Chapter II

Who are the Dravids?

Harappans and Dravids of Nilotic Origin
JUST GENESIS through the lens of Anthropology gives the following insight:

The Eastern Afro-Asiatic Kingdom Builders
The Indus civilization had several large cities, including Mohenjo-daro and Harrapa. That civilization is known by the name “Harappa” and the people of this civilization were Dravidians.

The Indian archaeologist, B. B. Lal,(He was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) from 1968 to 1972,Prof. Lal was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the President of India in 2000) contends that the Dravidians came from southern Egypt and Sudan (Nubia). This would explain their dark complexion. Lal writes: "At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical." The Nubian megaliths of which Lal speaks date from around 1000 B.C. (From http://www.kerala.cc/keralahistory/index10.htm)

The German archaeologists, Friedrichs and Muller identified some of the skulls of Mohenjo Daro as "Hamitic." The term Nilotic would probably be more accurate.

Paleontologists B.K. Chatterjee and G.D. Kumer reported in "Comparative Study and Racial Analysis of the Skeletal Remains of the Indus Valley Civilization" that the 18 Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa skulls that they examined are "similar to skulls from Nubia during the third to second Millennium B.C."

The Sudra were Nilotic peoples who migrated north and east and inhabited Pakistan, southern India and Sri Lanka. The Sudra Kingdom, mentioned in the epic of Mahabharata, was one of the ancient Saraswati Valley kingdoms. Herodotus referred to the Sudra/Dravidians as the “eastern Ethiopians” and described them thus: “The Eastern Ethiopians differed in nothing from the other Ethiopians, save in their language, and the character of their hair. For the Eastern Ethiopians have straight hair, while they of Libya are more woolly-haired…”  
Indus civilization preceded the Aryans by at least 1000 years and they were of Sudanese Kushite origin. The city of Harappa dates from between 2300-1750 BCE and was contemporaneous with other River Civilizations such as Sumer, with evidence of trade with Sargon of Akkad which existed 2334-2279 BCE. They were highly civilized.

Route of Kushite expansion from Africa to Asia
The Kushite Spread of Haplogroup R1*-M173 from Africa to Eurasia by Clyde A. Winters Uthman dan Fodio Institute, Chicago, 60643, United States of America; Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(5): 294-299, 2010
”They buried their dead in wooden coffins with the heads toward the north (symbol of God’s throne and the place of judgment) and the feet toward the south (the symbol of fertility and rebirth). This distinguished the Sudra from other Indians who practiced cremation. This parallels the burial practices at ancient Hierakonpolis, where archeaologists have discovered a 3000 B.C. life-sized statue of a Horite priest, a 2300 B.C. golden hawk head of Horus, and a ruler's grave with a triple interment of a bull, cow and calf.  It is not certain that all Dravidians venerated Horus and his Father, Osiris, as divine... The Vedas speak of falcon-shaped fire-altars. These are associated with Horus, whose totem is the falcon. Vedic tradition teaches that "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."
Kingdom Building and Missionary Priests

The oldest Dravidian traditions speak of ancient prehistoric kingdoms in southern India, extending further south into land that is now under the seas. The Sudra didn’t establish cities in the north, but their priests traveled as far as Nepal where they are called "Harwa", the ancient Egyptian word for priest. These ruler-priests are largely responsible for the diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic religious life that took root around the large water systems from west central Africa to the Indus River Valley. It is a religious life that shares eight distinctive features, all of which are found in the Bible and constitute the biblical worldview.”

Possible Nubian Origin of Dravidians

 ”There is general agreement among ethnologists that the Dravidian population is a branch of the Mediterranean race, or at least a closely allied one.  while the Mediterranean race is White, the Dravidians are much darker, ranging from the dark Greek and Italian complexion to black.  There is also a wide range of difference in the shape of the skull, the color and texture of the hair, the color of the eyes, and the shape of the nose.  These deviations can be explained with a probable interbreeding between the Dravidians and Mundas, as it is still taking place in the Chotanagpur region between the Dravidian Oraons and the neighboring Mundas.

The Dravidians entered India before the Aryans, before 2000 B.C., after passing through Mesopotamia, Iran, and Baluchistan where the Brahuis, a Dravidian race, still live.  On grounds of cultural affinities such as inheritance through women, snake cults, organization of society, and structure of temples, some historians connect the Dravidians with the Elamites and Mesopotamians. The evidence of Indian skulls from the Indus Valley indicates that the Mediterranean stock became established in north India before the Harappab Civilization came into existence around 2000 B.C.

Granted that the Dravidian were,originally Mediterraneans and that they passed through Mesopotamia, Iran, and Baluchistan, exactly from which Mediterranean region did they come?

Of particular significance is archaeologist B. B. Lal's contention that the Dravidians probably came from Nubia, Upper Egypt.  This theory would give them among other things their Mediterranean features and dark complexion. Lal writes:  "At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin.  The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them.  Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical."  According to Lal, the Nubian megaliths date from around 1000 B.C.

The linguistic studies of scholars like S. K. Chatterji have discovered many cognate words in ancient Egyptian and Nubian languages and Tamil.  Further, the new findings on the Indus hieroglyphics by M. V. N. Krishna Rao, Fateh Singn, H. S. Parpola, K. A. Parpola, S. J. Koskenniemi, and Yu. Knorozov claim to have deciphered the script in terms of Proto-Dravidian and thus confirm the findings of the venerable Indian historian Father Heras that the Harappan people spoke a Dravidian language in the third millennium B.C.
My own comparative analysis of the Dravidian myth of Kovalan and Kannaki celebrated in the ancient Tamil Shilappadikaram with the ancient Egyptian myth of Osiris and Isis confirms the Egyptian origin of the ancient Dravidians. These two myths are very similar in content and help explain each other and argue for a common ethnic origin.  The long ships used by the Egyptians in the third millennium B.C. could have easily carried the Dravidians to the banks of the Indus River and/or all the way to South India.  The sea-route-however, does not exclude the possibility of the early Dravidians taking a land route from the Phoenician shores through Iran and Baluchistan to India. No wonder, similar hieroglyphic writings are found both in Egypt and India.”

Scientific Verification of the Genesis 10 Dispersion
Alice C. Linsley


“Pottery evidence
We can verify the connection between the Nile and Indus Valley by comparing the Egyptian and Indus pottery inscriptions in which 17 figures are virtually identical (see above).

Over 400 distinct symbols (some say 600) have been recovered from the sites of Indus Valley cities, on seals, small tablets, or ceramic pots, and on over a dozen other materials. This compares with many thousands of texts from ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt; and typical inscriptions are no more than four or five characters in length, most of which are tiny.

Ten Indus Signs, dubbed Dholavira Signboard

Some modern scholars have wondered whether these symbols actually constituted a proper writing system. Whatever the case, the lack of decipherable texts means that we can gain no real insight into many of the details of Indus society,


As recently as 1000 BC the Nubian-Dravidian connection, based on pottery samples, seems definitive. The Indian archaeologist B.B. Lal believes that the Dravidians belonged to the C-Group. C-Group people spread culture from Nubia into Arabia, Iran and India between 2300-1500 BC as evidenced by the presence of Black-and-Red Ware (BRW).

Lal writes: "At Timos the Indian team dug up several megalithic sites of ancient Nubians which bear an uncanny resemblance to the cemeteries of early Dravidians which are found all over Western India from Kathiawar to Cape Comorin. The intriguing similarity extends from the subterranean structure found near them. Even the earthenware ring-stands used by the Dravidians and Nubians to hold pots were identical."

The C-Group people of Nubia, southern Egypt and Sudan are commonly called Kushites. Their black and red pottery that has been found from the Sudan, across Southwest Asia and India to China (Singh 1982). This BRW was used as early as the Amratian period (c.4000-3500 BC).

The C-group people - who we might call "Proto-Saharans" - maintained herds of cattle which were used for sacrifice and food. Bovine skulls were used to decorate their graves in archaeologically rich Sudan.

Many ancient C-Group people were agro-pastoral. They were the first to cultivate wild sorghum and millet. These became staple grains in Egypt and were taken to Pakistan and India between 3000 and 1000 BC. The evidence indicates that all of the African domesticates arose north of the equator and were introduced to the south relatively late. (Salas 2002)

Clyde A. Winters believes that the Dravidian speakers of C-Group took millet to India. B. B. Lal contends that the Dravidians/Proto-Dravidians came from southern Egypt and Sudan. This explains the darker complexion of the "Sudra." Lal also noted common burial practices incorporating megaliths, circular rock enclosures and rock-hewn tombs.

The origin of genetic diversity found in South Asia is much older than 3,500 years when the Indo-Aryans were supposed to have migrated to India. The Indo-Aryan migration theory was proposed in mid-19th century by German linguist Max Muller. Muller suggested that 3,500 years ago, Indo-European speakers from Central Asia introduced the Indo-European language family and the caste system in India. However, genetic studies indicate that this is not the case. A study led by scientists from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad, India (published in American Journal of Human Genetics in December 2011) shows clearly that there was no genetic influx 3,500 years ago.

The Proto-Dravidians apparently migrated from ancient Nubia across Arabia to India. The oldest known civilization in Arabia was the Tihama culture which flourished on the coastal plain along the Red Sea in present day Yemen. Rodolfo Fattovish believes that the Tihama civilization originated in Nubia, exactly what Genesis 10 indicates. He also recognizes the societal organization of chiefs in the Gash River region in Sudan (2,700-2,300 BC). Fattovich's excavations in the Gash Delta demonstrated a clear relationship between the C-Group and Kerma cultures in northern Nubia. His findings were confirmed by the Italian expedition to the eastern Sudan of 2011.”

”Horite fire altars at the  Harappan water shrines of Kalibangan and   Lothal provide further evidence for the dispersion of the Nilo-Saharans. The Dravidian word Har-appa means "Hor is father" and these altars are built in the shape of a falcon in flight. The falcon was the totem of Horus, called "Son" or "Seed" of Ra. The Shulba Sutras state that "he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."

.........A recent phoneme study has identified the Nile Valley as the point of origin of modern languages and the comparison of African phonemes with those found in ancient Hebrew suggest that Hebrew is an African language.

Evidence of genetics
In human mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the human mtDNA phylogenetic tree. As such, it represents the most ancestral mitochondrial lineage of all currently living modern humans. L3 is the haplogroup from which the vast majority of modern humans outside of Africa are descended, beginning about 70,000 years ago. The “Indians” bearing these genes live on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and have negroid features. They represent this early, though probably not earliest, migration out of Africa.

An estimated 60% of Indian DNA consists of haplogroup M which emerged from haplogroup L3 emerged. The apparent point of origin for M is the Nile and Sudan. A study by Afonso et al. (2008) found M in over 72% of the population of Sudan (112 samples). Molecular genetics has shown that Dravidians are phenotypically Africa.The most frequent haploids in India belong to L3M and L3N lineages. ”


Onges of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The Onges and Jarawas belong almost exclusively to Haplogroup D
According to Maca-Meyer et al. (2001), "L3 is more related to Eurasian haplogroups than to the most divergent African clusters L1 and L2"

This image illustrates the serial founder model of human migrations.

Each circle represents a population, from which a subset of individuals (embedded smaller circle) moves outward to form a new population during a migration wave out of Africa. The figure is based on the work of DeGiorgio et al. (Explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration outward from Africa; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 16057-16062).

Thus the long before Aryans invaded Indian continent, there was a Cushite invasion which produced the civilization of Mohenjoredero Harappa.  I am sure there were many others from Africa and else where even before that.

The Eurasian populations to which Maca-Meyer refers are mainly in Haplogroup D, believed to have arisen in Asia some 48,000 years ago. It is a descendant of haplogroup M. Haplogroup D is of special interest for Biblical Anthropologists as many of the peoples identified in Genesis fall into this mtDNA group. Here we find the Habiru (Hebrew), the Ainu, black and red Nubians, and other Kushites, such as the Afro-Sumerians and the Proto-Dravidians.

Source: Metspalu et al. Haplogroup D
Likely time of appearance about 40,000 years ago
Nubian and Nilotics DNA trace to Dravidians of Harappa and South India
The Dravidian invasion of India

Tamil Literature Society (1963), Tamil Culture 10, Academy of Tamil Culture, retrieved 2008-11-25,
“together with the evidence of archaeology would seem to suggest that the original Dravidian-speakers entered India from Iran in the fourth millennium BC ...”

Dhavendra Kumar (2004), Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2, retrieved 2008-11-25, ... “The analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides interesting data (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001). Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Pakistanis and Indians indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran” (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001).
There is much evidence for the Kushite migration out of Africa, as it is described in Genesis 10.

DNA studies
“DNA studies are but one method of tracing the Kushite dispersion. As Clyde Winters states, "The archaeological and molecular evidence provides footprints of a recent hg M ancestral migration from Nubia to India."This is not the first migration out of Africa, but it is the one to which Genesis refers when it speaks of Kush's sons and grandsons moving from the Nile Valley into Arabia and Mesopotamia.
Kushite rulers were great kingdom builders who controlled the major water systems and the ancient world. Nimrod, the son of Kush, is but one example.

There is genetic evidence that the Proto-Saharan ancestors of the Kushites moved west along the interconnected water systems between the Nile, Lake Chad, and the Niger-Benue Trough. Outside of the Nile Valley and some north African countries, this is the only other place in Africa where the M haplogroup is found.’”

Wikipedia gives the following:
”The genetic analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides insightful data. Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian speakers from south-west Iran. Subsequently, the Indo-Aryan migration into subcontinent from Sintashta culture about 4,000 ybp. and the Tibeto-Burmans and Austroasiatics possibly from the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent.
The most frequent mtDNA haplogroups in the Indian subcontinent are M, R and U.

All major Y chromosome DNA haplogroups in the subcontinent are Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups R (mostly R2a, R2 and R1a1), L, H and J (mostly J2). Haplogroup F itself is found highest in Dravidian speakers in Eurasia.

Arguing for the longer term "rival Y-Chromosome model", Stephen Oppenheimer believes that it is highly suggestive that India is the origin of the Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups which he calls the "Eurasian Eves". According to Oppenheimer it is highly probable that nearly all human maternal lineages in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe descended from only four mtDNA lines that originated in South Asia 50,000-100,000 years ago.

According to the phylogeographic distribution of haplotypes observed among South Asian populations defined by social and linguistic criteria, the possibility arose of haplogroup F might have originated in or near India. The presence of several subclusters of F-M89 and K that are largely restricted to the Indian subcontinent is consistent with the scenario that a coastal (southern route) of early human migration out of Africa carried ancestral Eurasian lineages first to the coast of the Indian subcontinent, or that some of them originated there.
In a 2009 study of 132 individuals, 560,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 different Indian groups were analysed, providing strong evidence in support of the notion that modern south Asians (both Indo-Aryan and Dravidian groups) are a hybrid population descending from two post-Neolithic, genetically divergent populations referred to as the 'Ancestral North Indians' and the 'Ancestral South Indians'. According to the study, Andamanese are an ASI-related group through maternal subgroup of M mtDNA[48] without ANI ancestry, showing that the peopling of the islands must have occurred before ANI-ASI gene flow on the mainland.”


Haplogroup F and it's descendant haplogroups.

“According to the phylogeographic distribution of haplotypes observed amongSouth Asian populations defined by social and linguistic criteria, the possibility arose of Y-DNA haplogroup F and mtDNA Haplogroup M might have originated inSouth Asia.  The presence of several haplogroup F, Haplogroup M and K that are largely restricted to the Indian subcontinent is consistent with the scenario that a coastal of early human migration out of Africa carried ancestral Eurasian lineages first to the coast of the Indian subcontinent, or that some of them originated there.  Studies based on mtDNA variation have reported genetic unity across various Indian sub–populations. The genetic analysis of two Y chromosome variants, Hgr9 and Hgr3 provides insightful data. Microsatellite variation of Hgr9 among Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis indicate an expansion of populations to around 9000 YBP in Iran and then to 6,000 YBP in India. This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian speakers from south-westIran  Subsequently, the Indo-Aryan migration into subcontinent from Sintashta culture about 4,000 ybp. and the Tibeto-Burmans and Austroasiatics possibly from the Himalayan and north-eastern borders of the subcontinent around 4,200 ybp.

The most frequent mtDNA haplogroups in the Indian subcontinent are M, R and U.

All major Y chromosome DNA haplogroups in the subcontinent are Haplogroup  F's descendant haplogroups R  (mostly R2a, R2 and R1a1), L, H and J (mostly J2).  Haplogroup F itself is found mostly in South Asia. other notable haplogroups include O3 among Tibeto-Burman speakers, O2a among Austroasiatic speakers, G, Haplogroup P and T.

Arguing for the longer term "rival Y-Chromosome model",  It is highly suggestive that India is the origin of the EurasianmtDNA haplogroups which he calls the "Eurasian Eves". According to Oppenheimer it is highly probable that nearly all human maternal lineages in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe descended from only four mtDNA lines that originated in South Asia 50,000-100,000 years ago.”

Dravidian Kinship and Abrahamic Kinship
The Dravidian kinship system still continues with its preference for cross-cousin marriage.  Exogamous marriage outside of  their clans are found  only in Brahmanic traditions.  Kinship Terminology. For a male, all females are classified as sister (or parallel cousin, unmarriageable) or as female cross cousin (marriageable). The preferred marriage for a male is generally to his mother's brother's daughter, while in some groups his father's sister's daughter and his own elder's sister's daughter are also quite acceptable, as are more distant cognates classifiable as female cross cousins. Marrying a step sister is common both in Nubian culture and Dravidian Cultue.  I have been to all these cultures from Ethiopia to Middle East and Dravida that I could see the great similarity of their kinship traditions.

Religion of Nubian and Nilotic Tribes

In 1983 when I came into the University of Juba my interest was to know what are the traditional religious beliefs and practices of the tribes around this region. A survey of existing literature showed a lack of understanding of the African mind. Most of them were written from the point of view of western materialism or from. the point of view of early missionaries who considered the African religions as totally pagan. A perusal of the literature in this field includes such great anthropologists as Lienhardt G (Divinity and Experience: The Religion of the Dinka, Oxford, 1961),Seligman C.G (Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan, London, 1932), Frances Madtrig Dang (The Africans of the Two Worlds Yale, 1978) and Evens Pritchard E.E (The Nuer Religion, Oxford 1956) All of them indicated similarities between Hebrew culture and Southern Sudanese culture. But their subject matter were along different lines and no one the comparative study. Recently Lazarus Leek Mawut (Proc. of Conf. On the Role of Southern Sudanese, Khartoum, 1985) attempted a study of comparison from data available from the various literature. But the data was very meager and the conclusions so arrived were not conclusive or compelling. Since I felt the need of more direct information, I have made an attempt to collect data directly from the field, from the elders of the various tribes with the help of a group of dedicated young people from the Sudan Theological College. Fifteen of these people went out and gathered a lot of information from the various tribes. Their studies were codified and are in the library of Juba University.  I myself took up the interesting study of comparison between Kuku and Hebrews to show their equivalence. In this paper I am dealing only with the Kuku tribe which I believe is representative of the agricultural tribes of this area. The results are startling and the conclusions even more.

The concept of God.

There is only one God and he lives Somewhere. This God is a good God, who do not want people to sin. He is very powerful and is everywhere. He is very wise. He is good to the people as long as they are good. But if the people went in evil ways God punished them. No one can hide their sin from the God and escape his punishment because Ngun is all knowing and omnipresent. Ngun is a loving God, merciful and kind and his care will extend to generations to whomsoever pleases Him. But he is also a terrible God and will visit the iniquities of the fathers upto three generations. In comparison the identical concept of God is seen in the revelation of God to Moses. God's character was announced before he revealed himself to Moses.

The announcement in Exodus 34:6-7 is as follows: 'The Lord, the Lord, a merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgressions and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and children's children to the third and the fourth generations.'
Actually the word 'God' in Kuku is Ngun and the word for man is 'Nguto" or ‘Ngutu' meaning, the image. The Kukus believe that Nguto came from Ngun. Man is created in the image of God. The word for spirit is 'Nguteet"  with its plural as 'Nguloko'. This also means ghost. The Ngutelet is an image of God in the sense that the ghost is an image of man. There is another word for Angels, 'Muloko'. However the Nguloko are also considered as Angels.

The implication seems to be that it is good people's spirit that are used as angels. There are other types of beings which are spirit beings also. These angels have the responsibility of roaming over. the earth executing God's orders. There are special spirits who are responsible for each family to protect them and guide them. These spirits are often thought of as the spirits of the ancestors of the family. There are two types of spirits - the good spirits called Muloko lobut and the bad spirits called Muloko lorpk.

The correspondence with the Biblical concept of man as created in the image of God and of the angels who roam around the earth executing God's orders are evident. The presence of angels protecting the families are probably a recent concept in the Christian thought. 'So God created man in his own image, in the image God He created him; male and female crated He them. Gen.l:2  'These are they whom the Lord has sent to patrol the earth.' Zech.l:l0

'There is also an extremely interesting concept of "Ngunto" which means exactly like God. In Christian concept this corresponds to the concept of the only begotten Son of God who "is the image of the invisible God, the first born of all creation'. Co1.1:15 However we could not get much information about this concept. There are stories which indicates the existence of the Sons of God as we will illustrate later. There also are indications that Nguto could become Nyunto under certain conditions. If this is so Ngunto could imply a special class of beings rather than the "only begotten son" concept. ,

This could accommodate the class of beings like Melchizedek.

There is also the concept of a designer, creator God who is unknown and unknowable called Ngun Kagwtyantt. "In him all thinge were created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible ...... "Col 1:16

The supreme God is always held in reverence so that the ultimate oath is based on his name. When a person escapes a danger or trouble, the common expression will be 'Ngun let' meaning luck that God brought. Taking an oath in Kuku is called 'milyo'. If someone accuses you wrongly of any misdeed, the absolute denial is done as follows. You take the sand or soil from the ground with your first finger and put it on your tongue. Then make a cutting motion over your neck and point towards heaven. Then you say 'Ngun lo-ki' which means God is in heaven.

Man is given death as a consequence of sin.  However he lives on as a spirit.  This leads to the the cult of the ancestors who becomes the proper mediator between the living and God.  A small hut is built for the forefathers who remains with the clan even after their deat.
There are a large Spirit world with living beings who are in interaction with the humans.  

My study has shown the idenity of the Jewish and Kuku culture which I believe would have been the belief system of the Dravids of Indus Valley and later that of the South India.  Those castes who were forcibly seperated from the main stream like the Ezhavas, Paravas and Kuravas etc retained these religious forms until recently.

Dr. Scopas Poggo in his studies on Who are the Kuku People shows that Kukus were part of the migratory tribes from Nubia. All these ties well with the Migratory path traced by the DNA of Dravids.  This also explains much of the symbolisms of Indus Valley seals and explains the lack religious symbolisms during the period of Indus Valley Civilization.

“Abraham was known by the Hittites (Aryans) as a "prince of God among us" (Gen. 23:6). He is the descendant of Nilo-Saharan peoples who dispersed across the ancient world. His ancestors were known by various names: Habiru (Hebrew); Horim (Horite); Shasu of Yahweh, Anu or Hanu (Ainu), and the Tera-neter (priest of God). Tera-neter refers to a ruler-priest of the Anu, a pre-dynastic people of the Upper Nile. Abraham’s father has the title Tera, which means priest. The Ainu spread abroad, taking their religious beliefs and practices with them. The Habiru/Hapiru were Kushite devotees of Horus.”

The Pangea theory is that the five continents were together in the beginning of creation of the land. According to Genesis 10:25 and 1 Chronicles 1:19, it was during the time of Peleg that "the earth was divided".  traditionally, this is often assumed to be just before, during, or after the failure of Nimrod's Tower of Babel.  Continents drifted apart to the present position in time. This is given in millions of years by the scientists and may not be valid in this case.  The statement “earth was divided” is usually interpreted as division within different tribes by the Bible scholars.  But it is a possibility that it refers to the shifting of continents.  Originally the continents formed one large land mass, which drifted to the current position.  This is how it was originaly. It is referred to as  PANG-AEA which means the entire earth as one land mass. If this if before the time of Peleg, it will explain the migrations easily. (See figure below.) Peleg was the son of Eber.  Hence those who migrated to India were Hebrews.

Continents at the time of Peleg and Joktan?

 “And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah; and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah; and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba; and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, the mountain of the east. These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.”  (Gen 10:25-32)

Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab and their Dravidian families were the first to settle in the Indus Valley which became the center of the early civilization after the flood.  They covered all the areas from the Northern Iran and Afghanistan. These were the children of Eber through his eldest son Joktan.

“Historically, the word Hindu was also derived from the Aryan description for the Indian culture just as the Hindu-Kush Mountain is the Aryan description of the meeting point between the Hindu and the Kushan tribes of Afghanistan. In the earliest times, the Hindu-Kush Mountain was known as mount Sephar, which is the Himalayan mountain range that covers part of Afghanistan and India. The scripture below reveals how the dwelling of the Dravidians and East Asian families began from the ancient regions of Meshed in the northeastern boundaries of Iran that links Afghanistan into East Asian Himalayan mountain range that was called mount Sephar in ancient times.
‘And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goes unto Sephar, a mount of the east.’ (Genesis 10:30)

With reference to above scriptural context, the territory called Mesha is still known today as Meshed (Masshad) in the region of northeastern Iran that is around Afghanistan. Besides, great Mountains separate the region of northern India that began from this region from the rest of Asia and the southern half of India is a triangular peninsula that extends into the Indian Ocean. Although Ophir the eleventh son of Joktan was the ancient name of India and the most prominent Dravidian families known to the ancient the world but Havilah his immediate younger brother also had a name in the Indus valley where the Indian civilization originally began....”
......the land of Ophir and Havilah where there is gold was the valley of the ancient River Pison (now River Indus). In ancient times, India was commonly referred to, as the land of Ophir but the modern name India was later derived from this Indus River, which supported the cradle of the earliest civilization in East Asia that began in regions now known as Pakistan and northern India”
(Nations of the World -.How They Evolved, Part 2, Nations That Evolved From the Five Sons of Shem by Olufolahan Akintola)

Dravidians of IVC were Hebrews as they were descendants of Eber.  To this was added the children of Abraham who were descendants of the covenant with the God of Abraham.  We cannot call them Israel as Israels were descendants of Jacob and we cannot call them Jews because Jews are descendants of Judah.  They were all inter-related and were all Hebrews.  


Map of the Akkadian Empire Based on the Table of Nations


Typhon: A Chronology of the Holocene Period by Stephen E. Franklin
Again he assigns the Indus and Gangetic tribes to Hadoram, Almodad and Havila - all children of Joktan




Chronology of the Genesis Kings
“Here is a chronology of Abraham's ancestors and his first born son, Yaqtan (Joktan). The approximate dates have been calculated using the king lists of Genesis 4, 5, 10 and 11.
B.C. 2490-2415 - Noah, Nilo-Saharan ruler who experienced a wet period (Karl W. Butzer 1966)
B.C. 2438-2363 - Ham, son of Noah
B.C. 2417-2342 - Kush, son of Ham, Nimrod and Ramah
B.C. 2290-2215 - Nimrod, possibly Sargon the Great. His brother was Ramah (Samuel's family)
B.C. 2238-2163 - Arpacshad, son by Asshur's daughter, probably his cousin-wife.
B.C. 2217-2042 - Salah
B.C. 2196-2121 - Eber
B.C. 2175-2100 - Peleg, Joktan the Elder's brother.
B.C. 2154-2079 - Reu, likely the head of Leah's line, who named her first-born son Reu-ben.
B.C. 2133-2058 - Serug
B.C. 2112-2037 - Nahor
B.C. 2091-2016 - Terah
B.C. 2039-1964 - Abraham, Terah's son
B.C. 1987-1912 - Joktan, Abraham's firstborn son by Keturah, his cousin wife.”

Thus centuries before the Aryan invasion, there was this Hebrew or Jewish (if we can call all the migratoty evidence.  When they invaded were there others before them who came from Africa?  You bet.  They are still living in India as marginal tribes with religions similar to the African tribes.  But this Jewish invasion took place around 2100 B.C.  The invaders were the children of Eber through his eldest son Joktan while Abraham was from the lineage of the younger son Peleg.




It is quite likely that they went deep south into the subcontinent.

Dravidian Origins: A Tamil Perspective
explains that Indian scholars used archaeological, linguistic and anthropological evidence to prove that African and Dravidian people are related.

South India under Sangam Period