depicting saints rising from the dead.
comes from the Latin word resurrectio and
is the concept of a living being coming back to life after
death in their own original form of the body.
of the dead, the belief that the dead will be brought back to
life, is a common component of a number of eschatologies, most
commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian
Resurrection of the Dead is a standard eschatological belief in
the Abrahamic religions. In all Abrahamic religions the concept of God is based on the
creation of man as given in the book of genesis where Adam (Man of
the Earth) was created from the earth where God formed Man and
breathed into him the Spirit, whence Man became a living Soul.
In the Abrahamic religions, the Spirit of God is the life
giving power behind every form of life.
Matter in itself is dead.
It is the Spirit that gives life.
Birth and Rebirth, creation and recreation are all the work
of the Holy Spirit. Thus within every life form we have three elements.
formed by Matter
given by God in Man
which is individual ego of man as a result of being a Being.
is thus identified as the "Self" in man. It is the soul
that experiences and changes with life.
The body grows, the Spirit changes within man giving the
directions and the Soul as a will changes as a result of
experience with interaction with the external world of life and
form. All the three Body, Soul and the Spirit within Man are in
constant flux and all the three are conserved.
The total matter in the cosmos is conserved, Spirit that is
given to man is finite as long as it is within man.
But if open in connection with God it is capable of being
part of the infinite God. To
give a modern analogy, Body is the hardware of the human computer,
Spirit is the Operating System and Soul is the Hard disk where all
events are recorded. Being
a computer would mean that all these are present to function.
In the same way Man is Man when all three parts are joined
together in the right way.
that the computer breaks down, if we have to retrieve all data in
the Hard disk we need to put in a new working hardware with the
right operating system. This
we put a different type of operating system in a new hardware the
hard disk will still contain the data, but they are irretrievable.
The old data has no value now and are useless. You can format the
hard disk and put new data.. This is reincarnation without
memory of past lives. If the purpose of the new computer
was to read and revise the old data and correct the errors, then
that purpose is lost. It
can be done only if the OS is same and the hardware functions as
it used to be.
this analogy we can see why the reassembly of a functioning
hardware system is needed along with the OS to read the Hard disk.
Even when the hard disk is taken out and kept alone, the data is
still inside but if we want to read or change it, the total
computer system, with all three parts has to be reassembled.
This is why the spiritual resurrection concept won't work. If we want to continue to work from where we left off, it is
absolutely necessary to have the system read and function as it
was. Should it be the
same old computer which broke down repaired?
Of course not. We
can use a new computer with a new OS but of the same type of OS or
a compatible OS. But
it is imperative that we use the same old hard disk with its old
data. Thus the
unchanging factor is the continuing of the Hard Disk - the Soul.
basic assumption of Resurrection is the continuance of the soul.
As we can see it is not necessary assume the immortality of
the soul, but it is absolutely essential to assume the continuity
of the Soul and the recognition of the data within it.
have an on going record of resurrection by saints and by Jesus
himself - bringing back to life people who were dead.
A typical resurrection tradition is found in the case of
Poompavai of India.
late as the 7th century when Saivism was part of Christianity. the
Indian saint Sambandar prayed to Shiva and resurrected Poompavai
from an urn of bones and ashes in old Kapaleeshwarar Temple (The
Temple of the God who conquered death) at the location of the
current San Thome Basilica.
Sambandar sings the pathigam to bring Poompavai who died after a
snake bite was brought back to life from ashes as depicted in
front of Lord Kapaleeswar in Thirumayilapur.
Zoroastrian belief is an Aryan Religion which
developed after the departure of Indo-Aryans to India.
In has developed a monotheistic religion.
called Zarathustraism, Mazdaism and Magianism, is an ancient
Iranian religion and a religious philosophy, and the first
monotheistic religion in the world. In Zoroastrianism, the creator
Ahura Mazda - deity of Wisdom -
is all good, and no evil originates from him. Thus, in
Zoroastrianism good and evil have distinct sources, with evil (druj)
trying to destroy the creation of Mazda (asha), and good trying to
sustain it. While Ahura Mazda is not immanent in the world, his
creation is represented by the Amesha Spentas and the host of
other Yazatas, through whom the works of God are evident to
humanity, and through whom worship of Mazda is ultimately
directed. The most important texts of the religion are those of
the Avesta, of which a significant portion has been lost, and
mostly only the liturgies of which have survived. The lost
portions are known of only through references and brief quotations
in the later works, primarily from the 9th to 11th centuries.
some form, it served as the national or state religion of a
significant portion of the Iranian people for many centuries. The
religion first dwindled when the Achaemenid Empire was invaded by
Alexander the Great, after which it collapsed and disintegrated in
an end times renovation of the earth, frashokereti
including some form of revival of the dead can be attested from
the 4th Century BCE.
is the resurrection of all the dead to universal purification and
renewal of the world.
doctrinal premises are:
(1) good will
eventually prevail over evil;
(2) creation was initially perfectly good, but was subsequently
corrupted by evil; (3) the world will ultimately be restored to
the perfection it had at the time of creation;
(4) the "salvation for the individual depended on the sum of
[that person's] thoughts, words and deeds, and there could be no
intervention, whether compassionate or capricious, by any divine
being to alter this."
Thus, each human bears the responsibility for the fate of his own
soul, and simultaneously shares in the responsibility for the fate
of the world.
are three ages before this happen. The first is the creation age,
second is the age of mixture of good and evil and the third is the
age of separation of good from evil.
the Bundahishn (GBd 30.1ff), runs as follows:
the end of the "third time" , there will be a great
battle between the forces of good (the yazatas) and those of evil
(the daevas) in which the good will triumph. On earth, the
Saoshyant will bring about a resurrection of the dead in the
bodies they had before they died. This is followed by a last
judgment through ordeal. The yazatas Airyaman and Atar will melt
the metal in the hills and mountains, and the molten metal will
then flow across the earth like a river. All mankindóboth the
living and the resurrected deadówill be required to wade through
that river, but for the righteous (ashavan) it will seem to be a
river of warm milk, while the wicked will be burned. The river
will then flow down to hell, where it will annihilate Angra Mainyu
and the last vestiges of wickedness in the universe."
earliest reference in the Hebrew Bible to raising from Sheol is
found in the Song of Hannah (1 Sam. 2:6). However this is usually
understood by commentators to be read figuratively not a literal
expectation of God bringing down to Sheol and raising up.
passages prior to Daniel are primarily taken as dealing with
national resurrection as in Isaiah's (26:19) "Your dead shall
live; Together with my dead body they shall arise." This
passage in Isaiah later became a touchpoint for rabbinical
discussion on the resurrection. Temporary resurrections
of individual dead people are found in the Hebrew Bible:
Elijah raising the widow's son at Zarephath: (1 Kings 17:23);
Elisha raising the son of the
Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:36) and
contact with Elisha's bones reviving a dead man: "as the man touched
the bones of Elisha, he revived, and stood up on his feet."
(2 Kings 13:21)
resurrection is found in Ezekiel's Vision in the Valley of Dry
Bones: "Thus saith the Lord GOD unto these bones; Behold, I
will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live".
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia
article on resurrection, the
topic may be discussed in Job 14:13-15, 19:25-26, Isa 26:19, Dan
BCE to 70 CE
In the Second Temple period the
concept of resurrection of the dead is found in 4Q521 among the
Dead Sea scrolls, Josephus records it (Antiquities 18.14; Jewish
War 2.163), and the New Testament records that the Sadducees did
not believe in an afterlife, but the Pharisees believed in a
literal resurrection of the body.
Resurrection of the dead appears in detail in the
extra-canonical books of Enoch, Jubilees, Apocalypse of Baruch, 2
Esdras and the Maccabees.
The Resurrection is a core belief of
the Mishnah. The
belief in resurrection is expressed on all occasions in the Jewish
liturgy; e.g., in the morning prayer Elohai Neshamah, in the
Shemoneh 'Esreh and in the funeral services. Maimonides made it
the last of his thirteen articles of belief:
"I firmly believe that there will
take place a revival of the dead at a time which will please the
Creator, blessed be His name."
Eschatology of Christianity is essentially built on
the foundations of resurrection of the dead followed by judgment
and eventual redemption of all mankind in a way close to the
proposition of Zorastrianism.
Jesus argued with the Sadducees over
the doctrine of the resurrection. (Mark 12:18-27, Matthew
22:23-33, Luke 20:27Ė40. Mark
The Gospel of John also contains
teachings about the resurrection of the dead (5:25-29, 6:39-59).
The "Sign of Jonah"
(Matthew 12:38-42, 16:1-4, Luke 11:29-32, cf. Mark 8:11-13) may be
about the resurrection of the dead.
The "resurrection of the
righteous" is mentioned at Luke 14:14. The "resurrection
at the last day" is mentioned at John 11:24-25.
In Acts of the Apostles, the Apostles
and Paul of Tarsus argued in support of the doctrine: 4:2, 17:32,
23:6-8, 24:15, 24:21.
1 Corinthians 15:13 Paul argues: "If there is no resurrection
of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised." 2 Timothy
2:18 warns of some "who have wandered away from the truth.
They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they
destroy the faith of some." Additional verses are Romans
8:11; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 15:12-13; 2 Corinthians 4:14; 2
Corinthians 5:1-2; Philippians 3:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-16; 2
Timothy 2:11; Hebrews 6:2.