e̱so'śva̍tthas sa̱nāta̍nah |
e̍va śu̱kraṁ tad bra̱hma tad e̍vāmṛ̱tam
lo̱kāś śri̍tās sa̱rve̱
ta̱d u nā̍tyeti̱ kaśca̍na |
e̱tad vai tat || 1 ||
= downwards are its branches
that indeed is
= white, pure, resplendant;
tat brahma = that
that indeed is
= is called
tasmin = on
= all the realms of existence
= are fixed, based
na = nothing whatsoever;
tat-u = that
= This verily is that.
With the root
above and the branches below (stands) this eternal fig tree. That
the pure; that is Brahman, that indeed, is called immortal. In it
and nothing whatsoever transcends it. This, verily, is that.
This is that
eternal Asvattha Tree with its root above and branches below. That
called the Bright; That is Brahman and That alone is the Immortal.
In That all
contained and none can pass beyond. This, verily, is That.
The tree of
samsāra has its unseen roots in Brahman. The tree grows
upside down. It has
above and branches below. The tree, roots and branches represent
Brahman in its
the world of
same concept is found in the Tree of Life in the Jewish mysticism.
i̍daṁ ki̱ńca ja̍gat sa̱rva̱ṁ
prā̱na e̍jati̱ niḥsṛ̍tam |
bhayaṁ va̱jram udya̍taṁ ya e̍tad
vi̱dur a̱mṛtā̱s te bha̍vanti || 2
idaṁ kińca jagat sarvam
= all this universe that there is
the supreme Brahman, (being there)
ejati = and
= having emerged
= greatly terrifying
udyatam = like an upraised thunderbolt;
ya etat viduḥ
there is−the whole universe−vibrates because it has
gone forth from Brahman,
exists as its Ground. That Brahman is a great terror, like a
poised thunderbolt. Those who know It become immortal.
a̱sya agni̍s tapati bha̱yāt ta̍pati̱
i̱ndraś ca̍ vāyu̱ś ca̱
mṛ̱tyur dhā̍vati̱ pańca̍maḥ
|| 3 ||
= from fear of Him
tapati = the fire burns
tapati = the Sun
ca vāyuḥ = Indra and Vayu
ca = and Death
= the fifth
= run, speed, move fast.
terror of Brahman, fire burns; from terror of It, the sun shines;
from terror of It, Indra and Vayu and Death,and the fifth, run.
ced aśa̍kad bo̱ddhu̱ṁ prā̱k
śarī̍rasya vi̱srasaḥ |
sa̱rveṣu̍ loke̱ṣu̱ śa̱rīra̍tvāya̱
kalpa̍te || 4 ||
iha = here
cet = if
boddhum = in
śarīrasya visrasaḥ = before the disintegration of
then – because of that non-realisation;
lokeṣu = in the manifested or projected worlds of existence
= for embodiment;
kalpate = one
is considered suitable or fit.
If a man
is able to realise Brahman here, before the falling asunder of his
body, then he is
if not, he is embodied again in the created worlds.
one is able to
realms”. If any one
receive the Brahman and is connected to the Spirit world even in
this life, he is worthy of the heavens.
11: 25-26 Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the
life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies, and
everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die. Do you
is possible for
saving wisdom here and now – a state known as jivan-mukti
as opposed to liberation after death – videha mukti.
does not accept the idea of jīvan-mukti because the body is
due to Karma and will last as long as the Karma is operative. True
mukti can only apply to the jīva which is completely
liberated from a body and Karma.
tathā̱’’tma̍ni yathā̍ sva̱pne
tathā̍ pi̱tṛ-lo̍ke |
parīva̍ dadṛśe tathā̍
i̍va bra̱hma-lo̍ke || 5 ||
ādarśe = as in a mirror
= similarly in the mind (intellect);
svapne = as in a dream
pitṛ-loke = similarly in the realm of the ancestors
apsu = as a reflection in water
= appears to be
gandharva-loke = similarly in the realm of the Gandharvas
iva = like shade and light
in the realm of Brahma.
As in a
mirror, so in the mind (intellect);
as in a
dream, so in the World of the Fathers;
as a reflection in water, so Brahman is seen in the World of the
light and shade, so in the World of Brahma.
13:12 For now we see
through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in
part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.
can be seen reflected in the mind which is like a mirror –
vision depends on the preconceptions and cultural and experiencial
background within our lives.
understanding of God depends upon the lives, teaching and heritage
of our forefathers.
We are also
conditioned by every dimensions of existence, even those we are
not aware of because we are living in a cosmic network, visible
realize him it will be like seeing Him directly
ca̱ yat |
u̱tpadya̍mānānam ma̱tvā dhī̱ro
na̱ śoca̍ti || 6 ||
bhāvam = their separate natures
= rising and setting
= and that
separately from their sources
knowing through the process of discrimination;
= the wise, intelligent person
= does not grieve
understood that the senses have their separate origin and that
they are distinct from
also that their rising and setting belong to them alone, a wise
man grieves no
pa̍ram ma̱no̱ ma̱nasa̍s sattva̱m
a̱dhi ma̍hān ā̱tmā̱
mahato̍'vyakta̱m utta̍mam || 7 ||
param manaḥ =
the mind is superior to the senses
sattvam uttamam = the “essence of the mind” is better than the
adhi mahān ātma = higher than the intellect is the
avyaktam uttamam = the unmanifest is superior to the Spirit.
senses is the mind,
mind is the intellect,
than the intellect is the Spirit within
than the Spirit within is the Unmanifest Spirit beyond.
tu pa̍raḥ pu̱ru̱ṣo̱ vyā̱pako̍'liṅga̱
eva ca |
jńā̍tva mucya̍te ja̱ntu̱r
a̱mṛta̍tvaṁ ca̱ gaccha̍ti || 8 ||
tu paraḥ puruṣaḥ = the Purusha is superior to
= He is all-pervasive;
= a person;
mucyate = is
amṛtatvaṁ ca = attains immortality as well.
Unmanifest is the Person, all−pervading and imperceptible.
realised Him, the embodied self becomes liberated and attains
Brahman is a Purusha - a Person - The Spreme Person.
This person is omnipresent.
It is immanent in all creation and transcends it. Hence
knowing is indeed knowing the Person as we know any other person
and submitting to Him.
hierarchial description we have a hint of Pythagorean Greek
says that the nous is an intelligent principle of the world
acting with a specific intention. This is the divine reason
regarded in Neoplatonism as the first emanation of the Divine.
From the nous
emerges the world soul, which gives rise to the manifest
goes on to say the Godhead is the Father, Mother, and Son
In the mind
of Zeus, the ideas are distinctly articulated and become the Logos
by which he creates the world.
become active in the Mind (nous) of Zeus. With him is the Power
and from him is the nous.]
further explains that Zeus is called Demiurge (Dęmiourgos,
Creator), Maker (Poiętęs), ad Craftsman (Technitęs). The nous
of the demiurge proceeds outward into manifestation becoming
living ideas. They give rise to a lineage of mortal human souls.
components of the soul are
1) the higher soul, seat of the intuitive mind (divine nous);
2) the rational soul (logistikon) (seat of discursive reason /
3) the nonrational soul (alogia), responsible for the senses,
appetites, and motion.
the articulated ideas (Logos).
The idea of
ideas (Eidos - Eidôn), provides a model of the Paradigm of the
Universe, which the Demiurge contemplates in his articulation of
the ideas and his creation of the world according to the Logos.
to Christian theology, the transcendent God, who cannot be
approached or seen in essence or being, becomes immanent primarily
in the God-man Jesus the Christ, who is the incarnate Second
Person of the Trinity. In Eastern Orthodox theology the immanence
of God is expressed as the hypostases or energies of God, who in
his essence is incomprehensible and transcendent. In Catholic
theology, Christ and the Holy Spirit immanently reveal themselves;
God the Father only reveals himself immanently vicariously through
the Son and Spirit, and the Divine Nature, the Godhead is wholly
transcendent and unable to be comprehended.
expressed in St. Paul's letter to the Philippians, where he
He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a
thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a
bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. Being found
in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to
the point of death, even death on a cross.( Philippians 2:6–8)
Spirit is also expressed as an immanence of God.
Spirit descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice
came from heaven: "You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am
well pleased."[ Luke 3:22]
sa̱ndṛśe̍ tiṣṭhati̱ rūpa̍m
asya̱ na cakṣu̍ṣā paśyati̱ kaśca̱n-ainam̎
ya e̍tad vi̱dur a̱mṛtā̱s te
bha̍vanti || 9 ||
na tiṣṭhati =
an object of
cakṣuṣā = not with the physical eye or the other
na kaḥ cana
= by the heart
= by the intellect, intuitive vision
= when it is revealed or apprehended
viduḥ = those who know this fac
te = they
bhavanti = become
is not an object of vision; no one beholds Him with the eye. One
can know Him
when He is
revealed by the intellect free from doubt and by constant
meditation. Those who know this become immortal.
We cannot see
his form. We can know
him only through experience directly.
Pondering over the personal experience with the Supreme
Spirit through the Spirit within we can know the truth. Hence it
is necessary to receive him by faith in order to get immortality.
= (abhikḷṛptaḥ) As the concept of God is
formed by our personal subjective
nature, it cannot be identical for all.
As is our
nature so is our conception of the Divine.
man of faith, whose heart is devoted, whose senses are mastered:
Enlightened, he passes at once to the highest, the peace beyond
(Bhagavad Gita 4:39)
mind is dead to the touch of the external: it is alive to the
bliss of the Atman.
his heart knows Brahman his happiness is for ever.” (Bhagavad
mana̍sā saha |
ca na̱ vice̍ṣṭate tā̱m āhu̍ḥ
para̱mām ga̍tim || 10 ||
= the five sources of knowledge through senses eyes
= are at rest, have ceased to fluctuate
saha = together with the mind which collates the data they gather
that state [of quiescence]
= is called
gatim = the highest state.
five senses through which we receive knowledge stand still,
together with the mind and when the intellect does not move, that
is called the Supreme State.
This is the
process of Yoga
the obstacles and false identities have been temporarily set
aside, the true Self, which has been there all along, naturally
comes shining through (1.3). The rest of the time, we are so
entangled with our false identities that we literally do not see
that this misidentification has happened (1.4). It is the reason
that sometimes it is said that we are asleep, and that we need to
awaken. That awakening to the Self is the meaning of Yoga. (Patnjali
takes the "highest state" here to refer to the quelling
of the mind from all sensual
prior to the ultimate pursuit of the path to Mokṣa.
yoga̍m iti manyante sthi̱rām i̍ndriya̱-dhāraṇām
ta̍dā bhavati yo̱go hi̍ prabha̱vāp-ya̍yau
|| 11 ||
yogam = to be
iti = this
indriya-dhāranam = the steady control of the 10 senses
= undistracted; with careful concentration
then, at the time of yoga practice
bhavati = one
hi prabhavā apyayau = expands and contracts, subject to
growth and decay.
firm Control of the senses, is what is called yoga. One must then
be vigilant; for
be both beneficial and injurious.
vā̱cā na mana̍sā prā̱ptuṁ
śa̍kyo na̱ cakṣu̍sā |
bruvato̍'nya̱tra̱ ka̱thaṁ tad
upala̍bhyate || 12 ||
na eva vācā
even by speech
na manasā =
na cakṣusā =
= be attained
bruvataḥ = by one who says “It is”
tat = that
can be attained
cannot be attained by speech, by the mind, or by the eye. How can
It be realised in
way than by the affirmation of him who says: "He is"?
It is only by faith that we can attain Him since it is
impossible to perceive him through our senses.
Yet when we add all experiences in all its connections we
are assured of the one who says: "I Am".
While it is a logical necessity, it is to be deducted from
experience from its wholeness to be certain that leads to faith.
pra̱sīda̍ti || 13 ||
asti iti eva
upalabdhavyaḥ = It
should be apprehended as simply existent then
= its true nature [is
= of the two aspects,
conditined and unconditioned, immanent and transcendent;
= the true essential
asti iti eva
upalabdhasya = of
that very self which was
is to be realised first as Existence limited by upadhis and then
in His true transcendental nature. Of these two aspects, Atman
realised as Existence leads the knower to the realisation of His
sa̱rve pramu̍cyante̱ kā̱mā
ye̍'sya hṛ̱di śri̍tāḥ |
ma̱rtyo'mṛ̍to bha̱va̱ty a̱tra
bra̍hma sa̱maśnu̍te || 14 ||
sarve = when all
fall off, are shed, liberated;
śritāh = which nestle within the heart
= of the one pre-enlightenment;
= a mortal
bhavati = becomes immortal
atra = here
= attains the state of Brahman.
the desires that dwell in the heart fall away, then the mortal
becomes immortal and here attains Brahman.
says that the desires refered to here are only hankering for those
things which obstruct the path to mokṣa — durviṣaya
hṛḏaya̍syeha̱ grantha̍yaḥ |
ma̱rtyo' mṛ̍to bha̱vaty e̍tāvadhy
a̱nuśā̍sanam || 15 ||
granthayaḥ = all the knots
= of the heart – intellect
iha = here
thus far, this much
= the teaching.
the ties of the heart are severed here on earth, then the mortal
alone is the teaching.
the heart are
to the wheel
the teaching. —
sections may have been added at a late date. These words seem to
mark the end
enlarged Upanishad. The remaining verses seem to be a still later
portion of later addition starts here.
caikā ca hṛ̱daya̍sya nāḍyas tā̱sām
āyann a̱mṛta̍tvam eti
u̱tkramaṇe̍ bhavanti || 16 ||
ca eka = one hundred and one
nāḍyaḥ = channels into the heart
= of these
= the head
= exists through
through that channel
āyan = going upwards
one goes to
the other channels that branch out in different directions
bhavanti = serve for death ie. rebirth.
are one hundred and one arteries of the heart, one of which
pierces the crown of the head. Going upward by it, a man at death
attains immortality. But when his prana passes out by other
arteries, going in different directions, then he is reborn in the
evidently refers to the Chakra Theory which developed much later
in history. It was
taken over by the Gnostics and is now a total vast subject area.
It speaks of seven centers of openings starting from the
bottom to the crown. Reference here is only about the importance
of the Crown Chakra on the top of the head known also as Sahasra
Chakra. If the breath
leaves the body from the Crown Chakra it has attained mukthi.
That is the proposition here.
crown of head is known as Brahmarandhra (Sanskrit) [from Brahman
cosmic spirit + randhra opening, fissure, cavity] Brahman's
crevice; a mystical suture or opening in the crown of the head,
through which a person leaves his body at death. Connected with
the heart by means of the sushumna-nadi, a psychovital channel in
the spinal column. "A mystic term having its significance
only in mysticism" (TG 63). Anatomically the fontanel is a
soft, pulsating, unossified area in the skull of an infant, which
hardens as the child develops.
Vishnu Purana II:8:97 Brahma-loka which lasts till the great
dissolution of the universe is called “immortality” . True
“immortality” means freedom from the cycle of birth and death
in other words – liberation from the cycle of samsāra.
meaning can be that the enlightened one who dies with the mind
focussed in the heart chakra ascends to the sahasrara chakra and
then into the Brahma-loka or realm of Brahmā. There one
remains until the great dissolution and is then reborn with the
next cycle of projection. Or
on the other hand it can mean that after remaining in Brahmā-loka
until the end of the cycle one then attains true immortality.
mātraḥ pu̱ruṣo̍'ntarātmā sadā̍
svāc cha̍rīrāt pra̱vṛhe̍n muńjā̍d
iveṣīkāṁ dhairye̱ṇa |
vidyāc chu̱kram a̱mṛta̱ṁ taṁ
vidyāc chu̱kram a̱mṛta̍m iti || 17 ||
mātraḥ puruṣaḥ = the Person the size of a
= witin one's very own Self
hṛdaye sanniviṣṭaḥ = seated in the hearts
of all people
= one should draw out, separate
śarīrāt = from one's own body
iva muńjāt = like a stalk from within the munja grass
= unerringly, steadily
= that separated consciousness
one should know
as pure and immortal
vidyāt śukram amṛtam iti = the repetion indicates
the end of the teaching.
Purusha, not larger than a thumb, the inner Self, always dwells in
the hearts of men.
a man separate Him from his body with steadiness, as one separates
the tender stalk
a blade of grass. Let him know that Self as the Bright, as the
Immortal−yea, as the Bright, as the Immortal.
nāci̍keto'tha labdhvā vidyā̍m e̱tām
yo̱ga vidhi̍ṁ ca kṛtsnam |
vi̱rajo̱ 'bhūd vi̱mṛtyu̍r anyo’py
evam yo̱ vid adhyātmam eva || 18 ||
Knowledge of Brahman imparted by Yama
kṛtsnam yoga vidhiṁ = and the methodology of Yoga in
abhūt = attained the state of brahman-realisation
viraja = free
= free from death
anya api =
and anyone else too
vit = who realise this
eva = with regard to Spirituality.
received this wisdom taught by the King of Death and the entire
process of yoga,
became free from impurities and death and attained Brahman. Thus
it will be
any other who knows, in this manner, the inmost Self.
interprets vi-rajah (free of rajas) as freedom from both virtue (puṇya)
and vice (pāpa) and vi-mrtyuḥ (free from death) as
freedom from desire and ignorance.
verse is called the “phala-sruti” enunciation of the benefits
of this teaching which are
and final liberation from samsāra. It stresses the fact that
enyone and everyone is able to achieve this state regardless of
any race, caste, creed, gender or any other difference. The
spiritual path is open to one and all, the gates of liberation
have been flung open
wide by Lord Yama so that all who heed this teaching can enter.
| sa̱ha nau̍ bhunaktu |
karavāvahai | te̱ja̱svi-nā̱vadhī̍tam
astu̱ mā vi̍dviṣā̱vaha