ṛ̱tam pi̍bantau su̱kṛta̍sya loke gu̱hām pra̍viṣṭau pa̱rame̍ parārdhe |

chā̱yā-ta̱pau bra̱hma-vi̍do vada̱nti̱ pa̱ñcāgna̍yo ye ca tri̱-ṇāci̍ketāḥ || 1 ||


ṛtam  =  truth,  the  results  of  one's  actions

pibantau  =  [there  are]  two  drinker  ie.  Experiencers  of

sukṛtasya = of what is done by oneself

guhām  = into the cave,

loke = within the realm ie. The body 

praviṣṭau = these two having entered 

para-ardhe = into that which is the abode of brahman

chāyā-tapau = as shade and sunlight

brahma-vidaḥ = the knowers of Brahman, the theologians

vadanti = speak of 

pañcāgnayaḥ = the worshippers of the five fires ie. The householders

ye ca = and they also;

tri-ṇāciketāḥ = who have thrice piled up  the Naciketas fire.


There are two selves that enjoy the fruit of Karma in this world of good deeds. Both are lodged in the secret place of the heart, the principal locus of the Supreme. The knowers of Brahman speak of them as shade and light as also the householders who maintain the five sacrificial fires and those too who perform the triple Naciketas fire.


The Two Spirits

There are actually two householders within the cave of Man deep within Man.  One is the individual self or Jivatma and the other is the Holy Spirit, the Paramatma that is breathed into man. Jivatma (Life Spirit) is produced by the Holy Spirit (Paramatma). Hence Jivatma is actually the shadow of the Paramatma. They both now has individual existence as Paramatma has given this freedom of will to each Jivatma.  Hence Both are called householders for they both are at home within the body. Who rules whom is the deciding factor then for the person and his life. The distinction between Jivatma and Paramatva is essentially non-advaitic. Advaita holds that they are identical. 

This differentiates the Soul (Jivatma) and the Supreme Spirit (Paramatma or Holy Spirit).  Thus within the body we have the Soul or Jivatma and even within that within the secret place is the Spirit that is within man, part of the Holy Spirit of God.


The word  paramātma is formed from two words, parama, meaning "supreme" or "highest", and ātma, which means spirit which is usually translated as Self or Soul

The word “Paramatman” which word also expresses Boundless Life, Boundless Consciousness, Boundless Substance in Boundless Space, is meant the Atman of all atmans or the Supreme Self or the Universal Self. The word “Atman” which literally means non-darkness or light is Brahman the subtlest indestructible Divine existence. The word “Paramatman” refers to the component of the Creator, which is a Spirit.  Hence I translate it as the Holy Spirit of God.


Both are lodged in the secret place of the heart

Because man is “spirit”, he is capable of God-consciousness, and of communication with God; 
because he is “soul”, he has self-consciousness; and,
because he is “body”, he has, through his senses, world consciousness and of communication with the world.


The concept that man is a trinity with Body, Soul and Spirit is typically Judeo-Christian in origin.  Thus we see


Genesis 2:7 Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.


The form of man was simply his body. It was lifeless until God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. ". . . as the body without the spirit (i.e. the breath of life) is dead. . . "(James 2:26).


The body of man was formed and it was lifeless.


1 Corinthians 15:45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit."


The first Adam became death (Yama) when he said, "I want to be like God"

It is the last Adam that gives the immortality when He said "I will take your pain and suffering, I have come that you may have life in abundance."
It is this secret that Yama is trying to explain.


The Two Birds Analogy


In Mundaka Upanishad. 3:1:1-2. and Svetasvatara Upanishads. 4:6-7, the same concept is presented as two birds in the same tree. 


Two birds, (Jivatma and Paramatma) are companions and always united, sit upon the self-same tree.  Of  these  two,  the  one  (Jivatma) eats the  sweet  fruit  and  the  other (Paramatma)  looks  on  without  eating. (Mundaka Up. 3:1:1-2. Svetasvatara Up. 4:6-7)  It then says:

Mundaka Upanishad, Chapter Three, Section one:


Dva suparna sayuja sakhaya samanam vrksam parisasvajate;

Tayoranyah pippalam svadvattya- nasnannanyo abhicakasiti.


Two birds, (Jivatma and Paramatma) are companions and always united, sit upon the self-same tree.  Of  these  two,  the  one  (Jivatma) eats the  sweet  fruit  and  the  other (Paramatma)  looks  on  without  eating. (Mundaka Up. 3:1:1-2. Svetasvatara Up. 4:6-7)  It  says:

Samane vrkse puruso nimagno-nisaya socati muhyamanah;

Justam yada pasyatyanyamisa- masya mahimanamiti vitasokah.


Seated on the self-same tree, one of them-the personal self-sunken in ignorance and deluded grieves for his importance. But when he sees the Other-the Lord, the Worshipful-as also His glory, he becomes free from dejection.




"Although the two birds are in the same tree, the eating bird is fully engrossed with anxiety and moroseness as the enjoyer of the fruits of the tree. But if in some way or other he turns his face to his friend who is the Lord and knows His glories -- at once the suffering bird becomes free from all anxieties." 


Although these two atman and paramatman are friends, Paramatman is still the master and Atman is supposed to synchronise with the all pervading Spiritual Consciousness which is the Paramatman. Forgetfulness of this relationship by the organ of the body the Atman is the cause of his changing his position from one tree to another or from one body to another. The jiva or soul is struggling very hard on the tree of the material body, but as soon as he agrees to accept the other bird as the supreme spiritual master the subordinate bird immediately becomes free from all pain and sufferings.  This looking back to the Creator is known as Brahmajnanam.


Madhava's  Dvaita Vada (Principle of duality) speaks about two persons in this world, the Mutable and the Immutable; the Mutable is all these things, while the Immutable is the one who exists at the top of them, one is the Jivatman and the other, Paramatman.  Jivatman is chit, the sentient, and Paramatman is Isvara, both have the same attributes; they are inseparably present together on the tree which is achit, the insentient, or the gross Avidya component of existence. Jivatman and Paramatman are both seated in the heart, the former is driven by the three modes of nature and acts, the latter simply witnesses as though approving the former’s activities. The relationship between Paramātmā, the Universal Self, and 'ātma, the Individual Self, is likened to the indwelling God and the soul within one's heart. Paramatman is one of the many aspects of Brahman. Paramatman is situated at the core of every individual jiva in the macrocosm.


The Soul lives in two worlds. It was created when God breathed into the material body.  Thus it has equal access to the world of matter through the five senses and the world of the Spirit.  A part of the Paramatma resides besides the soul.  But it is the freedom of the Jivatma to exercise the faculties of knowing from the world or the spirit.  Jivatma can feed and know only on the material world thus stifling the Spirit within.   On the other hand Jivatma can feed and know the Spirit within him to open up the world of Paramatma.  This is the only way to know Paramatma.


The Soul that closes the senses within that opens into the spirit realm eventually dies, because life is sustained by the Spirit world.


The five sacrificial fires


Hindu scriptures say the householder must perform Pancha Mahaayajnas (five great sacrifices). People in other three stages of life – Brahmacharya, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa – depend on the fruitful completion of Pancha Maha Yagna by Grihastha. The five yagnas are Brahmayagna, Pitruyagna, Devayagna, Bhutayagnam and Manushayagna.  The Pancha Maha Yagna is also known by the names of Ahutam, Hutam, Prahutam, Brahmahutam and Prashitam.


.In the Manusmriti (3/70) it is said:

"Adyaapanam brahmayajnah pitriyajnastu tarpanam|

homo daivo balibhootee nriyajnoe atithi poojanam||


In the famous “five-fire doctrine” of Chandogya-upanisad 5,1Gautama, the father of  Svetaketu is being taught that  the journey of the self  after death is told that even the cosmos  is really five great sacrificial fires in which the gods make a series of offerings. The gods offer “faith” inthe “heaven” fire in order to produce soma, then soma in the

Parjanya fire to produce “rain,” then rain in the “earth” fire to produce “food,” then food in the “man” fire to produce “semen,”and finally semen in the “woman” fire to complete the journey with a new embryo. This final ritual product, the garbha, will be born some ten months later and, Gautama is informed, will live until it makes its appointment with the (funeral) fire “from which he came.”


The production of a new being is the matter of five sacrificial fires in the right series.  In other words, these five fold fires are the regular dharmas that maintains life and cosmos.  It should be satvik karmas (righteous duties) without regard to avanthara phala (eventual consequences). 


Among the 40 Samskaras for a house holder there are five Mahaayajnas which are:


  • Brahmayajna, teaching of Vedas; chanting of Vedas and teaching them
  • Pitriyajna, devoted to forefathers (tarpana, pindadaana, shraaddha);
  • Bhootayajna, devoted to charity;
  • Devayajna, devoted to the Gods (Yaaga, havan, homa) sacrifices and Pooja: and,
  •  Nriyajna or Atithiyajna, devoted to guests.



Those householders not performing these five yagna is equal to dead and will not attain moksha. 


Coressponding to the Pancha Maha Yagna, Jewish tradition has five offerings



Triple Naciketas fire.
These three fires are not clearly defined here.


Shankaracharya, says that these triple fires may be seen in two ways.

Firstly as ‘direct experience’ which gives authority to ‘the liberating Word in scripture’ upon which we must use the intellect in ‘spiritual reasoning’; secondly, Shankara combines the three; study, contemplation and reflection as spiritual disciplines.

Sri Aurobindo, when asked about the mystic significance of these three Nachiketa fires, replied, “One is the fire in the heart. Another is above, and the two ends of the third are not known but only the middle term. This middle term is the physical, vital and mental – Bhur, Bhuvar and Swar — including the highest mind regions"


This will give us some idea of what is being described as the fire in the material world (Bhur), the ordinary fire; Then the fire within the personality, the thirst for knowledge of how to be redeemed from the eternal cycle of death (Buhvar) and finally the fire that in the Spiritual World - the Holy Spirit of God Himself (Swar)  This seems to me a fair deduction.


These fires may be also interpreted as the purifying fires of sacrifice that for the sanyasin is the sacrifice of all worldly goods, name and fame.- in body, mind and spirit realms.


yas se̱tur ī̍jānānām a̱kṣara̍ṁ brahma̱ yat pa̍ram |

abha̍yam ti̱tīrṣa̍tām pā̱ra̱ṁ nā̱cike̍taguṁ śa̱kema̍hi || 2 ||


yaḥ = which is

setuḥ  = a bridge

ījānānām = of those who sacrifice

akṣaram = imperishable;

brahma = Supreme Self or Reality;

yat = that is;

param titīrṣatām = of those who wish to cross;

abhayam = refuge;

pāram = far  shore.

nāciketaṁ  = that Naciketa Vidya;

śakemahi  = may we master;


May we master that Nāciketa Vidya; which is bridge for those who sacrifice, and which is the highest imperishable Brahman for those who wish to cross over and take refuge in the far shore.


 We are able to understand both, the Nachiketa fire which is the bridge of all sacrifices (to cross misery) and also the highest, indestructible Brahman, fearless and the refuge for those who wish to cross the ocean of Samsara.


We have the picture of a far away shore which is seperated from the present material world, where the Supreme Spirit live.  


The seperator is the ocean of Samsāra (Samsāra Sāgara). Each one of us, wishes to find the way to reach the farther shore by either a ladder or a bridge. This metaphorical "bridge” holds the worlds apart and  also unites them.  Now  the  Soul Self  is  the  bridge,  the  separating  boundary  for  keeping  these  worlds  apart. We build this bridge by our choices in relation to the two worlds.


How can the Self (Man) build this bridge across the samsara to reach the destination? 



Here is our problem.  We are told that the Naciketa Vidya is the bridge that will take us across the occean of Samsara.  But no where in the Katha Upanishad this Vidya is described.  How is that the most essential step in the mission of mukthi was omitted whereas the whole purpose of the Katha and the question of Naciketa was the clear exposition of this step. Somehow, somwhere in the transmission, the vital information was lost. The only possible explanation we can ascribe is that in the process of time and history this was lost or removed from the Upanishad.   We can only guess what it was originally.

We can be sure that this can only be possible by taking the hand of Brahman or the Spirit within us in connecting us with the Supreme Brahman beyond the shore.  Neither good deed not evil deeds will then affect him.  They are burned away. All sins and merits are forgiven and forgotten. The point seems to be that the Soul Self alone cannot do it.  It has to submit to the Holy Spirit which is placed within each of us.


Chandogya Upanisad 8.4.1

 "This Self is a Bridge  and a support, so that these worlds (may be kept in their proper place and) may not clash with each other. Night and day do not pass that Bridge, nor do old age, nor death, nor grief, nor the good deeds, nor the evil deeds (of men). All evils turn back from Him, because He is free from all evils. He is Brahman, the Great Refuge."


Sin separates us from God.




And Chandogya Up. 5.24.3 says:

"As the tuft of the Isika reed entering into the fire is quickly reduced to ashes, thus indeed are burnt all his sins, who knowing the Lord, thus offers an agnihotra."


Knowing the Lord alone is the Agnihotra which will destroy all our sins.


Brhad Aranyaka Up. 4.4.22, says:

"Him (who knows), these two do not overcome, whether he says that for some reason he has done evil, or for some reason he has done good, he overcomes both, and neither what he has done, nor what he has omitted to do, burns (affects) him."


Titus 3:4-6 But when the kindness of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared, He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,…



The Amanohashidate, ‘ladder to the heavens’ – a unique geographical formation considered one of the three most beautiful sights in Japan.


A bridge is necessary to cross over from the world of decay and death in the dimensions of  World of Matter, Worlds of the Living Souls, and the Worlds of the Spirit that is within Man to the Wide Worlds of the Divine Realms of the Paramatma (Supreme Sprirt)


Kaballah in Katha


In "An Introduction to Kabbalah" Z’ev ben Shimon Halevi gives the following introduction to this esoteric Hebrew mystical teachings:


"Kabbalah is the name of a body of esoteric knowledge. Its origin is the inner teaching of Judaism. Its concern is God, the universe and humanity, and their mutual interrelation.


"Tradition states that it was given by the archangel Raziel to Adam and Eve, after they had been cast out of Eden, so that they might regain entrance to paradise. This Torah or teaching has been passed on over the generations, although nearly lost from time to time. It is said that Abraham was initiated into the tradition by Melchezedek, who had neither father or mother, indicating that he was a supernatural being. Some say he was Enoch, the first fully realised human being.


"From Abraham the knowledge was passed on through the patriarchs to Moses, who transmitted it to Joshua and the elders. It was then taught by a line of priests, prophets and rabbis. Changing its outer form and name from period to period, the teaching nevertheless maintained its essential instruction on the purpose and composition of existence and humanity’s role. By the Middle Ages it had taken on the language of philosophy which, combined with biblical symbolism, came to be called Kabbalah or “What has been received.”


Saguna Brahman known as Elohim with multiplicy forms a Person.  He created a body  by contracting himself and emanating into it the various form.  This is the same concept as the cosmic egg.

Diagram 11

Before the beginning of anything there was only God. Nothing existed, not even existence. Tradition states that the Absolute, called Ayin or No-thing.  This is exactly the concept of Nirguna Brahman, the God who is unknowable because properties arise only with inhomogenity or only when there is a knower and a known.  So in this state God can be explained only negatively by replying "no not that, no not this" in Sanskrit this concept is given as "neti neti".  However this oneness homogeneity gave rise to inhomogenity to produce the Saguna Brahman forms.  These are given in Kaballah in the emanational forms of  Ayin Sof  (The Limitless) and the Ayin Sof Auhr (The infinite light).  


Diagram 1


In order to create this God with multiplicity of personalities within had to create an empty space in order to create free willed sons.   


In the Jewish mystic tradition there are four worlds of existence .


These realms are called:

Atziluth meaning World of Emanation, also "Close." On this level the light of the Ein Sof (Infinite Divine "without end") radiates and is still united with its source.  This is the Divine Realm where the second law of thermodynamics is that "Everything goes from glory to greater glory."


Beri'ah, meaning World of Creation .  This is the spirit realm where individual Spirits are.  These Spirits are isolated from the Great Spirit World in order that every being can be free. 


Yetzirah meaning World of Formation.  This is the world of the individual Souls.


Assiah meaning World of Action. This is the material world.  The law here is decay and death. As such in the case of man the body decays and dies, and the Spirit returns to the one who gave it (God) and the Soul remains craving for more and more.There is no apriori reason for this law and was imposed by God in order that pain and suffering may be limited in time with the ultimate hope that every being can be finally redeemed and can join with the Supreme Spirit in blissful existence where the creation go from glory unto glory


 Without going into the intricacies we can say the dimension within every son of God include the Spirit dimension where the Spirit  is present to guide and make connection with the Spirit of God if the Soul wants.  The second dimension is that of the individual Soul and the third is the dimension of the individual body.  Beyond these the body is within the external Physical world and the Spirit is within the external Divine Spiritual world with their own gates.


We have our gates of senses to go and come between the body and Soul and out njanendriya connecting Soul and Spirit.  The eleventh gate connects Spirit that is within man with the Divine Spirit.  Only when this openned will the law of decay and death can be withdrawn to avoid eternal pain for the souls.  This is the bridge we are looking for.  This bridge is provided by the incarnation whereby God himself forms the bridge providing resurrection and rebirth into the Divine world, never to return to the pain and suffering of the worlds below.




This bridge is Brahman himself as Guru who is capable of being the bridge.  According to the Christian scriptures, this bridge is provided by the Iswara - Jesus the Lord himself.  Jesus said, "I am the way, the truth and the life.  No one comes to the father execept through me."  Evidently Jesus claimed to be the bridge between man and God and he could do it because he is the Saguna Brahman with a human material body and the spirit within him was identical with the Brahman in all respects.






ā̱tmāna̱guṁ rathi̍naṁ vi̱ddhi̱ śarī̍raguṁ ra̱tham e̍va tu |

bu̱ddhiṁ tu̱ sāra̍thiṁ vi̱ddhi̱ mana̍ḥ pragra̱ham e̍va ca || 3 ||


ātmānaṁ  = the Self;
rathinaṁ = is the

viddhi = know that rider 

śarīraṁ = the body;

ratham eva = is indeed the chariot;

tu  = and;

buddhiṁ = the intellect

viddhi = know ;

sārathiṁ  = the charioteer;

manaḥ = the mind

pragraham = is the bridle.


Know that the Self is the rider of the Chariot and the Intellect is the Charioteer and Mind is the bridle that controls the chariot.



i̱ndriyā̱ṇi ha̍yān ā̱hu̱r vi̱ṣayā̍ṁs teṣu̱ goca̍rān |

ā̱tmendri̱ya-ma̍no-yu̱kta̱m bho̱ktety ā̍hur ma̱nīṣi̍ṇah || 4 ||


indriyāni = the senses;

hayān = the horse

āhuḥ = they say [are];;

viṣayāṁ  = the objects of the senses;

teṣu = they [the senses];
gocarān  = the paths, roads;
ātma-indriya-mano-yuktam = the Self  in synchronization with senses and mind
bhoktā = is the enjoyer, experiencer;
iti = thus;
āhuḥ = declare;
manīṣiṇah = the wise ones, the enlightened ones, the sages. 


'The senses they call the horses, the objects of the senses their roads. When he (the Highest Self) is in consonance with the body, the senses, and the mind, then wise people call him the Enjoyer.'

Krishna Preaching the Gita to Arjuna



yastu̍ avi̱jñāna̍vān bhava̍ty ayu̱ktena̍ ma̱nasā̍ sadā |

ta̱syendri̱yāṇy a̍va̱śyāni̱ du̱ṣṭāśvā̍ iva̱ sāra̍theḥ || 5 ||


Yaḥ  tu  =  but  that  [intellect]; 

avijñānavān  = one who has no understanding,  

bhavati  =  becoming; 

ayuktena manasā = with an undisciplined mind; not firm

sadā = always; 

tasya  =  his; 
indriyāṇi  =  the  senses; 
avaśyāni  =  uncontrollable; 
duṣṭāśvā  iva  =  like  unruly  horses;

sāratheḥ  = of the charioteer.


'He who has no understanding and whose mind (the reins) is never firmly held, his senses (horses) are uncontrolled, like vicious horses of a charioteer.'



yastu̍ vi̱jñāna̍vān bhava̍ti yu̱ktena̍ ma̱nasā̍ sadā |

ta̱syendri̱yāṇi va̱śyāni̱ saḍaśvā̍ iva̱ sāra̍theḥ || 6 ||


yaḥ  tu  =  but  that;

vijñānavān  =  skilful,  having  insight  and discrimination;

bhavati  =  becoming;

yuktena manasā = with a  controlled or disciplined mind;

sadā = being always;

tasya = his;

indriyāṇi = the senses;

vaśyāni = controllable;

sat aśvā iva = like well-behaved horses;

sāratheḥ  = of the charioteer.


'But he who has understanding and whose mind is always firmly held, his senses are under control, like good horses of a charioteer.'

The three ideals of life mentioned here are:
understanding, determined mind, controlled senses.



yas tv a̍vi̱jñāna̍vān bhavaty a̱mana̍skas sa̱dā'śu̍ciḥ |

na sa̍ ta̱t pada̍m āpno̱ti̱ sa̱ṁsāra̍ṁ cādhi̱gaccha̍ti || 7 ||


yaḥ  tu  =  but  that  [intellect]; 

avijñānavān  =  unskilful,  having  no  insight  and discrimination;

bhavati  =  becoming; 

amanaskaḥ = whose mind is uncontrolled;

sadā = always;

aśuciḥ  = impure;

na = does not;

saḥ = that person;

 tat = that;

padam = goal;

āpnoti = obtain;

aṁsāraṁ = worldly existence.

ca = and/but;

adhigacchati = obtains, reaches;

He who has no understanding, who is unmindful and always impure, never reaches that place, but remains in the worldy existence alone.

Now Yama is describing what happens to one who does not achieve the ideal — it is  continual return to Saṁsāra —  the ocean of becoming characterised by life and death. 


The six impurities of mind are :
Kama (Desires)

Krodha (Anger)

Lobh (Greed)

Moha (Attachment)

Mada (Pride)

Matsarya (Jealousy)


These are controlled by the self through six determinations of the mind.

Sathya (Truthfulmess), Dharma(Righteous Acts), Prema (Love), Shanti (Peace), Ahimsa (Non-violence)





yas tu̍ v̱ijñāna̍vān bhava̍ti sa̱mana̍skas sa̱dā śu̍ciḥ |

sa tu̍ ta̱t pada̍m āpno̱ti̱ ya̱smād bhū̍yo na̱ jāya̍te || 8 ||


yaḥ  tu  =  but  that  [intellect]; 

vijñānavān  =  skilful,  having  insight  and discrimination;

bhavati  =  becoming;

 sa-manaskaḥ = whose mind is controlled;

sadā = always;

śuciḥ  = pure;

 saḥ = he, that person; 

tu  = but, indeed;

tat  = that;

padam  = goal;

āpnoti  = obtains;

yasmāt  = whence;

bhūyaḥ = again;

na  = not,

jāyate = is born. 

'But he who has understanding, who is mindful and always pure, reaches indeed that place, from whence he is not born again.'



vi̱jñāna̱ sāra̍thir ya̱stu̱ mana̍ḥ pragraha̱vā̍n naraḥ |

so̱'dhvana̱ḥ pāra̍m āpno̱ti̱ ta̱d viṣṇo̎ḥ para̱mam pa̱dam || 9 ||


vijñāna = insight;

sārathiḥ = as the charioteer;

yaḥ naraḥ tu = that person who; 

manaḥ pragrahavān = with  the  mind  as  the  reins; 

saḥ  =  he;

adhvanaḥ  pāram  =  the  final destination;

 āpnoti  =  reaches,  attains;   

tat = that;

viṣṇoḥ  = of Heavens.

paramam = is the supreme;

padam = place/state;


But he who has understanding for his charioteer, and who holds the reins of the mind, he reaches the end of his journey, and that is the highest place of Heavens.'


Johnston gives the following comment:

"This famous simile of the chariot,   suggests the setting of the Bhagawad Gita, where Krishna and Arjuna ride in the chariot between the assembled armies. But, while Krishna acts as Arjuna.’s charioteer, the simile here is somewhat changed; the lord of the chariot is Atma, the Human Spirit the presence of parrt of God; he acts through Buddhi, the charioteer, with Manas, the combined mental and emotional nature, as the reins; the five powers of perception and the five powers of action which act through the organs of the body are the horses and the world of objective life is the road. The ideal is, that the inteliigence and will of Buddhi, which embodies Atma, should rule firmly the mental and emotional nature in conformity with Atma, so that the mind thinks spiritual thoughts and the heart entertains spiritual desires; these spiritual thoughts and purposes being then expressed in outer action in the world.

Every perception and power must be made obedient to divine wisdom and will, so that Divine Wisdom is made :1 living power in every part of life.

The last three verses again sum up the Mystery Teaching: He who follows Divine Wisdom reaches the goal of the Logos, the divine Pervading Power, called here Vishnu; but he who is under the sway of personality (Self, Ego) falls again into rebirth through the bondage of Karma.

There is an exact parallel in the Revelation of Saint Iohn: “Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out; and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the City of my God" (3, 12)."

(Johnston, Theosophical Review)


Plato, in his dialogue Phaedrus (sections 246a–254e), uses the Chariot Allegory to explain his view of the human soul in exact paralle to the Upanishad. He does this in the dialogue through the character of Socrates, who uses it in a discussion of the merit of Love as "divine madness".

The Charioteer represents intellect, reason, or the part of the soul that must guide the soul to truth; one horse represents rational or moral impulse or the positive part of passionate nature (e.g., righteous indignation); while the other represents the soul's irrational passions, appetites, or concupiscent nature. The Charioteer directs the entire chariot/soul, trying to stop the horses from going different ways, and to proceed towards enlightenment.





i̱ndriye̱bhyaḥ pa̍rā hya̱rthā̱ a̱rthebhya̍ś ca pa̱ram ma̍naḥ |

mana̍sa̱ś ca pa̍rā bu̱ddhi̱r bu̱ddher ā̍tmā ma̱hān pa̍raḥ || 10 ||


indriyebhyaḥ = than the sense-organs;

parā hi = are higher indeed;

arthāḥ = the objects;

arthebhyaḥ  =  to  the  sense-objects;

param ca = and  superior  

manaḥ  =  is  the  mind; 

manasaḥ = than the mind;

parā  ca  =  and  higher  still;

buddhiḥ = is the intellect;

buddheḥ = than the intellect;

ātmā mahān = is the Great Self.

paraḥ = higher;

'Beyond the senses there are the objects, beyond the objects there is the mind, beyond the mind there is the intellect, the Great Self is beyond the intellect.'

Ontological structure of a human being in the state of contact (saṃyoga) of the subjective and objective realms seen from the perspective of Yoga Sutras and Yogasūtrabhāṣya II.19 17

We experience the presence and power of the five sense-organs, we then reflect upon our perception of their  objects  and  the  relevance  that  we  give  them.  We  then  reflect  upon  the  mind  that collates the data, we then progress to the contemplation of the intellect, to the process of understanding the thinking  process itself. Once we  transcend this state of thinking about thinking we can then perceive the Soul as it is.


Only when we realize that we are sinners, we can seek and find the bridge across this chasm.




ma̱hata̱ḥ para̍m a̱vya̱kta̱m avya̍ktāt pu̱ruṣa̍ḥ paraḥ  |

pu̱ruṣā̱n na pa̍raṁ  ki̱ñci̱t  sā̱ kāṣṭhā̍ sā pa̱rā ga̍tiḥ || 11 ||


mahataḥ = the Great Principle;

param = beyond;

avyaktam = is the Unmanifest;

 avyaktāt = than the Unmanifest;

puruṣaḥ = is That which fills the Entire Universe, the Supreme being;

paraḥ  = higher; 

puruṣāt = than the Purusha;

na paraṁ  kiñcit = there is nothing higher;

sā kāṣṭhā = the acme, the culmination; 

sā = that is;

parā gatiḥ  = the final, ultimate Goal.

Beyond the Great Principle there is the Unmanifested, beyond the Unmanifested there is the Person (Purusha). Beyond the Person there is nothing higher this is the goal, the Ultimate Goal.'

Here we are given the hierarchial order. Between the ultimate Purusha - the Paramatma - the Holy Spirit and the Prakriti - the external world lie the Unmanifested Person within - the Spirit of Man and then the Soul itself.  The ultimate Goal is to be in communion with the Holy Spirit which can be achieved only through the indwelling of the Spirit of God that is in Man.



Here we see the influence of the Early Indian Science in Sankhya Philosophy.

Here is the basics of Sankhya.



Puruṣa is the transcendental self or pure consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable through other agencies, above any experience by mind or senses and beyond any words or explanations. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness”. Puruṣa is neither produced nor does it produce. It is held that unlike Advaita Vedanta and like Purva-Mimamsa, Samkhya believes in plurality of the Puruṣas.



Prakriti is the first cause of the manifest material universe — of everything except the Puruṣa. Prakriti accounts for whatever is physical, both mind and matter-cum-energy or force. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the Pradhāna, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the jaDa. It is composed of three essential characteristics (trigunas). These are:


Sattva – poise, fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy;

Rajas – dynamism, activity, excitation, and pain;

Tamas – inertia, coarseness, heaviness, obstruction, and sloth.


When  the    equilibrium  of  these  three  forces  is  disturbed  by  the  influence  of  Puruṣa (consciousness), the evolution of the manifest universe starts, and this evolution consists of twenty-four principles.


1.  Mahat, the Great Principle which is the cosmic volition – the first seed of desire which activates the other processes. It includes within it the notion of buddhi or intelligence which in the Sankhya system  is  understood  to  be  the  capacity  to  expand,  reveal,  and  ascertain,  it  does  not  refer  to thinking or the creation of ideas,  relationship, or identity.

2.  ahaṅkāra =  the ego-sense, principle of individuation from which issue:–

3.  manas =  the central, co-ordinatory sense-organ, the principle of cognition. 

4.  – 9, five sensory organs, 

10 – 14, five organs of action, 

15 – 19, five  subtle elements, 

20 – 24, five  gross elements; earth, fire, water, air & ether. 


Purusha, the twenty-fifth, is totally distinct in nature from all others, neither producing nor produced, though by its influence on Prakrti, it kick-starts the evolution of the manifest world.


All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being or Jiva is a fusion of Puruṣa and Prakriti, whose soul/Puruṣa is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body.


Samsāra or bondage arises when the Puruṣa does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the Ego/ahamkāra, which is actually an attribute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Puruṣa and unconscious Prakriti is realized by the Puruṣa.


In Katha Upanishad this dualism is assumed but accept the existence of the Supreme Spirit - the Holy Spirit of God as is enunciated in this verse.


The parable of the Chariot is put in almost identical way in the very popular Christian presentation called The Four Spiritual Laws.  To get the identity of perception we need to replace the name Jesus with Easwara.  Easwara actually means Easo Paran, Jesus is Lord.  It is the acceptance of this fact by the individuals and submitting to the Lordship of Easwara that is stated by this Christians booklet. 




These two circles represent two kinds of lives:

Self-Directed Life
S-Self is on the throne
wpe463.jpg (790 bytes)-Christ is outside the life
wpe464.jpg (719 bytes)-Interests are directed by self, often 
resulting in discord and frustration

Christ-Directed Life
wpe463.jpg (790 bytes)-Christ is in the life and on the throne
S-Self is yielding to Christ,
resulting in harmony with God's plan
wpe464.jpg (719 bytes)-Interests are directed by Christ,
resulting in harmony with God's plan

In the extreme case of self-centered life, God is totally relegated to the outside of Man by the Selfish Soul and tries control everything with his uncontrolled mind horses. 




e̱ṣa sa̱rveṣu̍ bhūte̱ṣu̱ gū̱ḍho̍'tmā na̱  prakā̍śate |

dṛ̱śyate̱ tvagrya̍yā bu̱ddhyā̱ sū̱kṣmayā̍ sūkṣma̱-darśi̍bhih || 12 ||


eṣa  =  this;

sarveṣu bhūteṣu = in all beings;

gūḍhaḥ = is hidden;

ātmā = Spirit of God in individuals

na   = it does not;

prakāśate = does not shine forth, it is not the content of conventional thinking;

dṛśyate = it can  be  seen,  realised;

 tu = but;

agryayā = which is sharp, pointed;

buddhyā = by the intellect;

sūkṣmayā = and subtle

sūkṣma-darśibhih  =  by  those  who  can  conceive  of  subtle,  abstract  concepts;


That Spirit of God hidden in all beings does not shine forth; but It is seen by subtle seers through their one—pointed and subtle intellects.


All life is actually defined by the presence of the Spirit.  It is the Spirit that gives life.



ya̱cched vāṅ ma̍nasī prā̱jñas tad ya̍cchej jñā̱na-ā̍tmani |

jñā̱nam ā̱tmani maha̍ti ni̱ya̱cche̱t ta̱d-yacchecchā̱nta-ātmani || 13 ||


yacchet = should merge;

vāk = speech  

manasī = in  the mind;

prājñaḥ = the wise one, endowed with discriminating wisdom;

tat = that [mind];

yacchet = should merge;

jñāna-ātmani  = in the intellect; [which is the “self” as it were of all the organs];

jñānam = the intellect;

mahati ātmani = in the Holy Spirit, 

niyacchet = should be dissolved;

tat = that ;

yacchet = should be merged; 

śānta-ātmani = into the tranquil Spirit


A wise man should contain speech in his mind;
 he should keep them within the Self which is knowledge;
 he should keep knowledge within the Spirit which is the Great; and he should keep that (the Great) within the Ultimate Tranquil Spirit.

This is actually the yogic process of merging with the Supreme Spirit.


Pratyahara   the 'withdrawal of the senses' is the fifth element among the Eight stages of Patanjali's Ashtanga Yoga, as mentioned in his classical work, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali .


yama niyama-āsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo-'ṣṭāvaṅgāni ||29|| Yoga Sutrani Patanjali Chapter 2:29


The limbs of the eight-fold path are as follows: respect for others (yama) and yourself (niyama); harmony with your body (asana), your energy (pranayama), your thoughts (dharana), and your emotions (pratyahara); contemplation (dhyana); ecstasy (samadhi).


yama =  respect for others; ethical and moral codes of conduct; codes of conduct

niyama = respect for yourself; code of conduct vis-à-vis yourself

āsana = body posture; seat; harmony with your body

prāṇāyāma = breath control; harmony with vital energy

pratyāhāra = withdrawal of the senses; harmony with emotions

dhāraṇā = concentration; harmony with thoughts

dhyāna = contemplation; meditation

samādhayaḥ = ecstasy; samadhi; goal of yoga; enlightenment; transcendent state

aṣṭa = respect

aṅgāni =  limbs


 Śānta-ātman is Puruṣa the Absolute or the Godhead. The Yogi must go beyond all mental images,  all  intellectual  concepts,  and  by  a  gradual  process  of  refined  abstraction,  one achieves  self-realisation  and  experiences  union  with  the  Godhead  in  whom  are  perfect peace  and  fullness  of  being.


(Raja Yoga received the status of orthodoxy due to its constituting text, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various texts, composed in c.400 CE. [Maas, Philipp A. (2006), Samādhipāda: das erste Kapitel des Pātañjalayogaśāstra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert, Aachen: Shaker, ISBN 3832249877] Traditionally it is ascribed to Patanjali, who compiled various traditions and wrote a commenatry on those, together forming the Pātañjalayogaśāstra ("The Treatise on Yoga according to Patañjali"), which consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya.[6] According to Wuyastik, referencing Maas,


Patanjali took materials about yoga from older traditions, and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people.)




utti̍ṣṭhata jā̱grata prā̱pya va̍rān ni̱bodha̍ta |

kṣura̍sya dhārā ni̱śitā̍ dura̱tya̱yā̱ du̱rgam pa̍thas tat ka̱vayo̍ vadanti || 14 ||


uttiṣṭhata = arise;
jāgrata = awake, be vigilant;
prāpya varān = having obtained the boons,
nibodhata = realise, comprehend them; 
kṣurasya  dhārā  = like the edge of a razor;
niśitā  = being sharpened;

duratyayā = impassable;

durgam =   difficult to traverse;
pathaḥ = path

tat = is that

kavayaḥ = the seers, poets, enlightened ones;
vadanti = declare;
Arise, awake, having obtained your boons, realise (them). Sharp as the edge of a razor and hard to cross, difficult to tread is that path (so) sages declare.


This path is not easy.  It is a  razor  sharp  path  which  can  lead  to  our  own  destruction  if  we  do  not maintain perpetual vigilance. 


na ayam ātma balahīnena labhya -
this ātma cannot be obtained by the weak.





a̱śabdam a̱sparśam a̱rūpam avyayam tathā̍ 'rasaṁ ni̱tyam a̍gandhavac ca yat |

a̱nādy-a̍nantam ma̱hata̍ḥ paraṁ dhru̱va̱ṁ ni̱cāyya̍ tam mṛ̱tyu-mu̍khāt  pramucyate || 15 ||


aśabdam = non-sound, soundless;

asparśam = touchless,

arūpam = formless;

 avyayam  = undiminishing,

tathā = and also;

arasaṁ  =  tasteless; 

nityam  =  eternal; 

agandhavat  =  odourless;   

ca  yat  =  and

anādi  = beginningless;   

anantam  =  endless; 

mahataḥ  paraṁ  =  higher  than  the  principle  of  intelligence; undecaying and therefore eternal;

dhruvaṁ  = stable, constant;

Nicāyya = realising,  tam = that (Self) that is:

pramucyate = one is liberated; = from the mouth of death.


One is freed from the mouth of death by discerning that (Paramātman – through meditation) which  is  devoid  of    sound,  beyond  touch  and  without  form,  undecaying,  which  is  likewise, tasteless, eternal, odourless, without beginning & without end, distinct from mahat (jīva), ever constant. 

'He who has perceived that which is without sound, without touch, without form, without decay, without taste, eternal, without smell, without beginning, without end, beyond the Great, and unchangeable, is freed from the jaws of death.'

We, our soul the lesser self is the perceiver, that hear, touch, see, feel, smell and think with the mind.  When we withdraw from these distractions and concentrate of the inner being, which is ever present within us as Spirit, we can succeed in the path and attain immortality.



The Four Spiritual Laws as given by the popular Christian leaflets may be compared to the advise given by Yama (Adam) to Naciketa (The Simple Minded)

Four Spiritual Laws


Just as there are physical laws that govern
the physical universe, so are there spiritual laws
that govern your relationship with God.

Law 1

God loves you and offers a wonderful plan for your life.

God's Love
"God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever
believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16, NIV).

God's Plan
[Christ speaking] "I came that they might have life, and might have it abundantly"
[that it might be full and meaningful] (John 10:10).

Why is it that most people are not experiencing that abundant life?



Law 2

Man is sinful and separated from God.
Therefore, he cannot know and experience
God's love and plan for his life.

Man is Sinful
"All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23).

Man was created to have fellowship with God; but, because of his own stubborn
self-will, he chose to go his own independent way and fellowship with God was broken.
This self-will, characterized by an attitude of active rebellion or passive indifference,
is an evidence of what the Bible calls sin.

Man Is Separated
"The wages of sin is death" [spiritual separation from God] (Romans 6:23).


This diagram illustrates that God is holy and man is sinful. A great gulf separates the two. The arrows illustrate that man is continually trying to reach God and the abundant life through his own efforts, such as a good life, philosophy, or religion
-but he inevitably fails.

The third law explains the only way to bridge this gulf...

Law 3

Jesus Christ is God's only provision for man's sin. 
Through Him you can know and experience
God's love and plan for your life.

(This is the statement of the Bhakthi Yoga in Christian terms)

He Died In Our Place
"God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners,
Christ died for us" (Romans 5:8).

He Rose from the Dead
"Christ died for our sins... He was buried... He was raised on the third day,
according to the Scriptures... He appeared to Peter, then to the twelve.
After that He appeared to more than five hundred..." (1 Corinthians 15:3-6).

He Is the Only Way to God
"Jesus said to him, 'I am the way, and the truth, and the life, no one comes to
the Father but through Me'" (John 14:6).

Bridge The Gulf

This diagram illustrates that God has bridged the gulf that separates us from Him by sending His Son, Jesus Christ, to die on the cross in our place to pay the penalty for our sins.

It is not enough just to know these three laws...

This is allowing the Spirit of God to take control of your inner self.

To do this:

Law 4

We must individually receive Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord;
then we can know and experience God's love and plan for our lives.

We Must Receive Christ
"As many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children
of God, even to those who believe in His name" (John 1:12).

We Receive Christ Through Faith
"By grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves,
it is the gift of God; not as result of works that no one should boast" (Ephesians 2:8,9).

When We Receive Christ, We Experience a New Birth
(Read John 3:1-8.)

We Receive Christ Through Personal Invitation
[Christ speaking] "Behold, I stand at the door and knock;
if any one hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him" (Revelation 3:20).

Receiving Christ involves turning to God from self (repentance) and trusting
Christ to come into our lives to forgive our sins and to make us what He wants us to be.
Just to agree intellectually that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and that He died on the cross
for our sins is not enough. Nor is it enough to have an emotional experience.
We receive Jesus Christ by faith, as an act of the will.

These two circles represent two kinds of lives:

Self-Directed Life
S-Self is on the throne
wpe463.jpg (790 bytes)-Christ is outside the life
wpe464.jpg (719 bytes)-Interests are directed by self, often 
resulting in discord and frustration

Christ-Directed Life
wpe463.jpg (790 bytes)-Christ is in the life and on the throne
S-Self is yielding to Christ,
resulting in harmony with God's plan
wpe464.jpg (719 bytes)-Interests are directed by Christ,
resulting in harmony with God's plan

In the extreme case of self-centered life, God is totally relegated to the outside of Man by the Selfish Soul and tries control everything with his uncontrolled mind horses. 


Which circle best represents your life?
Which circle would you like to have represent your life?

The following explains how you can receive Christ:

You Can Receive Christ Right Now by Faith Through Prayer
(Prayer is talking with God)

I believe this is the message hidden in the Katha Upanishad which was lost through centuries of transmission.



nā̱cike̱tam u̍pākhyā̱na̱ṁ mṛ̱tyu-pro̍ktaguṁ sa̱nāta̍nam |

u̱ktvā śru̱tvā ca̍ medhā̱vī̱ bra̱hma-lo̍ke ma̱hīya̍te || 16 ||


nāciketam =  of naciketas;

upākhyānam sanātanam = the eternal anecdote;

mṛtyu-proktaṁ  = spoken to by Death;

uktvā = telling, relating;

ca śrutvā = and listening to;

medhāvī = the intelligent person;

brahma-loke = in the world of Brahma.

mahīyate = is magnified, glorified;

 'A wise man who has repeated or heard the ancient story of Nakiketas told by Death, is magnified in the world of Brahman.'


ya i̱maṁ para̍maṁ gu̱hya̱ṁ śrāva̍yed bra̱hma-sa̍ṁsadi | pra̱yata̱ḥ śrāddha̍-kāle̱ vā̱

ta̱d āna̍ntyāya̱ kalpa̍te |  ta̱d āna̍ntyāya̱ kalpa̍tā i̱ti  || 17 ||


yaḥ  = whoever;

imam  = this

paramaṁ  guhyaṁ  = supreme secret doctrine;

śrāvayed  = causes to be recited;;

brahma-saṁsadi = in an assembly of brahmins; 

prayataḥ  = after becoming purified;

śrādddha-kāle = at the time of the ceremonies for the dead;

vā = or;

tat = that funeral ceremony;

ānantyāya = to an eternal result.

kalpate = becomes conducive;


Whoever  shall  arrange  the  recitation  of  this  supreme  secret  before  an  assembly  of Brahmanas after purification, or devoutly at the time of the ceremonies for the dead, this will prepare (him for) eternity.  


Revelation 1:3  Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near.

Luke 11:28  Jesus replied, "But even more blessed are all who hear the word of God and put it into practice."

This is the typical ending of most Christian scriptures,epistles and gospels in the early Christian period.  We should expect this as the end of the Katha Upanishad.