 

RELIGION

The odd thing about the Hittites, though, is that they seemed to have recognized that all gods were legitimate gods. Whenever they conquered a people, they adopted that people's gods into their religious system.

http://www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html

 

 

The fact that the gods in the Treaties are Hindu Vedic Daivya gods, Indra and Natasya along with Assura Iranian gods Mitra and Varuna, shows that the Aryan division into Iranians and Indians had  not yet taken place. Later on most of Daivya worshipping Aryans continued on to India and most of Assura worshipping Aryans stayed behind in Iran after some recriminations, each calling the others gods devils.  Limiting the use of Indo-Aryan gods to the Treaties perhaps indicates that only the rulers were of Indo-Aryan origin.  There is also some evidence that the Royals were cremated. 

IRAQ-The 3rd Millennia Theatre of War was Aryan Rann-Bhoomi in 2nd Millennia BC  by K Gajendra Singh
http://www.saag.org/papers7/paper648.html

 

Iran the Origin of The Aryan People

Gardeshgary; Persia Tourism Magazine
Spring 2001, Vol. 3, No. 9
By: Mohammad Sadeq Nazmi Afshar
Pages: 37 – 42

 

I am Dariush, the great king, the king of kings
The king of many countries and many peoples
The king of this expansive land, the son of Wishtasp Achamenia
Persian, the son of a Persian, 'Aryan', from the Aryan race

Dariush's scripture in Naqshe-e-Rostam

The above scripture is one of most valid written evidences of the history of the Aryan race, and as can be seen, Dariush, the Achamenian king, in the 5th century BC, declares himself a Persian and form the Aryan race. Herodotus, the father of history, writes at the same times: "In ancient times, the Greeks called Iranians "Kaffe", but they were renowned as Aryans among themselves and their neighbors". In another part of his book, Herodotus writes that the Medians were known as Aryans during a certain period. So in two of the oldest written human documents, the race of the Iranians have been mentioned as Aryan.

This book of Iran was written to show that  Aryans were original Iranians and there were no Aryan invasion or immigration into Iran.  A similar claim is now made by Indians.

http://www.derafsh-kaviyani.com/english/originofaryan.html

http://www.crystalinks.com/hittites.html

 For additional studies see:

The Aryans in the Near Eastern Sources
from 4th to 2nd Millennium BC

Jahanshah Derakhshani

http://www.int-pub-iran.com/ipis07.htm

THE HOME OF THE ARYANS, Michael Witzel, HarvardUniversity

http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/AryanHome.pdf