chreyo 'nyad u̱taiva preyaste u̱bhe
sādhu bhavati hī̱yate 'rthād ya̍
u preyo vṛṇīte || 1 ||
= the preferable, the Moral Good, the supreme goal
eva =(it) is certainly
ubhe = both of
arthe = serving
= one who
bhavati = well-being, good comes;
the one that;
vṛṇīte = selects the pleasurable;
= gets alienated;
= from this objective,
said: The good is one thing; the pleasant, another. Both of
these, serving different needs, bind a man. It goes well with
him who, of the two, takes the good; but he who chooses the
pleasant misses the end.
satañ ca asatañ ca nānā hoti ito gati |
nirayam yanti satañ saggaparāyaṇā ||
do the paths of the good and the evil of this world divide; the
evil go to hell but the final destination of the good is heaven.
we read nibbāna-parāyaṇam (attaining nirvana) since
heaven is not the ultimate bliss but nirvana.
ca preyaś ca ma̱nuṣya̍m
etas tau sa̱ṁparī̍tya
vṛṇīte preyo ma̱ndo
vṛṇīte || 2 ||
ca preyaḥ ca = the preferable and the pleasurable;
manuṣyam etaḥ = comes to every man;
dhīraḥ = the brave one;
tau = those two.
śreyaḥ hi = the ultimate good;
= the immediate good;
simple-minded; fools, idiots
those that lead to ultimate good and the ones that seem pleasant
at present are given to
a man. The brave ones examines them well and discriminates. Yea,
he prefers those leading to ultimate good to the present
pleasant ones; but the fool chooses the pleasant out of greed
tvam pri̱yān pri̱ya
ca kāmān abhi̍dhyāyan na̱cike̍to’tyasrākṣīḥ
|| 3 ||
= O Naciketas;
saḥ tvam = such as you are
abhidhyāyan = having considered
kāmān = desirable things;
ca = and;
priyān = dear ones
priya-rūpāṁ = objects that produce delight,
= you have rejected;
na avāptaḥ = you have not accepted;
etāṁ = this;
yasyām = by
manuṣyāḥ = mortals;
majjanti = sink,
come to grief.
Nachiketa, people like you after pondering well the pleasures
that are or seem to he delightful now, renounced them all. You
have not taken the road abounding in wealth, where many men
yā ca vi̱dyeti jñātā |
manye na̱ tvā kā̱mā
baha̍vo lolupanta ||
dūram = widely, by
contradictory, mutually exclusive;
viṣūcī = have divergent courses;
yā ca = that which;
jñātā = is fully ascertained, known by the learned;
avidyā iti = ignorance;
yā ca = and that which is;
manye = I consider;
= as desirous of knowing;
bahavaḥ = many;
na lolupantaḥ = did not tempt;
tvā = you;
apart and leading to different ends are these two: ignorance and
what is known as Knowledge. I regard you, O Nachiketa, to be one
who desires Knowledge; for even many pleasures could not tempt
|| 5 ||
= the present life;
avidyāyām antare = with the ignorance within
manyamānāḥ = considering;
svayam = ourselves;
dhīrāḥ = intelligent,
pariyanti = go round and round;
= wise in their own esteem
andhāḥ = blind people;
nīyamānāḥ = being led;
andhena eva = by the blind
dwelling in darkness, but thinking themselves wise and erudite,
go round and round, by various tortuous paths, like the blind
led by the blind.
are like computers. There is no heaven or afterlife for
broken-down computers; that is a fairy story for people afraid
of the dark.”
(Stephen Hawking, The Guardian)
loko nā̍sti pa̱ra
i̍ti mānī puna̍ḥ
punarvaśam ā̱dyate me || 6 ||
= is the other world, and also any particular scriptural means
leading to the attainment of that other world. And this (means)
na pratibhāti = does not become revealed to,
bālam = a boy;
pramādyantaṁ = blundering;
mūḍham = ignorant:
vitta-mohena = because of the delusion caused by wealth.
ayaṁ lokaḥ =
there is only this world
na para asti = there is no other world;
iti mānī = constantly thinking thus;
punaḥ punaḥ = again and again;
ādyate = becomes subject to;
vaśam me = my control;
remains involved in a succession of suffering in the form of
birth, death, etc.
Hereafter never reveals itself to a person devoid of
discrimination, heedless and perplexed by the delusion of
wealth. "This world alone exists," he thinks,
"and there is no other." Again and again he comes
under my sway.
world alone exists, and there is no other." life and death
repeats and there is no other way out of this process.
But this world is not a closed world.
There is a spiritual world beyond to which we are all
part. This is an
infinite realm whose door is death.
So death explains this truth to the seeker.
yo na labhyaḥ śṛ̱ṇvanto̍'pi
yaṁ na vidyuḥ
vaktā ku̱śalo'sya labdhā
āśca̍ryo jñātā ku̱śalā̍nu-śiṣṭaḥ
|| 7 ||
= that which;
na labhyaḥ = is not attainable;
bahubhiḥ = by many;
śravaṇāya api = even
even while hearing;
na vidyuḥ = do not know;
asya vaktā = Its expounder;
āścaryaḥ = wonderful, a rare one;
kuśalaḥ = one
āścaryaḥ = a wonder,
jñātā = knower;
= being instructed by a skilful teacher.
there are who do not even hear of Atman; though hearing of Him,
many do not comprehend. Wonderful is the expounder and rare the
hearer; rare indeed is the experiencer of Atman taught by an
death introduces the world of the Spirits - the world beyond
Matter- the world of Atma
Dr Christina Manhar of the
University of Gloucester has a good study on this from which I
quote below the relevant portion.
"In the Upanishads, the
term Ātman is used to designate the Self, the Ultimate
Reality that is Brahman.
The root word ‘an’
(aniti), from which the term Ātman comes, means ‘to
Therefore, the meaning of Ātman is “breath,
life, life–principle, spirit, the vivifier.”
is also another opinion that the word Ātman comes from the
root word ‘at’
(atati) which means “to go, to walk, to wander.”
movement, the wind or the moving Spirit.
Hence, the Brahman,
the Paramātman or the Supreme Spirit is
as the moving Spirit
(Thottakara 1998: 342).
is worth noticing that
Hebrew word ‘ruach,’
Greek pneuma and
refer to ‘breath’, ‘wind’, ‘movement of air’, ‘God’s energy’, ‘God’s strength, power and dynamic
Spirit is wind like energy.
refers to the creative and dynamic activity of God (Heron 1983:
such as the Spirit of the Lord, the wind of the Lord, the breath
of the Lord
to God’s activity both at the
physical and at the spiritual level.
ruach of the Lord
inspired the prophets, charismatic leaders and artisans.
ruach of God was active in liberating the Israelites from the
ruach is life–giving
is the source of life (Gen 1:2; 6:17; 7:15; Gen 45:27; Judg
15:19; Ps 104:29;
33:6; Job 33:4; 27:3; Isa 42:5; Ezek 37:5ff.).
is “God’s own power of creation, and
the power of life, which is communicated, to all created things,
in heaven and on earth.”
Spirit is the creative and vital energy of all that lives (Moltmann
is also the term used to designate the human self, soul, spirit,
It indicates “that which makes an
individual to be himself, that is, the principle
his essential personal identity” (Abhishiktananda 1975,
Revised ed. 1997: 102).
term ātman is “the self – grammatically reflexive
personal pronoun; it is the
which constitutes the reality of the person, his awareness of
1979, Revised ed. 1997: 61).
other words, the ātman or human spirit
signifies “the most intimate core of the
conscious being at a level beyond the reach
of sense or mind” (Abhishiktananda 1974,
Revised ed. 1997: 95-96).
refers to the interiority of human self and it is the central
point of all reality. Similarly,
in Vedic understanding the word ātman means “breath or vital essence from
the meaning of soul or self” (Boyd 1977: 239).
the term prāna refers primarily
to “the source of life within, and then to its diffused appearance throughout all the
organs of body and mind, which are called pranah, or ‘vital breaths’, in the plural” (Abhishiktananda 1974, Revised ed. 1997: 95).
again it is worth noticing that the Hebrew term ruach also
denotes “the vital principle in man,
his whole psychical life, though usually regarded on its higher
side, as the religious origin of the usage would suggest” (Robinson 1958: 20-21).
Ruach is what gives life and personality and it is
“what makes a creature a
recognizable human being…” (Marriage 1989: 31).
The term pneuma like the Hebrew nephesh is synonymous
with the human soul
or self or person.
Upanishadic thought ātman as real self is distinguished
from the empirical self. The
as real self is “the source of the three major
elements of spiritual experience,
the sense of the real, the presence of awareness, and the
extension of freedom.
is the unity of being, truth and freedom.”
The empirical self is the sum of one’s
“customary roles, habits,
aspirations, values, ideas, ideals, attitudes and sentiments,
are the deposits of his culture, and those biogenic traits which
are reinforced by
mutable and the accidental” (Winthrop 1963: 147).
The Upanishads give central
place to ātman as the real self and speak about the correspondence
between ātman as the interiority of human self and the
divine Self, Brahman.
In the Upanishadic understanding, Brahman the
transcendent Self indwells the
heart of human beings as ātman.
intelligent whose body is spirit,
form is light, whose thoughts are true, whose nature is like
ether, omni–present and invisible, from
whom all works, all desires, all sweet odours and tastes
who embraces all this,
who never speaks, and is never surprised,
is my self within the heart,
than a corn of rice, smaller than a corn of barley, smaller than
a mustard seed,
smaller than a canary seed or the kernel of a canary seed.
also is my self within the heart, greater than the earth,
greater than the sky, greater than the heaven, greater than all
from whom all works, all desires, all sweet odours and taste
proceed, who embraces all this, who never speaks and who is
never surprised, he, my self (atman) within the heart,
is that Brahman. "
Christina Manhar, The
Indwelling of the Spirit: A Hindu-Christian Reflection
University of Gloucester
prokta eṣa su̱vijñeyo
gatir a̍tra nāsty a̱ṇīyān
hy a̍tarkyam a̱ṇupra̍māṇāt
|| 8 ||
avarena = not by an inferior man
proktaḥ = spoken of;
the Self; the Soul
suvjñeyaḥ = well understood
cintyamānaḥ = thinks with
ananya-prokte = when taught by a teacher who sees clearly
gatir = go
atra = here,
na asti = not
gatiḥ = cogitation
= more subtle,
= than an atom.
when taught by an inferior person, is not easily comprehended,
because It is diversely regarded by disputants. But when It is
taught by him who has become one with Atman, there can remain no
more doubt about It. Atman is subtler than the subtlest and not
to be known through argument.
are varying interpretation of this passage:
Atman is thought of in many ways,
much meditated upon
understood of as a plurality
nothing beyond the knowledge of Paramātman
there is no way back to Samsāra
we do not want to go in there, because...?
unprovable by argument. The Supreme Self is
unknowable by argument,
as It is subtle, beyond the reach of the
senses and the understanding based on sense data.
It is beyond the smallest of atoms.
Paramātman, having personal and immediate experience, he is
lifted above sectarian disputes.
are several different readings for this rather abstruse verse:
earlier, i.e. a superior person who knows the truth. Or taught
by another — someone other than oneself, i.e. By some
other rendering by Non-dual (Advaita) scholars;
considers the Saul of Man as identical with the Supreme Brahman
is properly taught;
there is nothing else
to be known. For the realisation of the unity of the Self
there remains nothing to be known here”.
“When the theory of the non-dual Self is taught
followed by realisation, there remains no
“When the Self is taught by a teacher who has
become identified with the Brahman that he teaches, there is
To the student, the realisation, "I am that (Self)",
dawns, just as it did in the case of the teacher.”
Qualified Non-dual Visiṣṭadvaita
Ramanuja, the understanding, which a person gets about the Self
when taught by one who has realised
a person of
inferior capacity who has not realised Brahman. But the
realisation spoken of cannot be "identity with Brahman”
as Shankara thinks, because if there is only One ātman and
One Brahman which are both identical
non-perception of difference. Therefore, who would teach
and who would be the taught? It would in fact be like one
teaching one's self while looking in the mirror!
tvam ā̍pas sa̱tyadhriti̍r
no bhūyān na̱ciketaḥ
praṣṭā || 9 ||
na āpaneyā = can not to be attained ;
tarkeṇa = through reasoned
preṣṭha = O dearest one;
sujñānāya bhavati = leads to sound knowledge;
prokte = imparted;
anyena eva = by a different person indeed
yāṁ = that (teaching) which;
= you have
attained; ; asi
= you are; naciketaḥ
= O Naciketas;
satya-dhritiḥ = of true
praṣṭā = enquirers;
naḥ = from
bhūyān = be;
tvādṛk = like you.
Knowledge cannot be attained by reasoning. Atman become easy of
comprehension, O dearest, when taught by another. You have
attained this Knowledge now. You are, indeed, a man of true
resolve. May we always have an inquirer like you!
aham śevadhir i̱ty ani̍tyam
na hy a̍dhruvaiḥ
hi dhruvaṁ tat |
asmi nityam || 10 ||
jānāmi aham = I
śevadhiḥ = the treasure
[comprising the fruits of action,
iti = that;
anityam = not
adhruvaiḥ = through
tat = that;
hi = for indeed;
mayā = by me;
nāciketaḥ cito'gniḥ = the
anityaiḥ dravyaiḥ = with
said: I know that the treasure resulting from action is not
eternal; for what is eternal cannot be obtained by the non—eternal. Yet I have
performed the Nachiketa sacrifice with the help of non—eternal
things and attained this position which is only relatively
|| 11 ||
= the goal of desire having
= the corner stone of the universe,
kratuḥ = meditation or sacrifices.
ānantyaṁ = without end;
abhayasya = of fearlessness;
pāram = the utmost limit;
stoma mahat = greatly praised,
dṛṣṭvā = having seen,
naciketaḥ = O
dhṛtyā = patience;
dhīraḥ = courage
fulfilment of desires, the foundation of the universe, the
rewards of sacrifices, the shore where there is no fear, that
which adorable and great, the wide abode and the goal—all this you have seen;
and being wise, you have with firm resolve discarded everything.
devam ma̱tvā dhī̱ro
jahāti || 12
durdarśaṁ = hard to perceive;
= deeply hidden;
guhāhitaṁ = situated in the depth of the
gahvareṣṭham = existing in the midst of
purāṇam = ancient,
= focussing of the mind upon the Ātman;
devam = Deity/Self;
matvā = meditating on;
dhīraḥ = the courageous person;
harṣa-śokau = happiness and sorrow.
jahāti = is freed from;
wise man who, by means of concentration on the Self, realizes
that ancient, effulgent One, who is hard to be seen, unmanifest,
hidden and who dwells in the buddhi and rests in the body—he, indeed, leaves joy
and sorrow far behind.
martyaḥ pravṛ̍hya dha̱rmyam
aṇum e̍tam āpya |
hi labdhvā vi̱vṛtagu̍ṁ
manye || 13 ||
samparigṛhya = after
dharmyam = the essence, the true nature of it;
āpya = after attaining, realising;
aṇum etam = this subtle thing - the Self;
saḥ martyaḥ = that mortal;
modate = rejoices;
labdhvā = having;
modanīyatṁ = that which causes great
manye = I consider tha
sadma = mansion - the experience of Brahman;
vivṛtaṁ = is wide open;
naciketasam = [to you] O Naciketas.
mortal who has heard this and comprehended it well, who has
separated that Atman, the very soul of dharma, from all physical objects and has realised the subtle essence, rejoices
because he has obtained that which is the cause of rejoicing. The
Abode of Brahman, I believe, is open for Nachiketa.
Through the Veil
Bosch - Ascent to the Empyrean - c. 1480
bhavyāc ca ya̱t tat paśya̍si
tad vada || 14 ||
anyatra = different;
dharmāt = from right action
adharmāt = from wrong action;
= different from
the effect, and the cause;
bhūtāt = from what was,
bhavyāt = or
yat tat paśyasi =
whatever it is that you see, you know with surety;
tat = that;
vada = tell me.
said: That which you see as other than righteousness and
unrighteousness, other than all this cause and effect, other
than what has been and what is to be—tell
vedā yat pa̱dam ā̍mananti
ca̍ yad vadanti |
caranti tatte̍ padaguṁ
padam = the goal
sarve vedā = all
āmananti = propound;
ca = and;
yat = that which;
= all the austerities;
vadanti = speak of;
yat icchantaḥ = desiring which;
caranti = (they)
bravīmi te = I tell you;
saṅgraheṇa = in brief;
tat = that goal;
om iti etat = OM it is.
Yama said: The goal which
all the Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at and which
men desire when they lead the life of continence, I will tell
you briefly: it is Om.
The Concept of AUM:
the Mandukya Upanishad, we find, “AUM stands for the
Supreme Reality. It is a symbol for what was, what is, and what
shall be. AUM represents also what lies beyond past, present and
So we learn that it is all encompassing. In fact, “Om”
also represents Brahman, which is equated with the Self as we
is all, and the Self is Brahman. This Self has four states of
In the same Upanishad, we find an explanation of these four
states, as the four components of “om”. The first sound is “a”,
and is called “Vaishvanara” (where one is focused on
the external), and the second is “u”,
is called “Taijasa”, (the dreaming state
where one is focused internal). The third is “m”,
called “Prajna”, (the all-knowing state
of deep sleep, “in which one neither dreams nor desires”)
and the fourth is called “Turiya”,
(the superconscious state which is “neither inward nor
outward”). This final state also represents the
first three syllables, “A, U, and M”.
“Om” is found in several
places in the Upanishads. For example, in the Amritabindu
Upanishad, it reads, “keep
repeating the ancient mantra Om until it reverberates in your
Upanishads, by Eknath Easwaran, Mandukya Upanishad p.60, v. 1-8;
Amritabindu Upanishad p. 243 v. 7)
If you look at the Hindu
symbolism today, the one that is associated uniquely is the
sound of Om and the symbol of Om.
You may not find this symbolism of AUM as common as the
Devanagari Script AUM which
came into existence much later in history.
Yet the oldest AUM was in
Tamil as given on
the top left side. But
the surprising thing about it is that AUM is not found in any of
the early Upanishads written in Sanskrit, there are references
to udgîtha (“up
sound”) and as
This may be
to the Sound
it is a stretching of
the imagination. The
first direct reference to AUM
is found in
Prashna-Upanishad, where the threefold constituents of
AUM is mentioned
and explained. It
is also found in Mândûkya-Upanishad.
Brihad-Âranyaka, Chândogya, and Taittirîya, Aum is
mentioned many times both as Aum and as
the Yoga-Sûtra (1.27), it is called the Word (vâcaka) of
the substance of
God as represented by
the silence that follows or the totality of the syllable.
The Word was the first expression of God through which the whole
cosmos – living and the nonliving –
visible and the invisible – were created.
If one looks even deeper, the whole of Kabala and the
threefold tree reaching into the unknown darkness
the ineffable name
the Upanishadic teachings.
It goes far deeper than the simple logos of the Greek.
The later Hindu trinity (Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara of today)
with its intricate mythologies are based on
interaction, ( a
Gnosticism after the coming of Manicaen the Persian Gnostic.)
This was the basic conflict on which Manicheans were
declared heretics by
the other hand
represents the Trinity based on Love and not on conflict.
symbol and mantra AUM emerged in Indian scene soon after the
mission of St.Thomas
in Kerala had used this as the Christian symbol and they appear
at the entrance of the seven original churches established by
You can see them even
today over the main entrance of many of the churches. AUM was clearly part of the Malankara (Malabar –
Kerala) Christian tradition from the first century. They however associate it with the Christian Trinity and to
Christ – the word who became flesh. An objective conclusion would be that Aum was
indeed the original Christian concept
as introduced by Thomas.
etadd hy e̱vākṣa̍ram
brahma e̱tadd hy evakṣa̍ram
etadd hy e̱vākṣa̍ram
yo̱ yad i̍cchati
|| 16 ||
etat hi eva akṣaram
brahma = this syllable AUM indeed is Brahma
(the individual Self); etat hi eva akṣaram param = this
syllable indeed is the Supreme Self;
etat hi eva akṣaram jñātvā = one who
knows this syllable;
yaḥ = who, anybody,
yat = whatever;
icchati = he desires;
tasya tat = to him it is that.
This syllable Om is
indeed Brahman. This syllable is the Highest. Whosoever knows
this syllable obtains all that he desires.
śreṣṭham etad ā̱lamba̍nam
ma̱hīyate || 17 ||
etat = this is;
śreṣṭham = the best of;
ālambanaṁ = means or support;
param = the
knowing this means;
brahma-loke mahīyate =
revels in the world of Brahma.
is the best support; this is the highest support. Whosoever
knows this support is adored in the world of Brahma.
mriyate vā vipaścin nā̱yaṁ
kuta̍ścin na ba̱bhūva̍
purāṇo na ha̍nyate
śarīre || 18 ||
vipaścin = the
na jāyate = is not born, is not produced;
mriyate vā = nor does it die;
na kutaścit = did not orginate from anything, did not arise
from any other cause;
na kaścit babhūva
nityaḥ = eternal;
śaśvataḥ = not subject to decay;
ayam = this is;
purāṇaḥ = ancient;
na hanyate = it is not killed or injured;
hanyamāne śarīre = when the body is killed.
purā api navaḥ,= old yet new,
vrddhi-vivarjitaḥ= being devoid of growth
knowing Self is not born; It does not die. It has not sprung
from anything; nothing has sprung from It. Birthless, eternal,
everlasting and ancient, It is not killed when the body is
one who knows this OHM has already attained eternal salvation
and does not die again.
truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who
sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but
has passed out of death into life.
tau na vi̱jñānī̍to
hanya̍te || 19 ||
cet = if;
manyate = one thinks:
for the sake of killing;
hantā = that he slays;
cet = and if;
manyate = one thinks;
ubhau tau = both
not comprehend their own Self;
this one [Self]
na hanti = does not
na hanyate = and is not killed.
If the killer thinks he
kills and if the killed man thinks he is killed, neither of
these apprehends aright. The Self kills not, nor is It killed.
This is taught by Krishna
in Bhagavad Gita where it was used to justify killing brothers if needed:
who takes the Self to be the slayer and the one who thinks He is
slain, neither of them knows; The Self slays not nor is He
slain. (Bhagavad Gita 2.19)
Know for certain that That which
pervades all is imperishable. None can cause the destruction of
That, the Imperishable. (Bhagavad Gita 2.17)
the material bodies of the Self are subject to destruction, it
is said, while the Self itself is indestructible, immeasurable
and eternal. Fight therefore, O descendant of Bharata. (Bhagavad
contrast it is to be understood as indestructibility of the
Soul. When you
kill, the body is destroyed, but the Soul lives on. The Soul
will have to be reap the consequence of its action while in the
body. In essence
this is the judgement of the Soul.
This is the binding law of Karma.
In reincarnation theory it will either be returned to the
creation to pay for it or will be liberated to be eternally with
the Paramatma. This
in essence is the basis of Hell and Heaven. The only way of
release from the Karmic Law is the Grace of God who pays the
price himself. This
is the Bhakthi Marga - the Way of Faith.
This (the Self) is never born, nor does it die at any time.
This has never come into being, never comes and never will come
into being. This is eternal, permanent, the most ancient, is not
killed when the body is being killed. (Bhagavad Gita 2.20)
One who knows this Self
to be indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable, O Partha,
how can that person slay or cause to be slain. (Bhagavad Gita
There seems to be
confusion here between the Soul and Spirit.
The Soul, the bird who enjoys the fruit of the actions is
not identical with the Spirit of God within man.
There are two householders within the cave or two birds
in the same tree. The
Soul originally generated by the life giving Spirit, builds
itself into a Self independent of the Spirit.
Bhakthi Marga is a
totally different plane where the Paramatma, incarnates Himself
and takes on the Karmic results of the Soul.
This is possible only in an incarnation.
This is the essential teaching of the Christianity.
nihito̍ guhāyām |
paśyati vīta-śo̱ko dhā̱tuḥ-pra̱sādā̎n
ātmanaḥ || 20 ||
aṇoḥ = than an atom;
mahīyān = greater;
mahataḥ = than the greatest;
ātmā = the spirit;
nihitaḥ = is lodged;
guhāyām = in the cave of the heart;
asya jantoḥ = of this creature;
tam = That;
akratuḥ = a
dhātuḥ-prasādāt = through
the serenity of the organs;
paśyati = sees, realises;
mahimānam = the greatness;
ātmanaḥ = of the Spirit;
vīta-śokaḥ = [becomes] freed from
smaller than the small, greater than the great, is hidden in the
hearts of all living creatures. A man who is free from desires
beholds the majesty of the Atman within through tranquillity of
the senses and the mind and becomes free from grief.
dūraṁ vrajati śa̱yāno̍
|| 21 ||
= while seated;
dūraṁ = afar
vrajati = it goes
śayānaḥ = while lying;
yāti = it goes
sarvataḥ = everywhere
kaḥ = who
tam = that
mada-amadaṁ = that joyful and joyless;\
devam = divinity
mad-anyaḥ = apart from me
jñātum = to know;
arhati = is be worthy of
sitting still, It travels far; though lying down, It goes
everywhere. Who but myself is
worthy to know that the divine Spirit rejoices
He goes far; lying He goes everywhere. Who else, therefore, save
myself, is able to comprehend the God who rejoices and rejoices
|| 22 ||
anavastheṣu = in the impermanent, transient;
avasthitam = unchanging, stable,
mahāntaṁ = the great;
vibhum = all
matvā = having meditated [upon];
dhīraḥ = the wise one;
na śocati = does
not grieve, experience suffering
wise man, having realised Atman as dwelling within impermanent
bodies but Itself bodiless, vast and all—pervading, does not
Spirit which is part of the Supreme Spirit resides in the bodies
which are made of clay. You
are the temple of the Holy Spirit.
labhyo na̱ medha̍yā
labhyas tasyai̍ṣa ā̱tmā
svām || 23 ||
= not this;
na medhayā = neither through intellectual
na bahuna śrutena =
neither by much listening;
yam eva= he whom;
= this One chooses;
tena labhyaḥ = by him is attained;
eṣa ātmā = this Supreme Being;
tasya = to him;
vivṛṇute = he reveals;
svām tanuṁ = His own nature.
Atman cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas, or by
intelligence, or by much hearing of sacred books. It is attained
by him alone whom It chooses. To such a one Atman reveals Its
are now talking about an Atman who is outside of the beings who
is realized by the beings.
This Supreme Spirit is immanent within while it
transcends the being. Hence
this cannot be attained by the study of the Vedas, nor by
intellectual rationality. It
is given by the grace of the Supreme Spirit to whomsoever He
2:8 - 10 For by grace you have been saved through faith; and
that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result
of works, so that no one may boast. For we are His workmanship,
created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared
beforehand so that we would walk in them.
āpnu̍yāt || 24 ||
= one who has not desisted;
duścaritāt = from bad conduct, from those acts which
are prohibited by Dharma ;
vā-api = or even
or peaceful mind
prajñānena = through profound knowledge
āpnuyāt = can realise;
enam = this Supreme Truth.
who has not first turn away from wickedness, who is not tranquil
and subdued and whose mind is not at peace, cannot attain Atman.
It is realised only through the Knowledge of Reality.
Corinthians 6:9 -10 Or do you not know that the unrighteous will
not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither
fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor
homosexuals,nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor
revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God.
saḥ || 25 ||
yasya = That for which;
brahma ca kṣatraṁ
ca = brahmins and Kshatriyas
ubhe = both of whom;
bhavataḥ = become;
yasya = for which;
upasecanaṁ = [is as a] supplement to the
kaḥ = who;
veda = knows;
itthā = in
yatra = where;
saḥ = It is?
Who, then, knows where He
to whom Brahmins and kshattriyas are mere food and death itself