The 1901 Topeka outpouring

In October 1900, 29-year-old Agnes Ozmen matriculated at the freshly founded Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas. Former Methodist, now Holiness pastor Charles Fox Parham directed students to read the book of Acts with heightened alertness to every mention of the Spirit. Consensus emerged on two points:
(1) outward manifestations always accompany the Spirit's activity, and
(2) speaking in tongues is the outward sign, the proof of baptism in the Holy Spirit.

A watch night service was announced for New Year's Eve. Sometime in the wee hours of January 1, 1901, Parham placed his hands on Miss Ozmen at her request, praying that she would receive baptism by the Holy Spirit. Witnesses report that Miss Ozmen, for the next three days, spoke and wrote only in Chinese totally foreign to her.




Agnes Ozman LaBerge

Most recognize Parham as the founder of the Pentecostal movement.

Soon after, the Xenolalic Spirit baptism (Speaking in known tongues of the hearers) was taught at the Azusa Street revival and then spread around the globe. Pentecostal Holiness Church leaders such as G.B. Cashwell and G.F. Taylor encouraged potential missionaries to trust God to provide the necessary languages. Cashwell believed learning foreign languages in colleges would take too long and Jesus would come soon. Taylor ridiculed “scholarly clergymen and high-steeple officials” who wondered how to spread the gospel as being “19 centuries behind the times.”  …..Shortly after Cashwell’s 1907 revival at Dunn, North Carolina, laypeople and leaders set out to places such as China, Japan, and India. Among those was phc minister T.J. McIntosh. McIntosh, who apparently was the first Pentecostal missionary to reach China, was the test case that revised a critical piece of this emerging formula.


 McIntosh was one of many who believed his xenolalic tongues were Chinese. Once in China he lamented in the Bridegroom’s Messenger, “Oh! How we would love to speak to these poor people. Of course, God speaks with our tongues, but not their language.” Reports that McIntosh and other missionaries were unable to communicate with people because God did not miraculously provide them with a foreign language caused considerable discomfort for Pentecostals. This news also elicited further criticism from their opponents. (http://enrichmentjournal.ag.org/200602/200602_078_azusadoctrine.cfm)

In the summer of 1960, Rabbi Jacob Rabinowitz discovered Irishman John Gruver speaking (unbeknownst to Gruver) Hebrew during an Assemblies of God worship service in Pasadena. But the vast bulk of Pentecostal tongues have been, ironically, not Pentecostal, but Corinthian — unknown tongues, heavenly languages - known as glossalalia or garbled sounds.



John Alexander Dowie 



 John Alexander Dowie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, May 25, 1847 and emigrated to Australia at thirteen years of age with his parents. He was ordained as a Congregational minister with his first pastorate at Alma, South Australia. He remained with the Congregational church for almost ten years before he began to preach divine healing. He formed the International Divine Healing Association in 1886. Dr. Dowie left Australia and arrived in the United States, in 1888. In February, 1896, he organized the Christian Catholic Church in Zion.  (Burgess, McGee, Alexander, Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, Zondervan Publishing House, 1988, pg. 249)

On July 14, 1900 he began to build a city of righteousness outside of Chicago which he named Zion.

He believed that he was the first restored apostle to The Church, and later came to believe he was the prophet Elijah, the restorer, sent to pave the way for the return of Christ which he too believed was immanent.

He taught that the Church would be fully restored to apostolic authority and power.  His beliefs coupled with those of Edward Irving formed the initial platform for the rapid spread of Neo-Montanist beliefs which were to soon be launched globally. Dowie declared himself "Elijah the Restorer" or Elijah III.  He walked around dressed in an Old Testament-like priest's outfit. In 1905 he had a stroke and traveled to Mexico where he bought a large tract of land for a "plantation paradise." In April 1906, the community and his family had finally had enough. Zion City was in financial ruins, his daughter had died, and his marriage had disintegrated. His wife claimed that he was promoting polygamy.  Dowie had a second stroke, which immobilized him. He was removed as the head of Zion, and lived a broken man for a few more months, until his death on March 11, 1907.




The Azusa Street Mission


Azusah Street Mission Leaders


May Evans, Hiram Smith (Deacon) Wm Seymour (Pastor and Manager), Clara Lum (Secretary)
Phoebe Sargent (City Missionary), G.W.Evans (Field Director) Jennie Moore (City Missionary), Glen Cook (Assistant State Manager), Florence Crawford (State Director), Thomas Junk, Sr. Prince.
In front 9 year old Mildred Crawford.





William Joseph Seymour was born in Centerville, Louisiana, on May 2, 1870 to former slaves Simon and Phyllis Seymour. Raised as a Baptist, Seymour was given to dreams and visions as a youth. At age 25, he moved to Indianapolis, where he worked as a railroad porter and then waited on tables in a fashionable restaurant. Around this time, he contracted smallpox and went blind in his left eye.

In 1900 he relocated to Cincinnati, where he joined the "reformation" Church of God (headquartered in Anderson, Indiana), also known as "the Evening Light Saints." Here he became steeped in radical Holiness theology, which taught second blessing entire sanctification (i.e., sanctification is a post-conversion experience that results in complete holiness), divine healing, premillennialism, and the promise of a worldwide Holy Spirit revival before the rapture.

In 1903 Seymour moved to Houston, Texas, in search of his family. There he joined a small Holiness church pastored by a black woman, Lucy Farrow, who soon put him touch with Charles Fox Parham. Parham was a Holiness teacher under whose ministry a student had spoken in tongues (glossolalia) two years earlier. For Parham, this was the "Bible evidence" of the baptism in the Holy Spirit. When he established a Bible school to train disciples in his "Apostolic Faith" in Houston, Farrow urged Seymour to attend.

Since Texas law forbade blacks to sit in classrooms with whites, Parham encouraged Seymour to remain in a hallway and listen to his lectures through the doorway. Here Seymour accepted Parham's premise of a "third blessing" baptism in the Holy Spirit evidenced by speaking in tongues. Though Seymour had not yet personally experienced tongues, he sometimes preached this message with Parham in Houston churches.


In early 1906, Seymour was invited to help Julia Hutchins pastor a Holiness church in Los Angeles. With Parham's support, Seymour journeyed to California, where he preached the new Pentecostal doctrine using Acts 2:4 as his text. Hutchins, however, rejected Seymour's teaching on tongues and padlocked the door to him and his message.


William Seymour had been taught about receiving the baptism with the Holy Ghost, (i.e. the gift of speaking in other tongues) by Charles Fox Parham in Kansas.

The revival began in prayer services conducted by William J. Seymour in the home of Richard Asberry. This revival occurred after Seymour was expelled from the Church of the Nazarene mission pastored by Julia Hutchins. On April 9, 1906, while conducting prayer service, Seymour and seven other attendees fell to the floor and began speaking in tongues. This occurrence frightened Asberry’s daughter, who fled through the kitchen door.

Seymour rarely preached and he usually asked the people present to let the gift of tongues descend upon them.April 4, 1906 a revival began and 1,000's of people came to 312 Azusa to receive the baptism in the Holy Spirit. T The first official meeting of the church led by Seymour was held on April 14, 1906. A few days later, on April 19, there was a great earthquake in the area which killed thousands of people. The event led to an explosion of participants in the small Pentecostal church on Azusa Street. It is said that by September, church meetings were attended by over 13,000 people. The assembly consisted mostly of African Americans.













Azuza Street where the revival started and the Bonnie Brae St the place of Birth of Pentecostalism.

“The revivals went on night after night for several years. Seymour would mostly sit behind the pulpit with his head in an empty shoebox as the lively meeting raged in the room before him. The meetings were wild: tongues, rolling on the floor, falling and lying prostrate, crying, laughing, convulsing, and even levitation. Vinson Synan, himself a Pentecostal and a historian of the movement, gives this description of the meetings on Azusa Street, and of the peculiar behavior of Rev. Seymour:

“A visitor to Azusa Street during the three years that the revival continued would have met scenes that beggared description. Men and women would shout, weep, dance, fall into trances, speak and sing in tongues, and interpret the messages into English. In true Quaker fashion, anyone who felt "moved by the Spirit" would preach or sing. There was no robed choir, no hymnals, no order of services, but there was an abundance of religious enthusiasm. In the middle of it all was "Elder" Seymour, who rarely preached and much of the time kept his head covered in an empty shoe box behind the pulpit At times he would be seen walking through the crowds with five- and ten-dollar bills sticking out of his hip pockets which people had crammed there unnoticed by him. At other times he would "preach" by hurling defiance at anyone who did not accept his views or by encouraging seekers at the woodplank altars to "let the tongues come forth."  To others he would exclaim: "Be emphatic! Ask for salvation, sanctification, the baptism with the Holy Ghost, or divine healing" “(The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement in the United States, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971, pp.108, 109).

The gift descended upon some, but the strange events dominated the meetings: animalic screams, dancing to exhaustion, running, screaming, fainting, crying etc.

Charles Parham himself visited California and was surprised at the development. He writes:“I hurried to Los Angeles, and to my utter surprise and astonishment I found conditions even Worse than I had anticipated. Brother Seymour came to me helpless; he said he could not stem the tide that had arisen. I sat on the platform in Azusa Street Mission, and saw the manifestations of the flesh, spiritualistic controls, saw people practicing hypnotism at the altar over candidates seeking the baptism; though many were receiving the real baptism of the Holy Ghost?“  

An article which appeared in the Los Angeles Times on April 18, 1906 tells the tale:

"…Breathing strange utterances, and mouthing a creed which it would seem no mortal could understand, the newest religious sect has started in Los Angeles…devotees of the weird doctrine practice the most fanatical rites, preach the wildest theories, and work themselves into a state of mad excitement…night is made hideous in the neighborhood by the howlings of the worshippers who spend hours swaying back and forth in a nerve racking attitude of prayer and supplication. They claim to have the "gift of tongues" and be able to comprehend the babel…

An old colored exhorter (presumably Seymour), blind in one eye is the major domo of the company. With his stony optic fixed on some luckless unbeliever, the old man yells his defiance and challenges an answer. Anathemas are heaped upon him who shall dare to gainsay the utterances of the preacher. Clasped in his big fist, the colored brother holds a miniature Bible from which he reads at intervals one or two words, never more. After an hour spent in exhortation the brethren [sic] present are invited to join in a 'meeting of song, prayer, and testimony.' Then it is that pandemonium breaks loose, and the bounds of reason are passed by the those who are 'filled with the spirit', whatever that may be."

However there was no stopping of the phenomena. This lasted from 1906 to 1913 (Burgess, Stanley, Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, Zondervan Publishers, 1988, pg. 31) and during these nine years 1,000's of Pentecostal missionaries carried this method and went forth establishing ministries around the world. They were indeed able to duplicate the alter ego behavior without a problem.

It was also reported a woman, Anna Hall, had attended a Russian church in Los Angeles and preached to the congregation in their own language. Anna did not know the Russian language. In December 1906, the paper reported, “the Lord God is in Los Angeles in different missions and churches in mighty power, in spite of opposition”.

Brother Seymour send missionaries to other parts of the world expecting this phenomena will help them to speak in the tongues of the people as they reached there. Seymour decided to set up the Apostolic Faith Missions aborad.. But the missionaries who had hoped to receive the gift of speaking in known tongues (as in the case of Agnes Ozman) failed.  But it never took place. This disappointed many.



3 Spiritual Christian groups of Ukraine

Molokane, Pryguny and Dukh-i-zhizniki
and their role in the Azusa revival.


Armenia was the first to adopt Christianity as its State religion in 301AD. The great apostle of Armenia was St Gregory the Illuminator (257-337), although according to tradition the Apostles Sts Bartholomew and Thaddeus preached in Armenia and died there. Gregory, an Armenian of the royal house of the Arsacides, was brought up in Cappadocia where he was instructed in the Christian faith. About 261 he returned to Armenia and after many trials baptized the King and a large number of the court.

Though Russians Christians are essentially Orthodox in nature, there appears to be a group of people who were neo-montanists who appeared in the 17th century and later long before it appeared in the United States. Andrei Conovaloff presents these special three “Spiritual Christians”



1.  Molokane (Milk-drinkers) — founded ~1765 in Central Russia (Tambov oblast). A better label is Ne-postniki (Non-Fasters).

2. Pryguny (Jumpers) — loosely consolidated ~1833 in northeast Taurida governate, Novorossiya (New Russia, now South Ukraine, Zaporizhia oblast) from Pietist-like and charismatic movements transferred from Europe and Central Russia, and indigenous shamanism. The Prygun label began about 1856.

3. Dukh-i-zhizniki (Spirit-and-Lifers) — founded ~1928 in U.S.A. The faith initiated 2 miles west of Glendale AZ from 1911 to 1915, in a village of recent immigrants from Russia at 75th Ave and Griffith Lane, and amalgamated with other faiths in Boyle Heights district, Los Angeles CA in the 1920s while they compiled and edited a holy book.  

(A History of Russia Volume 1: To 1917, Volume 1  By Walter G. Moss)




The first Russian Molokans Church (Spiritual Christians) in Glendale, Arizona was built in 1950 and is located at 7402 Griffin Ave. It is listed as historical by the Glendale Arizona Historical Society.

“As newborn babes, desire the rational milk without guile, that thereby you may grow unto salvation:”1 Peter 2:2


The Klaiysty, the oldest of these sects, apparently began in the seventeenth century. They sang and dancecl in whirling fashion to bring about religious ecstasy and oneness with God. They reiected the Orthodox view of Jesus and thought that what had made him stand out from other men was that he was full of God's spirit. But he was not the only “Christ”; Klilysty believed they too could become “christs." Like many sectarians, they espoused rigorous ethical standards. They condernnecl alcohol, smoking, and sex {even for married couples). A late eighteenthcentury off shoot of the Klilysty, the Skoptsy. went even Further in their fight against sex: they preached self-castration.

The Dukhobors (Spirit Wrestlers) and Molokane {Milk Drinkers] emerged from a common Spiritual Christianity, about which little is known. Although more rationalistic than the the others the Dukhoburs became more utopian, radical, and pantheistic than the Mulokane, who remained closer to Christian beliefs and placed more emphasis on the Bible than did most eighteenth-century Russian sectarians. But the Nlolnkane still rejected the Orthodox Church structure and many of its doctrines and, in contrast to the Orthodox, they drank milk on fast days. Most, though not all, Dukhobors ancl Molokane advocated pacifism. But the government refused to exempt them from military service and, at times. even used conscription as a punishment against them. As an extreme case some even self castrated to be saved from sexual sins. (And God Created Lenin: Marxism Vs Religion in Russia, 1917-1929  By Paul Gabel)

 In 1833, a schism took place within the Molokan faith. This event was framed by collective cataclysms of disease, famine, and persecution. A portion of the Molokans during this time began to experience a charismatic outpouring of the Holy Spirit, similar to contemporary Pentecostal faiths. Eventually this sect evolved into what is known today as the Molokan Jumpers  The jumping sectarians were interbred ethnic Russians, Tartars, Ukrainians, Mordvins, Fins, etc. Many were "Russian" by citizenship, not ethnic heritage. Between the old Molokans, termed Constants (Postoyaniye), and the newly evolved Molokan "Jumpers" or Skakuni (Leapers). The Molokan Jumpers believed they were visited by a manifestation of the Holy Spirit, and this new smaller Molokan sect began a revival with intense zeal, reporting miracles that purportedly rivaled those of Christ's apostles

The "Constant" Molokan sect condemned the new sect to authorities, resulting in betrayals and imprisonment for many of the Molokan Jumpers. Some of these Molokan Jumpers called themselves "New Israelites" under their anointed leader Maxim Rudometkin in Nikitino, Erivan Guberniya.  Efim G. Klubnikin in Romanovka, Kars oblast, was considered a divinely inspired 12-year-old boy prophet, who prophesied about a "coming time that would be unbearable and that the time to leave Russia was now." He wrote that "soon the doors will close and leaving Russia would be impossible," which he later wrote in his memoirs in his elder years. During the early 20th century under his leadership, about 2,000 Pryguny emigrated to the United States, first settling on the east side of Los Angeles. Most seeking rural isolation moved to Baja Mexico, then Arizona, Central California, and some other parts of the West Coast.and Canada. Other Jumpers received a land grant from the Mexican government and settled in the Guadalupe Valley in Baja California, Mexico.

In Los Angeles, a small amount of the Molokan Jumpers joined the development of the American Revival called "the Pentecostal Azusa Street Revival." The founder of The Full Gospel Business Men's Association associates this Pentecostal Revival to a child prophet of the Molokan Jumpers, E.G. Klubnikin.

It is assumed that it is these jumpers who initiated the Azusa experience of speaking in tongues.

American Molokan Dukh-i-zhiznik (lit. living in the Spirit) oral history (documented in the Book of the Sun: Spirit and Life, Dukh i zhizn’) reports that Molokani and Pryguny received the “outpouring of the Holy Spirit” in the Milky Waters region (now in Ukraine) in 1833.

The diary of Vassili V. Verestchagin documents that Pryguny (lit. leapers) in the Caucasus in the early 1860s spoke in tongues, jumped to exhaustion, and held hands up in the air for more than an hour. These charismatic practices continue among Dukh-i-zhizniki in the U.S. and Australia.

From 1906 to 1909, the Apostolic Faith Mission conducted three services a day, seven days a week, for over three years or 1000+ services! Thousands of seekers received the “tongues” baptism, including many Molokani and Pryguny. Also many public Pentecostal revivals were conducted in tent meetings on Oake’s lot and other locations around the Flats area slums where Russians settled. English speaking Pryguny and other Russians immigrants often translated at the services. Oake’s lot later became Pecan Playground, at First and Pecan Streets.

Were Molokans the first to Speak in Tongues at Azusa?

In Molokans in America (pages 101-102, ch. 5), John K. Berokoff reports about the connection between Prygun leader Philip Mikhailovich Shubin and the early Pentecosts:

“During his 27 years in America he was the outstanding speaker and orator of the brotherhood with a wide acquaintance among non-Molokans , not infrequently taking a choir of singers to Pentecostal church meetings where he preached and explained the  Molokan reasons for their migration. It was his wisdom, his profound knowledge of the scriptures plus his wide knowledge of Russian literature that enabled him to repel the periodic attempts by leaders of neighboring denominations—Baptists, Pentecostals, etc.—to proselytize the  Molokan people …”

More evidence of connections between the Azusa Street Revival and the Pryguny is reported  in the newspaper The Apostolic Faith, which was distribute free to 50,000 subscribers, when the population of Los Angeles was 250,000. Many Russian sectarians in Flats knew about this church and saw this free paper, especially since it reported about them in the first issue, the church was within walking distance, and elders exchanged visits.

1906 September — The Apostolic Faith (Volume 1 Number 1) — The first edition of the newspaper reports that Apostolic Faith Mission members spoke at a Prygun prayer meeting. In 1906, Pryguny held Sunday services at the Bethlehem Institutional Church and the Stimson-Lafayette Industrial School, and welcomed guests at both locations which were 1/2 block from each other and about 1/4 mile east of the Apostolic Faith Mission. The Pentecosts invited the Pryguny to attend their meetings, which many did with a translator:

“Different nationalities are now hearing the Gospel in their own “tongue wherein they were born.” Sister Anna Hall spoke to the Russians in their church in Los Angeles, in their own language as the Spirit gave utterance. They were so glad to hear the truth that they wept and even kissed her hands [showing respect]. They are a very simple, pure, and hungry people for the full Gospel. The other night, as a company of  Russians were present in the meeting, Bro. Lee, a converted Catholic, was permitted to speak [translate] their [Russian] language. As he spoke and sang, one of the  Russians came up and embraced him. It was a holy sight, and the Spirit fell upon the Russians, as well as on others, and they glorified God.”

1907 April  — The Apostolic Faith (Volume 1 Number 7) — The 7th edition reports about the Russian and Armenian Pryguny in the Flats:

“Russians and Armenians in Los Angeles are seeking the baptism. The Armenians have a Pentecostal cottage meeting on Victor street, between 4th and 5th [Now under the I-5 Freeway]. Some have been baptized with the Holy Ghost.”

In his 2006 book, The Azusa Street Mission and Revival: The Birth of the Global Pentecostal Movement, Cecil Robeck reports that in 1906 Los Angeles had a population of 238,000 and was growing at the rate of 3,000 (1.3%) per month, as ~ 4,000 Russian sectarians migrated to the U.S. He mentions the Russian and Armenian Pryguny at least 5 times in his book:

[Page 57] Finally, between 1903 and 1912 several thousand Russians and Armenians arrived in the city, refugees from Russia’s increasingly repressive government. Unlike most Russians, they did not belong to the Orthodox church. They were [Spiritual Christian ethnic] Molokans, literally “milk drinkers,” a name they received because they refused to fast from dairy products during traditional fast days. More importantly, they could be described as a “proto-Protestant'” group, since they had been influenced by some of the sixteenth-century Reformers. They also had a special appreciation for the Holy Spirit. Many of them claimed that they had been directed to leave southern Russia through the gift of prophecy. They engaged in what was often described as ecstatic behavior, jumping and dancing; falling on the floor when they believed that they were possessed of the Holy Spirit to do so; and singing chant-like songs that strongly paralleled the “singing in the Spirit” (a multi-layered, harmony-rich singing in tongues that are unknown to the singers and are believed to be inspired by the Holy Spirit) at the Azusa Street Mission.

[Page 94] As the revival grew … Seymour celebrated the spread of the revival to other congregations … the Russian Molikan [sic] community, … He viewed them as fellow-workers.

[Page 138] While the mission was led by an African American pastor, dominated by and African American membership, and heavily influenced by African American worship patterns, it quickly developed into a multi-ethnic and multiracial congregation. … non-African-Americans did bring their own gifts and experiences. … Recent Russian and Armenian Molokan [Spiritual Christian] immigrants already practiced the unusual jumping and chanting also found at the mission. … This was a revival unlike any other the city of Los Angeles had ever seen … African Americans, Latinos, Armenians, Russians, Swedes, Germans, Italians, Chinese, Japanese, Native Americans, and other ethnic groups … bountiful expressions of ecstatic manifestation such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, claims of dreams and visions, trances, healings, exorcism, and falling “in the Spirit.”

[Page 153] “Singing in the Spirit” accomplished more than an expression of worship, however. It also provided a bridge that brought Russian and Armenian Molokans [Spiritual Christian Jumpers] into the mission — among them the Shakarian and Mushegian families. These families arrived in Los Angeles in the 1905 emigration. The Molokans commonly practiced a king of “sing-song” prayer, a form of vocal prayer and praise that resembled singing in Spirit.” Walking down San Pedro Street in 1905, Demos Shakarian, grandfather of the Demos Shakarian who would later found the Full Gospel Businessman’s Association, and his brother-in-law, Magardich Muchegian, passed the Azusa Street Mission. As they drew near, they heard sounds of praying, singing, and speaking in tongues coming from the mission — expressions that they identified as similar to their own. The single phenomenon of “singing in tongues” convinced Demos to embrace the mission as a place his family could worship. From the moment he heard it, he concluded that God was also beginning to move to America just as He had in their homeland of America and in Russia.”(27)

[Pages 189-190] At the same time a group of Armenians and Russians [Spiritual Christian Pryguny], who had come to Los Angeles in the Molokans immigration, opened cottage prayer meetings on Victoria Street between West Fourth and Fifth Streets that would quickly develop into an Armenians-language Pentecostal church.

American-born Armenian-Prygun historian Joyce Bivin comments: We have a similar story in our community about the Azusa Street Revival. The story goes like this — quoted from a letter by M. Mushagian:

“Our people came to Los Angeles right after the Azusa Street Revival. They used to attend the meetings even though they didn’t understand the American language. They saw that the

Holy Spirit was moving there like it did in the Old Country. So they accepted Pentecostal because they believed in Acts 2:4.” 

The Armenians apparently were worshiping in this manner, including dancing in the Spirit, (jumping, which my grandmother did at one of the Paskha meetings and the next day mother told me she was healed of whatever affliction she had at the time), prophesying, speaking in tongues, etc. before they came to America. I wasn’t aware the Molokans responded to the Azusa Street meetings. After the Armenians visited the Azusa Street meetings, they eventually changed their identity from Armenian Molokans to Armenian Pentecostals. Though they kept the Molokan traditions in their worship, their theology shifted from focusing on Jesus and M.G. Rudometkin (whose book was next to the Bible on the table) to Jesus’s teachings as defined by Pentecostal/Protestant doctrine.

The first place our people gathered to worship was on Boston Street. The next place was on 431 S. Pecan Terrace, in a large room where my great grandfather eventually turned into a bath house. Then they moved to Gless Street [all in the Flats] and next to Goodrich Blvd before moving to Hacienda Heights. The church today is located in Hacienda Heights, off Hacienda Blvd. on West. It’s the first entrance on the right after you turn on West.








Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (1826–1916) of North Carolina, a Caucasian-American minister of Pentecostal Holiness Church, heard of the revival at Azusa Street Mission. In November 1906, he traveled by rail from Dunn, North Carolina to Los Angeles to attend the revival. Upon his arrival at the mission, Cashwell found an African-American, Seymour, in charge of the services and the majority of the worshippers African-American. This was unsettling to Cashwell, who was deeply prejudiced against African-Americans. After returning to this hotel room, he was convicted by the spirit of his racial prejudice. The next night, he humbled himself and asked Seymour and other African-American men to lay hands on him and pray that he be filled with the Holy Ghost. Cashwell was then filled with the Holy Ghost as evidenced by speaking in tongues.

He then proceded to a six-month preaching tour of the South in 1907. Under his ministry, Cashwell saw several holiness denominations swept into the new movement, including the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, and the Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church. Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee).   Others took the Pentecostal message to other countries. They include: 
R. E. McAlister who took the message to Ottawa, Canada  
T. B. Barratt, a Norwegian Methodist who took the message to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, France and England.  

By the end of 1913 there were growing factions within the fledgling movement and in the end several independent Pentecostal organizations were formed due to not being able to resolve their leadership and doctrinal differences. Four of these organizations exist today:

The Church of God in Christ (black Pentecostal's) formed 1907


One of the first denominations to accept Pentecostalism was the Church of God in Christ [COGIC], founded in 1897 by Charles Mason. They believe that a Holy Ghost experience is mandatory for all men even today. In 1907, Mason received the “baptism of the Holy Spirit,” and soon the majority of his denomination was Pentecostal. This group remains one of the largest denominations within Pentecostalism.




Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee).


Another large group that became Pentecostal was the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee). This group, founded in 1886, became Pentecostal in 1908, in a large part influenced by Ambrose. Jessup Tomlinson. By 1922, however, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), could no longer stand the dictatorial nature of Tomlinson; therefore, Tomlinson was removed, and he himself created another Church of God, known first as the “Tomlinson Church of God” until 1943, when Tomlinson died. His two sons, Milton and Homer, began to quarrel over who should take over control of the church. Milton was chosen, and in 1952 he chose the name “Church of God of Prophecy” to replace “Tomlinson Church of God.” Homer left that group when he was not chosen and founded his own group, the Church of God, World Headquarters, in 1943.


The Pentecostal Holiness Church, founded in 1898, became Pentecostal in 1908.

The Assemblies of God (white Pentecostal's) formed 1914

The United Pentecostal Church (both black and white members) formed 1914

The Pentecostal Church of God (mostly white members) formed 1919

The denominations listed above are considered the “first wave” of Pentecostalism, since they essentially were Wesleyan Holiness groups who incorporated the glossolalia (speaking in tongues) and other gifts into their theology. They believed that one was saved, then sanctified, and then received the baptism of the Holy Spirit.



Reaction to the Azusa Revival

Just as the Montanism was rejected by the Orthodox Churches, the reaction to the Azusa Revival was also met with rejection.  Here are a few Eyewitness reactions:

 What Eyewitness said about the Azusa Street Mission. All these men are respected Bible scholars (from http://www.bible.ca/tongues-neo-montanism.htm)

George Campbell Morgan D.D. (9 December 1863 – 16 May 1945) was a British evangelist, preacher and a leading Bible scholar

described the Azusa Street activities as "the last vomit of Satan." ("From Holy Laughter to Holy Fire" by Michael L. Brown, pages 197&198)

Reuben Archer Torrey (28 January 1856 – 26 October 1928) was an American evangelist, pastor, educator, and writer

declared that this new Pentecostal movement was "emphatically not of God, and founded by a Sodomite." ("From Holy Laughter to Holy Fire" by Michael L. Brown, pages 197&198)



Henry Allen "Harry" Ironside was a Canadian-American Bible teacher, preacher, theologian, pastor, and author who pastored Moody Church in Chicago from 1929 to 1948.

said in 1912 AD both the holiness and Pentecostal movements were "disgusting. . .delusions and insanities." ... "pandemonium's where exhibitions worthy of a madhouse or a collection of howling dervishes," were causing a "heavy toll of lunacy and infidelity." ("From Holy Laughter to Holy Fire" by Michael L. Brown, pages 197&198)

Famed Holiness preacher and New Testament commentator William B. Godbey first came to Los Angeles to inspect the Pentecostal movement in 1909. He impressed the ones who asked him whether he spoke in tongues by speaking latin.  He refused to take a seat on the daise.

W.B. Godbey said of the Azusa Street participants and he claimed the movement was the result of spiritualism.

"Satan's preachers, jugglers, necromancers, enchanters, magicians, and all sorts or mendicants," ("From Holy Laughter to Holy Fire" by Michael L. Brown, pages 197&198)

Rev. Clarence Larkin (1850–1924) was an American Baptist pastor, Bible teacher and author whose writings on Dispensationalism had a great impact on conservative Protestant visual culture in the 20th century. His intricate and influential charts provided readers with a visual strategy for mapping God's action in history and for interpreting complex biblical prophecies.

Larkin says: "But the conduct of those possessed, in which they fall to the ground and writhe in contortions, causing disarrangement's of the clothing and disgraceful scenes, is more a characteristic of demon possession, than a work of the Holy Spirit. From what has been said we see that we are living in "Perilous Times," and that all about us are "Seducing Spirits," and that they will become more active as the Dispensation draws to its close, and that we must exert the greatest care lest we be led astray." ("From Holy Laughter to Holy Fire" by Michael L. Brown, pages 197&198)       


In 1910, William Howard Durham preached a sermon entitled "the Finished Work of Calvary" at a midwestern Pentecostal convention. His finished work teaching "sought to 'nullify' the understanding of sanctification as wholly realized in the believer by a crisis experience subsequent to and distinct from conversion".


This teaching began the controversy that divided the Pentecostal movement into two groups


The first group held that salvation is a three distinct stage process involving conversion, sanctification, and Baptism in the Holy Spirit.

The  second group held that it is only a two-stage process involving conversion and a lifelong process of sanctification. One could obtain the Baptism of the Holy Spirit anytime after conversion during the period of sanctification.


This rift in theology prompted what is known as the “second wave” of Pentecostalism.


One of the largest and best-known churches of this “second wave” is the Assemblies of God [AG or AoG], which divided from the Church of God in Christ in 1914 over the “finished work” theology and also racial issues.


Another major difference opinion arose over the the doctrine of the Trinity.

One group maintained the doctrine of the Trinity - Three Persons One God.




The other group maintained absolute monism where there is only One God who appeared as Father, Son and Holy Spirit as required.  Jesus indeed was all the three.  This is the ancient Modalism or Sabellianism. 



As a result, the Pentecostal Movement is divided between trinitarian and non-trinitarian branches (resulting in the emergence of Jesus' Name Pentecostals).The Assemblies of God themselves saw division occur within the next two years over the “oneness” theology, that the name of Jesus was the only name of God, that one needed to be baptized in the name of Jesus alone, and that speaking in tongues was necessary for salvation .


This group was eventually cast out of the Assemblies of God in 1916 to form the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World.


This group itself divided because of racial differences in 1927, forming a group known as the Pentecostal Church, Incorporated, which later merged with other “oneness” churches to form the United Pentecostal Church (UPC) in 1945.


The Assemblies of God saw further divisions in the next twenty years.  


In 1927, a former Assemblies of God minister named Aimee Semple McPherson founded the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, a Pentecostal church that grew around the healing and witness of its founder. This church also suffered a division in 1932 with the creation of the Open Bible Evangelistic Association, which eventually merged with another group to form the Open Bible Standard Church in 1935.


In Britain also the Holiness movement made its impact through the Higher Life Movement or KeswicK movement.  Its name comes from a book by William Boardman, entitled The Higher Christian Life, which was published in 1858. The movement was promoted at Keswick Conventions in Keswick, which continue to this day. They believe that every believer in this life is left with the natural proclivity to sin and will do so without the countervailing influence of the Holy Spirit.


There are many other groups that are part of the Pentecostal/Charismatic movement, including the majority of the televangelists and those who perform “healing revivals.” “Charismatic communities” have also been founded, consisting of groups of Charismatics who wish to create their own community of faith.


These are the major groups in the Pentecostal/Charismatic movement; it would be a large task indeed to discuss every little group within this movement. It is believed that for every individual congregation within one of these denominations, there exists one independent Pentecostal/Charismatic congregation. Let us now examine the general belief systems of these groups.


The following are the key doctrinal beliefs that distinguish the Oneness Pentecostal movement: Modalism ( Sabellianism)- Jesus is the only person of God;
Doctrine of "trinity" considered to be demonic;
Speaking in tongues is an essential sign of salvation;
Denial of the existence of Christ prior to the incarnation.
Baptism "in Jesus' name" alone is necessary for salvation.

These doctrines caused division in traditional Pentecostal churches.

They led to the condemnation of the `The New Order of the Latter Rain' by the Assemblies of God in their general council in 1949. After this action, many Assembly ministers resigned or were excommunicated for their involvement and formed independent Latter Rain churches. Most of these churches were small. Their evolving doctrines became increasingly heretical and, many degenerated into clearly definable cults (Church of the Living Word, The Body, House of Prayer, etc.)." (Old Wine in New Wineskins: A look at the Kansas City Fellowship, Stephen F. Cannon, Personal Freedom Outreach, 1990.)

The Pentecostal and the Assemblies of God denominations grew out of the Azusa street revival.  

Aimee Semple McPherson, nationally known healing evangelist in the 1920's - 1930's. Founded and headed the Foursquare Gospel Church. She practiced speaking-in-tongues and faith healing within her services, but kept the former to a minimum in sermons to appease mainstream audiences. Discarded medical fittings from persons faith-healed during her services, which included crutches, wheelchairs, and other paraphernalia; were gathered for display in a museum area.

Angelus Temple completed in 1923, is the center of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel founded by McPherson. In 1992,     

Kathryn Kuhlman was ordained a Baptist minister, but did not associate her ministry with any denomination She was heavily influenced by the Azusa street revival, and by the Roman Catholic church. She was well known for the manifestations that occurred at her meetings, including "laughter". She is said to be responsible for the introduction of the manifestation of "Slain in the Spirit". There were some differences to the current movement, though, in that she insisted that her meetings be orderly. Manifestations interrupting the service were not permitted. She was highly regarded in many Christian circles, and strongly influenced Benny Hinn and John Arnott.


All four of these individuals thought that their organizations were in fact restoring true Christianity which had been lost over the years. All of these groups initially believed in a restoration of the gifts of the Holy Spirit including prophecy. They can be classified as Neo-Montanist due to:

    Their belief in the current gift of prophecy as divine revelation

    Their acceptance of women in authority

    Belief in extra-Biblical revelations

    Unwillingness to submit to other recognized Church authorities

William Branham  

Brahnam started out with Missionary Baptist church. After a short stint, he joined the United Pentecostal Church (God Can Do It Again, Kathryn Kuhlman, Prentice-Hall, 1969.). He later rejected all denominations as being of the antichrist and formed the Branham Tabernacle as an independent church.

After World War II, another healing revival broke out all over America and the world.  The original initiator of the revival was William Branham.

Branham's teachings were foundational for the formalization of Neo-Montanism as a dynamic movement within the Church beginning in 1947 in N. Battleford Canada.

Branham taught that gifts of the Holy Spirit could be transmitted through the laying on of hands via a man who possessed such gifts.

He believed in further revelation given by angels, dreams, visions, and prophecy.

He strongly taught that Jesus was returning very soon and would severely judge America

William Branham's theology:

God's Word consists of the zodiac, Egyptian pyramids and scripture.

Doctrine of trinity is considered demonic

The claim that he was Elijah the prophet

Millennium to begin in 1977.

That he was the seventh angelic messenger to the Laodicean Church Age (Footprints, pg. 620).(Using the dispenational theory that each of the churches in Revelations represents an age of the church, the current one being the Laodicean Church Age).

That anyone belonging to any denomination had taken "the mark of the beast" (Footprints, pp. 627, 629, 643, 648).

That he received divinely inspired revelations (The Revelation of the Seven Seals, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Tucson, Ariz., n.d.; pg.19; Questions and Answers, Book 1, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Tucson, 1964; pg. 60.)

The fall of man happened when Eve had sexual relations with Satan, that his sexual union produced Cain.(Branham said that "every sin that ever was on the Earth was caused by a woman....the very lowest creature on the Earth" The Spoken Word, Vol. III Nos. 12, 13, 14;, Branham; Spoken Word Publications, Jeffersonville, Ind. 1976; pp. 81-82. Quoted in The Man and His Message, pg. 41).

Branham denied the biblical triune Godhead. He pronounced it a "gross error" (The Spoken Word, pg. 79) and as a prophet with the authority of a "Thus saith the Lord," revealed that "trinitarianism is of the devil" (Footprints, pg. 606).

Unsaved descended from the serpent.


Leading figures in the spread of charismatic beliefs in the 1960s and 1970s include: 
South African, David du Plessis;
In North America, Dennis Bennett, Harold Bredesen, Kathryn Kuhlman, British philosopher turned preacher Derek Prince, Bob Mumford among others;
In the United Kingdom, Michael Harper, Colin Urquhart, David Watson, Cyril Ashton, Michael Green, Stanley Jebb, Bryn Jones, John Noble, Gerald Coates and others.



·William Boardman (1810–1886)

·Alexander Boddy (1854–1930)

·John Alexander Dowie (1848–1907)

·Henry Drummond (1786–1860)

·Edward Irving (1792–1834)

·Andrew Murray (1828–1917)

·Jessie Penn-Lewis (1861–1927)

·Evan Roberts (1878–1951)

·Albert Benjamin Simpson (1843–1919)

·Richard Green Spurling father (1810–1891) and son (1857–1935)

·James Haldane Stewart (1778–1854)


·A. A. Allen (1911–70) – Healing tent evangelist of the 1950s and 1960s

·Yiye Ávila (1925–2013) – Puerto Rican Pentecostal evangelist of the late 20th century

·Joseph Ayo Babalola (1904–59) Oke – Ooye, Ilesa revivalist in 1930, and spiritual founder of Christ Apostolic Church

·Reinhard Bonnke – Evangelist

·E. W. Kenyon (1867–1948) A major leader in what became the Word of Faith movement. Had a particularly strong influence on Kenneth Hagin's theology and ministry.

·William M. Branham (1909–65) – Healing evangelist of the mid-20th century

·David Yonggi Cho – Senior pastor and founder of the Yoido Full Gospel Church (Assemblies of God) in Seoul, Korea, the world's largest congregation

·Jack Coe (1918–56) Healing tent evangelist of the 1950s

·Donnie Copeland – Pastor of Apostolic Church of North Little Rock, Arkansas, and Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives[169]

·Margaret Court – Tennis champion in the 1960s and 1970s and founder of Victory Life Centre in Perth, Australia; become a pastor in 1991

·Luigi Francescon (1866–1964) – Missionary and pioneer of the Italian Pentecostal Movement

·Donald Gee (1891–1966) – Early Pentecostal bible teacher in UK; "the apostle of balance"

·Joel Hemphill, Sr. – Former pastor in Bastrop, Louisiana; founder of the award-winning gospel singing group The Hemphills (1967–1990)

·Benny Hinn – Evangelist

·Rex Humbard (1919–2007) – The first major television evangelist (1950s–70s),[citation needed] and at one time had the largest TV audience of an evangelist in the US[citation needed]

·George Jeffreys (1889–1962) – Founder of the Elim Foursquare Gospel Alliance and the Bible-Pattern Church Fellowship (UK)

·Kathryn Kuhlman (1907–76) – Evangelist who brought Pentecostalism into the mainstream denominations

·Gerald Archie Mangun (1919–2010) – American evangelist, pastor, who built one of the largest churches within the United Pentecostal Church International

·Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) – The Founder of the Church of God In Christ

·Aimee Semple McPherson (1890–1944) – Evangelist, pastor, and organizer of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel

·Charles Fox Parham (1873–1929) – Father of modern Pentecostalism

·David du Plessis (1905–87) – South-African Pentecostal church leader, one of the founders of the Charismatic movement

·Oral Roberts (1918–2009) – Healing tent evangelist who made the transition to televangelism

·Bishop Ida Robinson (1891–1946) – Founder of the Mount Sinai Holy Church of America

·William J. Seymour (1870–1922) – Azusa Street Mission founder (Azusa Street Revival)

·Jimmy Swaggart – TV evangelist, pastor, musician

·Ambrose Jessup ("AJ") Tomlinson (1865–1943) leader of "Church of God" movement from 1903 until 1923, and of a minority grouping (now called Church of God of Prophecy) from 1923 until his death in 1943

·Smith Wigglesworth (1859–1947) – British evangelist

·Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844–1924) – Healing evangelist





In 1951, Demos Shakarian (1913-1993), a wealthy Armenian Pentecostal dairy-farmer in southern California, founded the Full Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International (FGBMFI). This was the first organized outreach among non-Pentecostals. Today the fellowship has thousands of chapters organized in over 130 nations  The FGBMFI provided a major impetus for the rapid dissemination of charismatic beliefs among the historic Protestant denominations. The fellowship claims that a person who is filled with the Holy Spirit will prove more successful in business, make better automobiles and computers than his competitors, will be a better educator or doctor than the person who is not baptized in the Spirit. The majority of FGBMFI members have not been from traditional Pentecostal groups and have enthusiastically taken its message back to their denominations.


Today these movement are widespread covering the whole world and it will not possible to name them all.   In 1952 Pentecostal missionaries opened a Bible college in Seoul, Korea. One of the first students to enroll was a young convert by the name of Paul Yonggi Cho, who later pioneered the Yoido Full Gospel Church, which had grown to 730,000 members, by 2001.Many mega-churches in America with over 5,000 members are Neo-Montanist.The largest television ministries are Neo-Montanists.




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